Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Lee MS, Chang LY
    Expert Rev Vaccines, 2010 Feb;9(2):149-56.
    PMID: 20109026 DOI: 10.1586/erv.09.152
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) was first isolated in 1969 in California, USA. Several epidemic outbreaks with high mortality rates have occurred in European and Asian Countries (Bulgaria in 1975, Hungary in 1978, Malaysia in 1997, Taiwan in 1998 and China in 2008). EV71 CNS involvement may be associated with neurological sequelae, delayed neurodevelopment and reduced cognitive functioning. Since poliovirus was nearly eradicated by vaccination, EV71 is now considered as one of the top candidates for new vaccine development against human enteroviruses. Recently, several EV71 vaccine candidates, including live-attenuated virus, inactivated whole virus, recombinant viral protein, virus-like particle and DNA vaccines, have been evaluated in animals but no clinical trial has yet been conducted. Based on historical experiences with poliovirus vaccines and animal studies, the inactivated whole-virus vaccines are feasible and could be licensed readily, so these are targeted for preparing clinical trials in several organizations in Asia.
  2. Lee MS, Wahlqvist ML
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2005;14(4):294-7.
    PMID: 16326634
    The systematic observation of food habits and health amongst the elderly, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in the Asia Pacific region is increasing as reflected in the recent collective report of a number of intake and health variables in Taiwanese communities. Most studies are of Chinese and Japanese-speaking populations, with some from elsewhere in Northeast Asia (notably Korea) and Southeast Asia (notably the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore). These, and other international studies, demonstrate that older people can eat in various ways and yet achieve longevity and minimum morbidity, provided they remain physically and mentally active and eat a variety of relatively intact foods, including fish and pulses (lentils, legumes, beans). Such studies are the foundation of a new generation of food and health policy for the aged, with reference to EBN (evidence-based nutrition) and reflected in FBDGs (food-based dietary guidelines) which acknowledge cultural difference and support sustainable food systems.
  3. Mitra NK, Lee MS, Nadarajah VD
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Apr;27(1):19-29.
    PMID: 20562809
    Dermal exposure to organophosphate pesticide is important because of its popular use. This study planned to compare the changes in serum acetylcholinesterase, paraoxonase and neuronal density of hippocampus and iso-cortex between two age groups of Swiss albino mice (18-day-old and 150-day-old) after dermal application of (1/2) LD50 of chlorpyrifos for 14 days. Statistically significant reduction was observed in serum acetylcholinesterase (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) and neuronal density (Independent samples t-test, p<0.05) in exposed groups compared to the control. The reduction in serum AChE and neuronal density was more pronounced in exposed adult mice than in exposed neonatal mice. The paraoxonase level was insignificant in control neonatal mice, whereas it was 890-fold more in exposed neonatal mice. Upregulated paraoxonase levels may be extrapolated to produce relatively lower reduction of cholinesterase and neuronal density in neonatal mice.
  4. Md Redzuan A, Lee MS, Mohamed Shah N
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2014;8:263-70.
    PMID: 24600208 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S56467
    PURPOSE: Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide. Poor adherence to prescribed preventive medications, especially among children with asthma, leads to increased mortality and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to assess the adherence and persistence levels of asthmatic children at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), a tertiary care teaching hospital, and to determine the factors that influence adherence to prescribed preventive medications.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were asthmatic patients aged 18 years and younger with at least one prescription for a preventive medication refilled between January and December 2011. Refill records from the pharmacy dispensing database were used to determine the medication possession ratio (MPR) and continuous measure of gaps (CMG), measures of adherence and persistence levels, respectively.
    RESULTS: The sample consisted of 218 children with asthma from the General and Respiratory pediatric clinics at UKMMC. The overall adherence level was 38% (n=83; MPR ≥80%), and the persistence level was 27.5% (n=60; CMG ≤20%). We found a significant association between the adherence and persistence levels (r=0.483, P<0.01). The presence of comorbidities significantly predicted the adherence (odds ratio [OR] =16.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.76-33.84, P<0.01) and persistence level (OR =2.63, 95% CI: 0.13-52.79, P<0.01). Other factors, including age, sex, ethnicity, duration of asthma diagnosis, and number of prescribed preventive medications did not significantly affect adherence or persistence (P>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the adherence level among children with asthma at UKMMC was low. The presence of comorbidities was found to influence adherence towards preventive medications in asthmatic children.
    KEYWORDS: asthma; medication possession ratio; non adherence; pediatric patients; persistence
    Study site: General and Respiratory pediatric clinics, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  5. Park SC, Lee MS, Shinfuku N, Sartorius N, Park YC
    Aust N Z J Psychiatry, 2015 Sep;49(9):833-41.
    PMID: 25829482 DOI: 10.1177/0004867415579464
    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were gender-specific depressive symptom profiles or gender-specific patterns of psychotropic agent usage in Asian patients with depression.
  6. Treuer T, Liu CY, Salazar G, Kongsakon R, Jia F, Habil H, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Dec;5(4):219-30.
    PMID: 23857712 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12090
    Major depressive disorder is prevalent worldwide, and only about half of those affected will experience no further episodes or symptoms. Additionally, depressive symptoms can be challenging to identify, with many patients going undiagnosed despite a wide variety of available treatment options. Antidepressants are the cornerstone of depression treatment; however, a large number of factors must be considered in selecting the treatment best suited to the individual. To help support physicians in this process, international and national treatment guidelines have been developed. This review evaluates the current use of antidepressant treatment for major depressive disorder in six Asian countries (China, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand). No remarkable differences were noted between Asian and international treatment guidelines or among those from within Asia as these are adapted from western guidelines, although there were some local variations. Importantly, a shortage of evidence-based information at a country level is the primary problem in developing guidelines appropriate for Asia, so most of the guidelines are consensus opinions derived from western research data utilized in western guidelines. Treatment guidelines need to evolve from being consensus based to evidence based when evidence is available, taking into consideration cost/effectiveness or cost/benefit with an evidence-based approach that more accurately reflects clinical experience as well as the attributes of each antidepressant. In everyday practice, physicians must tailor their treatment to the patient's clinical needs while considering associated external factors; better tools are needed to help them reach the best possible prescribing decisions which are of maximum benefit to patients.
  7. Park SC, Lee MS, Hahn SW, Si TM, Kanba S, Chong MY, et al.
    Acta Neuropsychiatr, 2016 Dec;28(6):337-345.
    PMID: 27305958
    Using data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) study, we aimed to present the rates and clinical correlates of suicidal thoughts/acts in patients recruited from a total of 40 centres in 10 Asian countries/areas: China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
  8. Emsley R, Ahokas A, Suarez A, Marinescu D, Dóci I, Lehtmets A, et al.
    J Clin Psychiatry, 2018 Jul 03;79(4).
    PMID: 29995359 DOI: 10.4088/JCP.17m11741
    OBJECTIVE: The present placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of 8 weeks of treatment with tianeptine 25-50 mg/d in elderly patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) according to DSM-IV-TR. Escitalopram 5-10 mg/d was used as an active comparator.
    METHODS: Elderly outpatients aged at least 65 years with a primary diagnosis of moderate to severe episode of recurrent MDD were recruited by psychiatrists in 44 clinical centers in 10 countries from October 2013 to January 2016. Patients were randomly assigned to receive tianeptine (n = 105), placebo (n = 107), or escitalopram (n = 99) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS₁₇) total score.
    RESULTS: Tianeptine improved depressive symptoms, as evaluated by the HDRS₁₇ total score in terms of absolute change from baseline (week 0) to week 8 (placebo-tianeptine difference [SE] of 3.84 [0.85] points, P < .001, using a last-observation-carried-forward approach) and response to treatment (tianeptine: 46.7%; placebo: 34.0%, estimate [SE] = 12.70% [6.70], P = .06). A sensitivity analysis using a mixed model for repeated measures confirmed the main results on HDRS total s​core. The placebo-tianeptine difference (SE) was 0.66 (0.15) for Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.96; P < .001) and 0.57 (0.14) for Clinical Global Impressions- Improvement (95% CI, 0.30 to 0.83; P < .001). Positive results were also obtained with the active control escitalopram (HDRS₁₇ total score placebo-escitalopram difference of 4.09 ± 0.86 points, P < .001), therefore validating the sensitivity of the studied population. Tianeptine was well tolerated, with only minimal differences in tolerability from placebo.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides robust evidence that an 8-week treatment period with tianeptine 25-50 mg is efficacious and well tolerated in depressed patients aged 65 years or older.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT identifier: 2012-005612-26​.
  9. Chee KY, Tripathi A, Avasthi A, Chong MY, Xiang YT, Sim K, et al.
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2016 Mar;26(1):10-7.
    PMID: 27086755
    Objective: Pharmacotherapy of depression in children and adolescents is complex. In the absence of research into the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in this group of patients, their off-label prescription is common. This paper aimed to illustrate the prescription pattern of antidepressants in children and adolescents from major psychiatric centres in Asia.
    Methods: The Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription Pattern on Antidepressants worked
    collaboratively in 2013 to study the prescription pattern of antidepressants in Asia using a unified research protocol and questionnaire. Forty psychiatric centres from 10 Asian countries / regions participated and 2321 antidepressant prescriptions were analysed.
    Results: A total of 4.7% antidepressant prescriptions were for children and adolescents. Fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram were the most common antidepressants prescribed for children and adolescents. Almost one-third (30.3%) of prescriptions were for diagnoses other than depressive and anxiety disorders. There was less antidepressant polypharmacy and concomitant use of benzodiazepine, but more concomitant use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents compared with adults.
    Conclusion: Off-label use of antidepressants in children and adolescents was reported by 40 Asian psychiatric institutions that participated in the study. In-service education and regulatory mechanisms should be reinforced to ensure efficacy and safety of antidepressants in children and adolescents.
    Key words: Adolescent; Antidepressive agents; Child; Ethnopsychology
  10. Grover S, Avasthi A, Tripathi A, Tanra AJ, Chee KY, He YL, et al.
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2015 Sep;25(3):99-107.
    PMID: 26429836
    Objective: To evaluate the prescription pattern of antidepressants in patients with medical co-morbidity from major psychiatric centres in Asia.
    Methods: The Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antidepressants (REAP-AD 2013) collected data from 42 psychiatric centres in 10 Asian countries and regions. Antidepressant prescriptions of 2320 patients with various psychiatric disorders were evaluated. Of these, 370 patients who had specified medical co-morbidities formed the study cohort.
    Results: Escitalopram (20%) and mirtazapine (20%) were the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in patients with medical co-morbidity followed by sertraline (16%), trazodone (15%), and paroxetine (12%). Overall, more than half (52%; 247/476) of prescriptions comprised selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Slightly less than two-thirds (63%; n = 233) of patients received at least 1 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. In addition, 79% of patients were prescribed only 1 antidepressant. The mean number of antidepressants used per patient was 1.25 (standard deviation, 0.56). There were subtle differences in the most preferred antidepressant across medical illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, liver dysfunction, acid peptic disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Differences were also seen in prescription patterns across different countries.
    Conclusion: Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors formed the bulk of antidepressant
    prescriptions in the presence of medical co-morbidity, mirtazapine was also commonly used in the presence of medical co-morbidities. Specified medical morbidities do influence the selection of antidepressants.
    Key words: Antidepressive agents; Asia; Comorbidity
  11. Chee KY, Tripathi A, Avasthi A, Chong MY, Xiang YT, Sim K, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Sep;7(3):276-85.
    PMID: 25641910 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12170
    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.
  12. Chee KY, Tripathi A, Avasthi A, Chong MY, Sim K, Yang SY, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2015 Dec;7(4):366-74.
    PMID: 25706498 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12176
    Research in prescription pattern of antidepressants in Asia is lacking. This study aims to compare the antidepressants prescription pattern in Asia in 2003-2004 and 2013.
  13. Zhong XM, Wang F, Zhang Q, Ungvari GS, Ng CH, Chiu HFK, et al.
    Int Psychogeriatr, 2019 May;31(5):685-691.
    PMID: 29212560 DOI: 10.1017/S1041610217002563
    ABSTRACTBackground:Little is known about the combined use of benzodiazepines and antidepressants in older psychiatric patients. This study examined the prescription pattern of concurrent benzodiazepines in older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia, and explored its demographic and clinical correlates.

    METHODS: The data of 955 older adults with any type of psychiatric disorders were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Both univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: The proportion of benzodiazepine and antidepressant combination in this cohort was 44.3%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher doses of antidepressants, younger age (<65 years), inpatients, public hospital, major comorbid medical conditions, antidepressant types, and country/territory were significantly associated with more frequent co-prescription of benzodiazepines and antidepressants.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nearly, half of the older adults treated with antidepressants in Asia are prescribed concurrent benzodiazepines. Given the potentially adverse effects of benzodiazepines, the rationale of benzodiazepines and antidepressants co-prescription needs to be revisited.

  14. Rajaratnam K, Xiang YT, Tripathi A, Chiu HF, Si TM, Chee KY, et al.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2016 Dec;36(6):716-719.
    PMID: 27753726
    In this study, we sought to examine factors associated with dosing of antidepressants (ADs) in Asia. Based on reported data and clinical experience, we hypothesized that doses of ADs would be associated with demographic and clinical factors and would increase over time. This cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiological study analyzed data collected within the Research Study on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antidepressants from 4164 participants in 10 Asian countries, using univariate and multivariate methods. The AD doses varied by twofold among countries (highest in PR China and RO Korea, lowest in Singapore and Indonesia), and averaged 124 (120-129) mg/d imipramine-equivalents. Average daily doses increased by 12% between 2004 and 2013. Doses were significantly higher among hospitalized patients and ranked by diagnosis: major depression > anxiety disorders > bipolar disorder, but were not associated with private/public or psychiatric/general-medical settings, nor with age, sex, or cotreatment with a mood stabilizer. In multivariate modeling, AD-dose remained significantly associated with major depressive disorder and being hospitalized. Doses of ADs have increased somewhat in Asia and were higher when used for major depression or anxiety disorders than for bipolar depression and for hospitalized psychiatric patients.
  15. Zhong XM, Dong M, Wang F, Zhang Q, Ungvari GS, Ng CH, et al.
    Psychogeriatrics, 2018 Sep;18(5):351-356.
    PMID: 29989257 DOI: 10.1111/psyg.12327
    BACKGROUND: The present study explored the patterns of physical comorbidities and their associated demographic and clinical factors in older psychiatric patients prescribed with antidepressants in Asia.

    METHODS: Demographic and clinical information of 955 older adults were extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants (REAP-AD) project. Standardized data collection procedure was used to record demographic and clinical data.

    RESULTS: Proportion of physical comorbidities in this cohort was 44%. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that older age (OR = 1.7, P 

  16. Wang YY, Xiang YT, Ungvari GS, Ng CH, Chiu HFK, Yim LCL, et al.
    Psychogeriatrics, 2017 Nov;17(6):348-355.
    PMID: 28429844 DOI: 10.1111/psyg.12243
    AIM: This study compared the demographics, clinical characteristics, and antidepressant prescription patterns between Asian patients aged 50 years and older attending psychiatric hospitals and those attending general hospitals.

    METHODS: In total, 955 patients (604 in general hospitals, 351 in psychiatric hospitals) aged 50 years or older treated with antidepressants in 10 Asian countries and territories were examined. Patients' demographics, clinical features, and prescriptions of psychotropic drugs were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure.

    RESULTS: Binary logistic regression revealed that high income and diagnosis of schizophrenia were independently associated with psychiatric hospital treatment, whereas outpatient care, diagnosis of anxiety disorders, and multiple major medical conditions were independently associated with general hospital treatment. In addition, tetracyclic and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants were more likely to be prescribed in general hospitals.

    CONCLUSION: Older adults treated with antidepressants showed different demographic and clinical features between general hospitals and psychiatric hospitals in Asia.

    Study site: multi nation
  17. Rajaratnam K, Xiang YT, Tripathi A, Chiu HF, Si TM, Chee KY, et al.
    J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2017 Apr;37(2):255-259.
    PMID: 28146001 DOI: 10.1097/JCP.0000000000000670
    OBJECTIVE: As most reports concerning treatment with combinations of mood stabilizer (MS) with antidepressant (AD) drugs are based in the West, we surveyed characteristics of such cotreatment in 42 sites caring for the mentally ill in 10 Asian countries.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional, pharmacoepidemiologic study used 2004 and 2013 data from the REAP-AD (Research Study on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns for Antidepressants) to evaluate the rates and doses of MSs given with ADs and associated factors in 4164 psychiatric patients, using standard bivariate methods followed by multivariable logistic regression modeling.
    RESULTS: Use of MS + AD increased by 104% (5.5% to 11.2%) between 2004 and 2013 and was much more associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder than major depression or anxiety disorder, as well as with hospitalization > outpatient care, psychiatric > general-medical programs, and young age (all P < 0.001), but not with country, sex, or AD dose.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide a broad picture of contemporary use of MSs with ADs in Asia, support predictions that such treatment increased in recent years, and was associated with diagnosis of bipolar disorder, treatment in inpatient and psychiatric settings, and younger age.
  18. Park YC, Lee MS, Si TM, Chiu HFK, Kanba S, Chong MY, et al.
    Saudi Pharm J, 2019 Feb;27(2):246-253.
    PMID: 30766437 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.11.006
    Background: Although disorganized speech is seen as one of the nuclear features of schizophrenia, there have been few reports of disorganized speech-associated psychotropic drug-prescribing patterns in large samples of schizophrenia patients.

    Objective: We aimed to examine the prevalence of disorganized speech and its correlates in terms of psychotropic drug prescribing, using the data from the Research on Asian Psychotropic Patterns for Antipsychotics (REAP-AP) study.

    Method: A total of 3744 patients with the ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were enrolled from 71 survey centers in 15 Asian countries/areas. An essential criterion of disorganized speech was that it was "severe enough to impair substantially effective communication" as defined in the DSM-5. A binary logistic model was fitted to identify the psychotropic drug-prescribing correlates of disorganized speech.

    Results: After adjusting for the potential effects of confounding variables, the binary logistic regression model showed that the presence of disorganized speech was directly associated with adjunctive use of mood stabilizers (P 

  19. Dong M, Zeng LN, Zhang Q, Ungvari GS, Ng CH, Chiu HFK, et al.
    Psychogeriatrics, 2019 Jul;19(4):333-339.
    PMID: 30734411 DOI: 10.1111/psyg.12416
    AIM: Depressive disorders are common in old age. Antipsychotics (APs) are often used as an adjunctive treatment with antidepressants (ADs) in this population but its patterns of use in Asia are not known. This study explored the rate of combination of APs and ADs in older adult psychiatric patients in Asia.

    METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the database of a multicentre study which recorded participants' basic demographical and clinical data in standardised format in 10 Asian countries and territories. The data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

    RESULTS: A total of 955 older adult psychiatric in- and outpatients were included in this study. The proportion of concurrent AP and AD use was 32.0%, ranging from 23.3% in Korea to 44.0% in Taiwan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, inpatient status and diagnosis of schizophrenia, anxiety and other mental disorders were significantly related to a higher proportion of concurrent use of APs and ADs.

    CONCLUSION: Around a third of older adult psychiatric patients had concurrent AP and AD use in the Asian countries/regions surveyed. Considering the uncertain effectiveness and questionable safety of the AP and AD combination in this patient population, such should be cautiously used.

  20. Pereda J, Niimi G, Kaul JM, Mishra S, Pangtey B, Peri D, et al.
    Surg Radiol Anat, 2009 Sep;31 Suppl 1:49-93.
    PMID: 27392491 DOI: 10.1007/BF03371485
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