MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA). Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin) and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc) were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively.
RESULTS: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn(2+) > Cr(6+) > Cu(2+) > Hg(2+).
CONCLUSION: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of antimicrobial products in the health management of farmed red hybrid tilapia.
METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL from inception to 30 June 2016 to identify studies investigating the use of early caffeine therapy (initiated at less than 3 days of life) in preterm infants. Effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. The primary outcomes for this study were bronchopulmonary dysplasia and mortality.
RESULTS: The initial search found 4066 citations, of which 14 studies enrolling a total of 64 438 participants were included. The time of initiation of early caffeine therapy varied from the first 2 h to 3 days postnatal. Early caffeine therapy reduced the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in both cohort studies (RR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.96) and randomized controlled trials (RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.81). In cohort studies, neonates treated early with caffeine also showed decreased risks of patent ductus arteriosus, brain injury, retinopathy of prematurity and postnatal steroid use. However, the mortality rate was increased.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that early caffeine therapy is associated with reduced incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and may help decrease the burden of morbidities in preterm infants.
AIMS: To determine the effectiveness and safety of CAM for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants aged less than 2 years.
METHODS: A systematic electronic search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their respective inception to June 30, 2016 for studies evaluating CAM as an intervention to treat bronchiolitis in infants (1 month to 2 years of age). The CAM could be any form of treatment defined by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) and was utilized either as a single agent or adjunctive therapy. The predefined primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were time to resolution of bronchiolitis symptoms, adverse events, and all other clinical outcomes reported by the included studies.
RESULTS: The review identified 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies) examining four herbal preparations and four supplements used either as adjunctive or alternative therapy for bronchiolitis in 904 infants. Most studies were of moderate quality. Among six studies reporting on length of stay, a significant benefit was found for Chinese herbal medicine compared to ribavirin in one cohort study (n = 66) and vitamin D compared to placebo in one randomized controlled trial (n = 89). Studies of Chinese herbal medicine (4 studies, n = 365), vitamin D (1 study, n = 89), N-acetylcysteine (1 study, n = 100), and magnesium (2 studies, n = 176) showed some benefits with respect to clinical severity scores, oxygen saturation, and other symptoms, although data were sparse for any single intervention and the outcomes assessed and reported varied across studies. Only five studies reported on adverse events; no serious adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Among 11 studies examining the effect of CAM on inpatients with bronchiolitis, six reported on the review's primary outcome of length of hospital stay. In general, findings did not show a significant benefit associated with the primary outcome. Preliminary evidence indicated that Chinese herbal medicine mixtures, vitamin D, N-acetylcysteine, and magnesium might be useful in managing the symptoms of bronchiolitis. However, the evidence was not sufficient or rigorous enough to formulate recommendations for the use of any CAM. Among studies that reported adverse events, no serious harms were noted.
DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials. (PROSPERO CRD42016050028).
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials in a nursing home setting that included participants of at least 60 years of age.
MEASURES: Falls, all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and potentially inappropriate medication were assessed in the meta-analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 41 randomized clinical studies (18,408 residents) that examined deprescribing (defined as either medication discontinuation, substitution, or reduction) in nursing were identified. Deprescribing interventions significantly reduced the number of residents with potentially inappropriate medications by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.89). In subgroup analysis, medication review-directed deprescribing interventions reduced all-cause mortality by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84), as well as the number of fallers by 24% (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other deprescribing interventions, medication review-directed deprescribing had significant benefits on older residents in nursing homes. Further research is required to elicit other clinical benefits of medication review-directed deprescribing practice.
METHODS: We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively.
RESULTS: Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and α-lipoic acid.
CONCLUSIONS: The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects.