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  1. Lee KK, Kassim AM, Lee HK
    Water Sci Technol, 2004;50(5):73-7.
    PMID: 15497832
    White-rot fungi, namely Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune, were studied for the biodecolorization of textile dyeing effluent in shaker-flask experiments. The results showed that C. versicolor was able to achieve 68% color removal after 5 days of treatment while that of S. commune was 88% in 9 days. Both fungi achieved the above results in non-sterile condition with diammonium hydrogen phosphate as the nutrient supplement. On the other hand, the best COD removal of 80% was obtained with C. versicolor in 9 days in sterile effluent with yeast extract as nutrient supplement, while S. commune was able to remove 85% COD within 8 days in non-sterile textile effluent supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate.
  2. Sim SK, Lim SL, Lee HK, Liew D, Wong A
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):138-41.
    PMID: 22106695 MyJurnal
    Intensive care for severe head injury patients is very important in the prevention and treatment of secondary brain injury. However, in a resources constraint environment and limited availability of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds in the hospitals, not all severe head injury patients will receive ICU care. This prospective study is aimed to evaluate the outcome of severe head injured patients who received ICU and general ward care in Sarawak General Hospital (SGH) over a 6-month period. A total of thirty five severe head injury patients were admitted. Twenty three patients (65.7%) were ventilated in general ward whereas twelve patients (34.3%) were ventilated in ICU. Overall one month mortality in this study was 25.7%. Patients who received ICU care had a lower one month mortality than those who received general ward care (16.7% vs 30.4%), although it was not statistically different. Multivariate analysis revealed only GCS on admission (OR 0.731; 95% CI 0.460 to 0.877; P=0.042) as the independent predictive factor for one month mortality in this study.
  3. Lee HK, Ghani AR, Sayuthi S, Abdullah J, Mustaffa F, Othman N, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Oct;62(4):339-40.
    PMID: 18551942 MyJurnal
    We report a case of 50-year-old man who was presented with recurrent episodes of left sided hemiparesis. CT scan and MRI brain revealed a large intraventricular fatty lesion. Histopathological examination showed a picture of angiolipoma.
  4. Mallika PS, Chong YJ, Tan AK, Tang IP, Aziz S, Lee HK
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):361-2.
    PMID: 22299559 MyJurnal
    Intraorbital foreign bodies (IOrbFB) are associated with both sight and life threatening injuries. We report a case of an IOrbFB associated with retrobulbar hemorrhage and injury of the frontal sinus in an 11 year-old boy, after history of fall from the tree. Imaging studies revealed a metallic foreign body (FB) in the orbit and fracture of the walls of the frontal sinus. The usual entry route of an IOrbFB is either through the eye or orbital walls and extremely rare through the paranasal sinuses. This is the first reported case of a FB entering the orbit through the frontal sinus.
  5. Lee HK, Ghani AR, Awang MS, Sayuthi S, Idris B, Abdullah JM
    Asian J Surg, 2010 Jan;33(1):42-50.
    PMID: 20497882 DOI: 10.1016/S1015-9584(10)60008-5
    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is the most disabling and least treatable form of stroke. Its risk factors include old age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking and high alcohol intake, which are also associated with arterial stiffness. The aim of the present study was to determine the prognostic value of high augmentation index (AI), which is a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness, in patients with spontaneous ICH.
  6. Saaid M, Saad B, Ali AS, Saleh MI, Basheer C, Lee HK
    J Chromatogr A, 2009 Jul 3;1216(27):5165-70.
    PMID: 19481215 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.091
    Hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization using dansyl chloride has been successfully developed for the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) determination of the biogenic amines (tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine) in food samples. Parameters affecting the performance of the in situ derivatization process such as type of extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions (extraction solvent, dihexyl ether; acceptor phase, 0.1M HCl; extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 26 degrees C; without addition of salt), enrichment factors varying from 47 to 456 were achieved. Good linearity of the analytes was obtained over a concentration range of 0.1-5 microg mL(-1) (with correlation coefficients of 0.9901-0.9974). The limits of detection and quantification based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3-10, ranged from 0.0075 to 0.030 microg mL(-1) and 0.03 to 0.10 microg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations based on the peak areas for six replicate analysis of water spiked with 0.5 microg mL(-1) of each biogenic amine were lower than 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to shrimp sauce and tomato ketchup samples, offering an interesting alternative to liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction for the analysis of biogenic amines in food samples.
  7. Goh CH, Lu YY, Lau BL, Oy J, Lee HK, Liew D, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):261-7.
    PMID: 25934956 MyJurnal
    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning.
  8. Yang C, Lee HK, Kong APS, Lim LL, Cai Z, Chung ACK
    Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2018 Dec;23(4):182-195.
    PMID: 30599479 DOI: 10.6065/apem.2018.23.4.182
    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity poses threats to the global health burden. Because this rising prevalence cannot be fully explained by traditional risk factors such as unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, early-life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is recognized as emerging novel risk factors for childhood obesity. EDCs can disrupt the hormone-mediated metabolic pathways, affect children's growth and mediate the development of childhood obesity. Many organic pollutants are recently classified to be EDCs. In this review, we summarized the epidemiological and laboratory evidence related to EDCs and childhood obesity, and discussed the possible mechanisms underpinning childhood obesity and early-life exposure to non-persistent organic pollutants (phthalates, bisphenol A, triclosan) and persistent organic pollutants (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances). Understanding the relationship between EDCs and childhood obesity helps to raise public awareness and formulate public health policy to protect the youth from exposure to the harmful effects of EDCs.
  9. Yusof NH, Foo KY, Hameed BH, Hussin MH, Lee HK, Sabar S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Aug 15;157:648-658.
    PMID: 31790734 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.11.218
    Chitosan-polyethyleneimine with calcium chloride as ionic cross-linker (CsPC) was synthesized as a new kind of adsorbent using a simple, green and cost-effective technique. The adsorption properties of the adsorbent for Acid Red 88 (AR88) dye, as a model analyte, were investigated in a batch system as the function of solution pH (pH 3-12), initial AR88 concentration (50-500 mg L-1), contact time (0-24 h), and temperature (30-50 °C). Results showed that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-first order kinetic model and the adsorption rate was governed by both intra-particle and liquid-film mechanism. Equilibrium data were well correlated with the Freundlich isotherm model, with the calculated maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of 1000 mg g-1 at 30 °C. The findings underlined CsPC to be an effective and efficient adsorbent, which can be easily synthesized via one-step process with promising prospects for the removal of AR88 or any other similar dyes from the aqueous solutions.
  10. Saw SN, Biswas A, Mattar CNZ, Lee HK, Yap CH
    Prenat Diagn, 2021 Mar;41(4):505-516.
    PMID: 33462877 DOI: 10.1002/pd.5903
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the performance of the machine learning (ML) model in predicting small-for-gestational-age (SGA) at birth, using second-trimester data.

    METHODS: Retrospective data of 347 patients, consisting of maternal demographics and ultrasound parameters collected between the 20th and 25th gestational weeks, were studied. ML models were applied to different combinations of the parameters to predict SGA and severe SGA at birth (defined as 10th and third centile birth weight).

    RESULTS: Using second-trimester measurements, ML models achieved an accuracy of 70% and 73% in predicting SGA and severe SGA whereas clinical guidelines had accuracies of 64% and 48%. Uterine PI (Ut PI) was found to be an important predictor, corroborating with existing literature, but surprisingly, so was nuchal fold thickness (NF). Logistic regression showed that Ut PI and NF were significant predictors and statistical comparisons showed that these parameters were significantly different in disease. Further, including NF was found to improve ML model performance, and vice versa.

    CONCLUSION: ML could potentially improve the prediction of SGA at birth from second-trimester measurements, and demonstrated reduced NF to be an important predictor. Early prediction of SGA allows closer clinical monitoring, which provides an opportunity to discover any underlying diseases associated with SGA.

  11. Teh CL, Chuah SL, Lee HK, Wan SA, Leong TS, Tan FHS, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 03;75(2):191-193.
    PMID: 32281610
    Osteoporosis is commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated. We performed a clinical audit to assess the risk factors and clinical care for osteoporosis among older persons who attended medical clinic during a 4-week period in August 2013. There was a total of 128 patients with a mean age of 73.1±5.8 years, and 20.3%. had a history of fall. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores assessment showed 14.2% and 68.8% had a 10-year risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures respectively. Only 6.3% underwent Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 73.4% did not receive any preventive treatment for osteoporosis. Older persons attending medical clinic at high risk of osteoporosis fractures did not receive appropriate screening and treatment. There is a need to improve the suboptimal care for bone health among older persons.
  12. Lee HK, Talib ZA, Mamat Mat Nazira MS, Wang E, Lim HN, Mahdi MA, et al.
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;12(14).
    PMID: 31323741 DOI: 10.3390/ma12142295
    The effect of NaOH solution on the formation of nanoparticles has been the subject of ongoing debate in selenium-based material research. In this project, the robust correlation between the mechanistic growth of zinc selenide/graphene oxide (ZnSe/GO) composite and the concentration of NaOH are elucidated. The ZnSe/GO composite was synthesized via microwave-assisted hydrothermal method and the concentrations of NaOH are controlled at 2 M, 3 M, 4 M, 5 M and 6 M. The XRD spectra show that the crystal phases of the samples exhibited a 100% purity of ZnSe when the concentration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was set at 4 M. The further increase of NaOH concentration leads to the formation of impurities. This result reflects the essential role of hydroxyl ions in modifying the purity state of ZnSe/GO composite. The optical band gap energy of ZnSe/GO composite also decreased from 2.68 eV to 2.64 eV when the concentration of NaOH increased from 2 M to 4 M. Therefore, it can be concluded that the optimum concentration of NaOH used in synthesizing ZnSe/GO composite is 4 M. This project provides an alternative green method in the formation of a high purity ZnSe/GO composite.
  13. Park S, Saw SN, Li X, Paknezhad M, Coppola D, Dinish US, et al.
    Biomed Opt Express, 2021 Jun 01;12(6):3671-3683.
    PMID: 34221687 DOI: 10.1364/BOE.415105
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin inflammatory disease affecting 10% of the population worldwide. Raster-scanning optoacoustic mesoscopy (RSOM) has recently shown promise in dermatological imaging. We conducted a comprehensive analysis using three machine-learning models, random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and convolutional neural network (CNN) for classifying healthy versus AD conditions, and sub-classifying different AD severities using RSOM images and clinical information. CNN model successfully differentiates healthy from AD patients with 97% accuracy. With limited data, RF achieved 65% accuracy in sub-classifying AD patients into mild versus moderate-severe cases. Identification of disease severities is vital in managing AD treatment.
  14. Chan MY, Tan K, Tan HC, Huan PT, Li B, Phua QH, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics, 2012 Apr;13(5):533-42.
    PMID: 22462746 DOI: 10.2217/pgs.12.24
    AIM, MATERIALS & METHODS: We investigated the functional significance of CYP2C19*2, *3, *17 and PON1 Q192R SNPs in 89 consecutive Asian patients on clopidogrel treatment and the prevalence of functionally significant polymorphisms among 300 Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians.
  15. Saunders JB, Hao W, Long J, King DL, Mann K, Fauth-Bühler M, et al.
    J Behav Addict, 2017 Sep 01;6(3):271-279.
    PMID: 28816494 DOI: 10.1556/2006.6.2017.039
    Online gaming has greatly increased in popularity in recent years, and with this has come a multiplicity of problems due to excessive involvement in gaming. Gaming disorder, both online and offline, has been defined for the first time in the draft of 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). National surveys have shown prevalence rates of gaming disorder/addiction of 10%-15% among young people in several Asian countries and of 1%-10% in their counterparts in some Western countries. Several diseases related to excessive gaming are now recognized, and clinics are being established to respond to individual, family, and community concerns, but many cases remain hidden. Gaming disorder shares many features with addictions due to psychoactive substances and with gambling disorder, and functional neuroimaging shows that similar areas of the brain are activated. Governments and health agencies worldwide are seeking for the effects of online gaming to be addressed, and for preventive approaches to be developed. Central to this effort is a need to delineate the nature of the problem, which is the purpose of the definitions in the draft of ICD-11.
  16. Lam TT, Tang JW, Lai FY, Zaraket H, Dbaibo G, Bialasiewicz S, et al.
    J Infect, 2019 10;79(4):373-382.
    PMID: 31323249 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2019.07.008
    OBJECTIVES: To improve our understanding of the global epidemiology of common respiratory viruses by analysing their contemporaneous incidence at multiple sites.

    METHODS: 2010-2015 incidence data for influenza A (IAV), influenza B (IBV), respiratory syncytial (RSV) and parainfluenza (PIV) virus infections were collected from 18 sites (14 countries), consisting of local (n = 6), regional (n = 9) and national (n = 3) laboratories using molecular diagnostic methods. Each site submitted monthly virus incidence data, together with details of their patient populations tested and diagnostic assays used.

    RESULTS: For the Northern Hemisphere temperate countries, the IAV, IBV and RSV incidence peaks were 2-6 months out of phase with those in the Southern Hemisphere, with IAV having a sharp out-of-phase difference at 6 months, whereas IBV and RSV showed more variable out-of-phase differences of 2-6 months. The tropical sites Singapore and Kuala Lumpur showed fluctuating incidence of these viruses throughout the year, whereas subtropical sites such as Hong Kong, Brisbane and Sydney showed distinctive biannual peaks for IAV but not for RSV and PIV.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a notable pattern of synchrony of IAV, IBV and RSV incidence peaks globally, and within countries with multiple sampling sites (Canada, UK, Australia), despite significant distances between these sites.

  17. Castro-Calvo J, King DL, Stein DJ, Brand M, Carmi L, Chamberlain SR, et al.
    Addiction, 2021 09;116(9):2463-2475.
    PMID: 33449441 DOI: 10.1111/add.15411
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Following the recognition of 'internet gaming disorder' (IGD) as a condition requiring further study by the DSM-5, 'gaming disorder' (GD) was officially included as a diagnostic entity by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). However, the proposed diagnostic criteria for gaming disorder remain the subject of debate, and there has been no systematic attempt to integrate the views of different groups of experts. To achieve a more systematic agreement on this new disorder, this study employed the Delphi expert consensus method to obtain expert agreement on the diagnostic validity, clinical utility and prognostic value of the DSM-5 criteria and ICD-11 clinical guidelines for GD.

    METHODS: A total of 29 international experts with clinical and/or research experience in GD completed three iterative rounds of a Delphi survey. Experts rated proposed criteria in progressive rounds until a pre-determined level of agreement was achieved.

    RESULTS: For DSM-5 IGD criteria, there was an agreement both that a subset had high diagnostic validity, clinical utility and prognostic value and that some (e.g. tolerance, deception) had low diagnostic validity, clinical utility and prognostic value. Crucially, some DSM-5 criteria (e.g. escapism/mood regulation, tolerance) were regarded as incapable of distinguishing between problematic and non-problematic gaming. In contrast, ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for GD (except for the criterion relating to diminished non-gaming interests) were judged as presenting high diagnostic validity, clinical utility and prognostic value.

    CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi survey provides a foundation for identifying the most diagnostically valid and clinically useful criteria for GD. There was expert agreement that some DSM-5 criteria were not clinically relevant and may pathologize non-problematic patterns of gaming, whereas ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines are likely to diagnose GD adequately and avoid pathologizing.

  18. Rumpf HJ, Achab S, Billieux J, Bowden-Jones H, Carragher N, Demetrovics Z, et al.
    J Behav Addict, 2018 09 01;7(3):556-561.
    PMID: 30010410 DOI: 10.1556/2006.7.2018.59
    The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it.
  19. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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