Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 147 in total

  1. Lee KS, Yuen KH, Ng WK
    Fish Physiol. Biochem., 2013 Dec;39(6):1457-71.
    PMID: 23604920 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-013-9799-1
    Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant consisting of four isomers each (α, β, γ, δ) of tocopherol (T) and tocotrienol (T3), is found naturally in plant oils at different concentrations. In this study, four semi-purified isonitrogenous and isolipidic (10 %) diets containing canola oil, cold-pressed soybean oil, wheat germ oil, or palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) as the sole vitamin E source were fed to triplicate groups of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings (14.82 ± 0.05 g) for 45 days. Vitamin E concentrations and composition were measured in the muscle, liver, skin, and adipose tissue. Deposition of α-T (53.4-93.1 % of total vitamin E) predominated over deposition of other isomers, except in the liver of fish fed the SBO diet, where α-T and γ-T deposition was in the ratio 40:60. T3 deposition (2.6-29.4 %) was only detected in tissues of fish fed the PFAD diet; adipose tissue was the major storage depot. Fish fed the SBO diet contained significantly more (P 
  2. Jaafar SH, Lee KS, Ho JJ
    PMID: 22972095 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006641.pub2
    Separate care for a new mother and infant may affect the duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding behaviour and may have an adverse effect on neonatal and maternal outcomes.
  3. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Singh B
    Malar. J., 2009 Apr 21;8:73.
    PMID: 19383118 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-73
    BACKGROUND: Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. They have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in Southeast Asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as Plasmodium malariae and at times, as Plasmodium falciparum. There is a paucity of information on the morphology of P. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and differential counts of the erythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections were made, photographs were taken, and morphological features were compared with those of P. malariae and P. falciparum.

    METHODS: Thick and thin blood films were made prior to administration of anti-malarial treatment in patients who were subsequently confirmed as having single species knowlesi infections by PCR assays. Giemsa-stained blood films, prepared from 10 randomly selected patients with a parasitaemia ranging from 610 to 236,000 parasites per microl blood, were examined.

    RESULTS: The P. knowlesi infection was highly synchronous in only one patient, where 97% of the parasites were at the late trophozoite stage. Early, late and mature trophozoites and schizonts were observed in films from all patients except three; where schizonts and early trophozoites were absent in two and one patient, respectively. Gametocytes were observed in four patients, comprising only between 1.2 to 2.8% of infected erythrocytes. The early trophozoites of P. knowlesi morphologically resemble those of P. falciparum. The late and mature trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes appear very similar to those of P. malariae. Careful examinations revealed that some minor morphological differences existed between P. knowlesi and P. malariae. These include trophozoites of knowlesi with double chromatin dots and at times with two or three parasites per erythrocyte and mature schizonts of P. knowlesi having 16 merozoites, compared with 12 for P. malariae.

    CONCLUSION: Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans are not highly synchronous. The morphological resemblance of early trophozoites of P. knowlesi to P. falciparum and later erythrocytic stages to P. malariae makes it extremely difficult to identify P. knowlesi infections by microscopy alone.

  4. Jaafar SH, Ho JJ, Lee KS
    PMID: 27562563 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006641.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Mother-infant proximity and interactions after birth and during the early postpartum period are important for breast-milk production and breastfeeding success. Rooming-in and separate care are both traditional practices. Rooming-in involves keeping the mother and the baby together in the same room after birth for the duration of hospitalisation, whereas separate care is keeping the baby in the hospital nursery and the baby is either brought to the mother for breastfeeding or she walks to the nursery.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of mother-infant rooming-in versus separation on the duration of breastfeeding (exclusive and total duration of breastfeeding).

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 May 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of mother-infant rooming-in versus separate care after hospital birth or at home on the duration of breastfeeding, proportion of breastfeeding at six months and adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach.

    MAIN RESULTS: We included one trial (involving 176 women) in this review. This trial included four groups with a factorial design. The factorial design took into account two factors, i.e. infant location in relation to the mother and the type of infant apparel. We combined three of the groups as the intervention (rooming-in) group and the fourth group acted as the control (separate care) and we analysed the results as a single pair-wise comparison. Primary outcomesThe primary outcome, duration of any breastfeeding, was reported by authors as median values because the distribution was found to be skewed. They reported the overall median duration of any breastfeeding to be four months, with no difference found between groups. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and the proportion of infants being exclusively breastfed at six months of age was not reported in the trial. There was no difference found between the two groups in the proportion of infants receiving any breastfeeding at six months of age (risk ratio (RR) 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51 to 1.39; one trial; 137 women; low-quality evidence). Secondary outcomesThe mean frequency of breastfeeds per day on day four postpartum for the rooming-in group was 8.3 (standard deviation (SD) 2.2), slightly higher than the separate care group, i.e. seven times per day. However, between-group comparison of this outcome was not appropriate since every infant in the separate care group was breastfed at a fixed schedule of seven times per day (SD = 0) resulting in no estimable comparison. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding on day four postpartum before discharge from hospital was significantly higher in the rooming-in group 86% (99 of 115) compared with separate care group, 45% (17 of 38), (RR 1.92; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.76; one trial, 153 women; low-quality evidence). None of our other pre-specified secondary outcomes were reported.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found little evidence to support or refute the practice of rooming-in versus mother-infant separation. Further well-designed RCTs to investigate full mother-infant rooming-in versus partial rooming-in or separate care including all important outcomes are needed.

  5. Lee KS, Lim YW, Ming LC
    PMID: 27688885 DOI: 10.1186/s40545-016-0081-7
    The proposed Pharmacy Bill of Malaysia which served to consolidate and harmonise the existing pharmacy legislation which has been used for more than 60 years. This new Pharmacy Bill contains 17 parts and a total of 170 legislative sections covering laws governing pharmacy practice, medicinal products classification, registration, sale, supply, licensing etc. Our article could serve as a case study on pharmacy jurisprudence and drug regulation as well as the governance for medicines.
  6. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Brooke G, Matusop A, Singh B
    Int. J. Parasitol., 2009 Aug;39(10):1125-8.
    PMID: 19358848 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.03.003
    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P. malariae cases have been reported in the state of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous P. malariae infections. The present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi infections in the state of Sarawak based on archival blood films from patients diagnosed by microscopy as having P. malariae infections. Nested PCR assays were used to identify Plasmodium species in DNA extracted from 47 thick blood films collected in 1996 from patients in seven different divisions throughout the state of Sarawak. Plasmodium knowlesi DNA was detected in 35 (97.2%) of 36 blood films that were positive for Plasmodium DNA, with patients originating from all seven divisions. Only one sample was positive for P. malariae DNA. This study provides further evidence of the widespread distribution of human infections with P. knowlesi in Sarawak and its past occurrence. Taken together with data from previous studies, our findings suggest that P. knowlesi malaria is not a newly emergent disease in humans.
  7. Vythilingam I, Tan CH, Asmad M, Chan ST, Lee KS, Singh B
    Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2006 Nov;100(11):1087-8.
    PMID: 16725166
    Four species of malaria parasites are known to infect humans. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, has been reported to infect humans in Malaysian Borneo. Here we report for the first time the incrimination of Anopheles latens as the vector of P. knowlesi among humans and monkeys in Sarawak, Malaysia.
  8. Ong SG, Ming LC, Lee KS, Yuen KH
    Pharmaceutics, 2016;8(3).
    PMID: 27571096 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics8030025
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32%) and F2(98%)], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm), MS (357 nm) and NS (813 nm)], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%). Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7-2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1) compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2), compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm) did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation.
  9. Ng LC, Chem YK, Koo C, Mudin RNB, Amin FM, Lee KS, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2015 Jun;92(6):1150-1155.
    PMID: 25846296 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0588
    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed.
  10. Bahri S, Lee KS, Adenan MA, Murugiah MK, Khan TM, Neoh CF, et al.
    Arts Health, 2016 Sep 1;8(3):272-278.
    PMID: 27695527
    In an effort to enhance public awareness, we develop Dikir Farmasi as an innovative approach to deliver health information. Dikir Farmasi combines the elements of dikir barat (a type of traditional folk song rhythm) and traditional sketches which are popular in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. These sketches and dikir barat rhythmic songs, with lyrics touch on issues such as drug abuse and regulation are presented in an entertaining and humorous way. Health promotion messages are disseminated using Dikir Farmasi in the form of compact disks, video compact disks, stage performance, exhibition, social media, printed media (signboard, brochure and flyer).
  11. Yap YY, Wong CP, Lee KS, Ming LC, Khan TM
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2017 Jul;51(4):446-459.
    PMID: 30227055 DOI: 10.1177/2168479017697253
    This article aims to discuss the main consequences of the implementation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TTPA) in the pharmaceutical sector in regard to public health, focusing on the accessibility and affordability of medicines. This paper also looks at the likely impact of the TPP agreement on access to affordable medicines. The potential effects of provisions in the final text are explored based on the context of developed and developing countries. A meta-synthesis study design was used. The thematic analysis technique was used to generate themes and a decision tree of the TTPA meta-synthesis. PubMed, EBSCOhost, Ovid, and Scopus databases from inception until the first week of January 2016 were used. Only peer-reviewed journals that discussed TPPA's impact on the pharmaceutical sector were included. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and then verified by 3 senior researchers. The extracted data were imported into Excel spreadsheets and coded line by line. Codes were organized into descriptive themes. The identified themes were cross-checked against original articles to ensure consistency. A total of 85 full articles and reports were reviewed and, finally, 32 of them were used in the meta-synthesis. Two central themes to the TTPA emerged: intellectual property rights and transparency. Five subthemes were identified under intellectual property rights: patent subject matter (representing scope of patentability), patent term adjustment for patent office delays (representing patent term extension), protection of undisclosed test or other data (representing data exclusivity), protection of undisclosed test or other data (representing patent linkage), and compulsory licensing. Meanwhile, transparency and anti-corruption-procedural fairness, which presents restriction of coverage program and reimbursement, were identified as the subthemes of transparency. Findings indicate that the TPPA could potentially hinder the affordability and accessibility of medicine, which could increase risks to public health.
  12. Ting CY, Abd Wahab MS, Lee KS, Tan RT, Ming LC
    Ther Innov Regul Sci, 2017 Mar;51(2):212-220.
    PMID: 30231729 DOI: 10.1177/2168479016674041
    BACKGROUND: Because of the large size of Sarawak and the high proportion of people residing in rural areas in this Malaysian state, disseminating drug-related information there can be challenging. It is, therefore, important to recognize the type of mass media for drug-related information that are salient to the people of Sarawak. This study was aimed at identifying the use of and the preferences for mass media to obtain drug-related information among the public in Sarawak. We also aimed to recognize the media perceived as the most reliable for drug-related information.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire carried out from September to October 2013. Survey respondents were recruited from 4 divisions in Sarawak: Kuching, Sibu, Miri, and Bintulu.

    RESULTS: A total of 433 completed questionnaires were obtained at the end of the study period. All respondents had access to common mass media such as television (89.8%, 389/433), radio (68.6%, 297/433), and the Internet (66.1%, 286/433). Among all respondents, television (71.4%, 309/433) was noted as the most preferred media for drug-related information. Compared with rural respondents, urban respondents were significantly more likely to have access to and prefer the Internet to obtain drug-related information. On the other hand, rural respondents were more likely to have access to and prefer radio for such information compared to their urban counterparts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Television can be an important and attractive choice of mass media in a quality use of medicines (QUM) campaign. The Internet can be used to disseminate drug-related information in urban areas, whereas radio can be used in a QUM campaign targeting the rural public.

  13. Ahmed A, Lee KS, Bukhsh A, Al-Worafi YM, Sarker MMR, Ming LC, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 10 04;11(2):153-155.
    PMID: 28988775 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2017.09.007
    The increase in Muslim parents' refusal and hesitancy to accept childhood vaccination was identified as one of the contributing factors in the increase of vaccine-preventable diseases cases in countries such as Afghanistan, Malaysia and Pakistan. The spread of inaccurate and irresponsible information by the anti-vaccination movement may inflict more harm than good on Muslim communities. To curb this issue, health authorities in Pakistan and Malaysia have resorted to imposing strict punishments on parents who refuse to allow their children to be vaccinated. Information addressing religious concerns such as the halal issue must be made priority and communicated well to the general public, encouraging not only the acceptance of vaccinations but motivating communities to play an active role in promoting vaccination. Local government of the affected region need to work towards creating awareness among Muslim parents that vaccinations are a preventative public health strategy that has been practised and acknowledged by many doctors of all faiths.
  14. Nada Raja T, Hu TH, Zainudin R, Lee KS, Perkins SL, Singh B
    BMC Evol. Biol., 2018 04 10;18(1):49.
    PMID: 29636003 DOI: 10.1186/s12862-018-1170-9
    BACKGROUND: Non-human primates have long been identified to harbour different species of Plasmodium. Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), in particular, are reservoirs for P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. cynomolgi, P. coatneyi and P. fieldi. A previous study conducted in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, however revealed that long-tailed macaques could potentially harbour novel species of Plasmodium based on sequences of small subunit ribosomal RNA and circumsporozoite genes. To further validate this finding, the mitochondrial genome and the apicoplast caseinolytic protease M genes of Plasmodium spp. were sequenced from 43 long-tailed macaque blood samples.

    RESULTS: Apart from several named species of malaria parasites, long-tailed macaques were found to be potentially infected with novel species of Plasmodium, namely one we refer to as "P. inui-like." This group of parasites bifurcated into two monophyletic clades indicating the presence of two distinct sub-populations. Further analyses, which relied on the assumption of strict co-phylogeny between hosts and parasites, estimated a population expansion event of between 150,000 to 250,000 years before present of one of these sub-populations that preceded that of the expansion of P. knowlesi. Furthermore, both sub-populations were found to have diverged from a common ancestor of P. inui approximately 1.5 million years ago. In addition, the phylogenetic analyses also demonstrated that long-tailed macaques are new hosts for P. simiovale.

    CONCLUSIONS: Malaria infections of long-tailed macaques of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo are complex and include a novel species of Plasmodium that is phylogenetically distinct from P. inui. These macaques are new natural hosts of P. simiovale, a species previously described only in toque monkeys (Macaca sinica) in Sri Lanka. The results suggest that ecological factors could affect the evolution of malaria parasites.

  15. Lee KS, Divis PC, Zakaria SK, Matusop A, Julin RA, Conway DJ, et al.
    PLoS Pathog., 2011 Apr;7(4):e1002015.
    PMID: 21490952 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002015
    Plasmodium knowlesi, a malaria parasite originally thought to be restricted to macaques in Southeast Asia, has recently been recognized as a significant cause of human malaria. Unlike the benign and morphologically similar P. malariae, these parasites can lead to fatal infections. Malaria parasites, including P. knowlesi, have not yet been detected in macaques of the Kapit Division of Malaysian Borneo, where the majority of human knowlesi malaria cases have been reported. In order to extend our understanding of the epidemiology and evolutionary history of P. knowlesi, we examined 108 wild macaques for malaria parasites and sequenced the circumsporozoite protein (csp) gene and mitochondrial (mt) DNA of P. knowlesi isolates derived from macaques and humans. We detected five species of Plasmodium (P. knowlesi, P. inui, P. cynomolgi, P. fieldi and P. coatneyi) in the long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, and an extremely high prevalence of P. inui and P. knowlesi. Macaques had a higher number of P. knowlesi genotypes per infection than humans, and some diverse alleles of the P. knowlesi csp gene and certain mtDNA haplotypes were shared between both hosts. Analyses of DNA sequence data indicate that there are no mtDNA lineages associated exclusively with either host. Furthermore, our analyses of the mtDNA data reveal that P. knowlesi is derived from an ancestral parasite population that existed prior to human settlement in Southeast Asia, and underwent significant population expansion approximately 30,000-40,000 years ago. Our results indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent in Southeast Asia and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis with wild macaques as the reservoir hosts. However, ongoing ecological changes resulting from deforestation, with an associated increase in the human population, could enable this pathogenic species of Plasmodium to switch to humans as the preferred host.
  16. Cox-Singh J, Davis TM, Lee KS, Shamsul SS, Matusop A, Ratnam S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2008 Jan 15;46(2):165-71.
    PMID: 18171245 DOI: 10.1086/524888
    BACKGROUND: Until recently, Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans was misdiagnosed as Plasmodium malariae malaria. The objectives of the present study were to determine the geographic distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in the human population in Malaysia and to investigate 4 suspected fatal cases.

    METHODS: Sensitive and specific nested polymerase chain reaction was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in (1) blood samples obtained from 960 patients with malaria who were hospitalized in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, during 2001-2006; (2) 54 P. malariae archival blood films from 15 districts in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo (during 2003-2005), and 4 districts in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia (during 2004-2005); and (3) 4 patients whose suspected cause of death was P. knowlesi malaria. For the 4 latter cases, available clinical and laboratory data were reviewed.

    RESULTS: P. knowlesi DNA was detected in 266 (27.7%) of 960 of the samples from Sarawak hospitals, 41 (83.7%) of 49 from Sabah, and all 5 from Pahang. Only P. knowlesi DNA was detected in archival blood films from the 4 patients who died. All were hyperparasitemic and developed marked hepatorenal dysfunction.

    CONCLUSIONS: Human infection with P. knowlesi, commonly misidentified as the more benign P. malariae, are widely distributed across Malaysian Borneo and extend to Peninsular Malaysia. Because P. knowlesi replicates every 24 h, rapid diagnosis and prompt effective treatment are essential. In the absence of a specific routine diagnostic test for P. knowlesi malaria, we recommend that patients who reside in or have traveled to Southeast Asia and who have received a "P. malariae" hyperparasitemia diagnosis by microscopy receive intensive management as appropriate for severe falciparum malaria.

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