Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 165 in total

  1. Lee SW, Wendy W
    Vet World, 2017 Jul;10(7):803-807.
    PMID: 28831226 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.803-807
    AIM: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA). Susceptibility testing of present bacterial isolates to 16 types of antibiotics (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, compound sulfonamides, doxycycline, tetracycline, novobiocin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, erythromycin, ampicillin, spiramycin, oxytetracycline, amoxicillin, and fosfomycin) and four types of heavy metals (mercury, chromium, copper, and zinc) were carried out using disk diffusion and two-fold agar dilution method, respectively.

    RESULTS: Three hundred isolates of A. hydrophila and E. tarda were successfully identified by biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing results showed that 42.2% of the bacterial isolates were sensitive to compound sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole, flumequine, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, and oxolinic acid. On the other hand, 41.6% of these isolates were resistant to novobiocin, ampicillin, spiramycin, and chloramphenicol, which resulted for multiple antibiotic resistance index values 0.416. Among tested heavy metals, bacterial isolates exhibited resistant pattern of Zn(2+) > Cr(6+) > Cu(2+) > Hg(2+).

    CONCLUSION: Results from this study indicated that A. hydrophila and E. tarda isolated from coinfected farmed red hybrid tilapia were multi-resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals. These resistant profiles could be useful information to fish farmers to avoid unnecessary use of antimicrobial products in the health management of farmed red hybrid tilapia.

  2. Kua KP, Lee SW
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(2):e0172289.
    PMID: 28212381 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172289
    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalization among infants. The limited effectiveness of conventional medication has prompted the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as alternative or adjunctive therapy for the management of bronchiolitis.

    AIMS: To determine the effectiveness and safety of CAM for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants aged less than 2 years.

    METHODS: A systematic electronic search was performed in Medline, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their respective inception to June 30, 2016 for studies evaluating CAM as an intervention to treat bronchiolitis in infants (1 month to 2 years of age). The CAM could be any form of treatment defined by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) and was utilized either as a single agent or adjunctive therapy. The predefined primary outcome was length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were time to resolution of bronchiolitis symptoms, adverse events, and all other clinical outcomes reported by the included studies.

    RESULTS: The review identified 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies) examining four herbal preparations and four supplements used either as adjunctive or alternative therapy for bronchiolitis in 904 infants. Most studies were of moderate quality. Among six studies reporting on length of stay, a significant benefit was found for Chinese herbal medicine compared to ribavirin in one cohort study (n = 66) and vitamin D compared to placebo in one randomized controlled trial (n = 89). Studies of Chinese herbal medicine (4 studies, n = 365), vitamin D (1 study, n = 89), N-acetylcysteine (1 study, n = 100), and magnesium (2 studies, n = 176) showed some benefits with respect to clinical severity scores, oxygen saturation, and other symptoms, although data were sparse for any single intervention and the outcomes assessed and reported varied across studies. Only five studies reported on adverse events; no serious adverse events were reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among 11 studies examining the effect of CAM on inpatients with bronchiolitis, six reported on the review's primary outcome of length of hospital stay. In general, findings did not show a significant benefit associated with the primary outcome. Preliminary evidence indicated that Chinese herbal medicine mixtures, vitamin D, N-acetylcysteine, and magnesium might be useful in managing the symptoms of bronchiolitis. However, the evidence was not sufficient or rigorous enough to formulate recommendations for the use of any CAM. Among studies that reported adverse events, no serious harms were noted.

  3. Kua KP, Lee SW
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2017 01;83(1):180-191.
    PMID: 27526255 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13089
    AIMS: This study evaluated the therapeutic outcomes of early versus late caffeine therapy in preterm neonates.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and CENTRAL from inception to 30 June 2016 to identify studies investigating the use of early caffeine therapy (initiated at less than 3 days of life) in preterm infants. Effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. The primary outcomes for this study were bronchopulmonary dysplasia and mortality.

    RESULTS: The initial search found 4066 citations, of which 14 studies enrolling a total of 64 438 participants were included. The time of initiation of early caffeine therapy varied from the first 2 h to 3 days postnatal. Early caffeine therapy reduced the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in both cohort studies (RR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.96) and randomized controlled trials (RR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.81). In cohort studies, neonates treated early with caffeine also showed decreased risks of patent ductus arteriosus, brain injury, retinopathy of prematurity and postnatal steroid use. However, the mortality rate was increased.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that early caffeine therapy is associated with reduced incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and may help decrease the burden of morbidities in preterm infants.

  4. Ooi SY, Lee SW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 12;72(6):367-369.
    PMID: 29308776 MyJurnal
    Pneumonia is primarily a disease that is usually managed medically with antibiotics. However, in rare cases it may progress to necrotising pneumonia, which is an uncommon but severe complication of bacterial pneumonia. This case illustrates a typical case of necrotising pneumonia complicated with parenchymal and pleural complication such as empyema, pneumothorax with possible bronchopleural fistula. Early consultation with thoracic surgeon can be life-saving.
  5. Ramli A, Joseph L, Lee SW
    PMID: 23997897 DOI: 10.3352/jeehp.2013.10.6
    Learning contracts and reflective diaries are educational tools that have been recently introduced to physiotherapy students from Malaysia during clinical education. It is unclear how students perceive the experience of using a learning contract and reflective diary. This study explores the learning pathways of the students after using a learning contract and a reflective diary for the first time in their clinical placement.
  6. Najiah M, Lee KL, Noorasikin H, Nadirah M, Lee SW
    Res. Vet. Sci., 2011 Dec;91(3):342-5.
    PMID: 20971487 DOI: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.09.010
    Mycobacteriosis due to mycobacteria is one of the most common bacterial diseases in ornamental fish. We describe here the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Mycobacterium isolates from fighting fish Betta spp. using ATCC Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae as references. A total of four isolates (M1, M2, M3, M4) were obtained from four out of 106 fish samples using selective agar, and identified to Mycobacterium genus using acid-fast staining and 16s rRNA gene-based genus specific polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequencing and NCBI-BLAST analysis further identified isolate M1 as M. marinum and isolates M2, M3, M4 as M. fortuitum. Morphological, physiological and biochemical tests were carried out for phenotypic characterizations. Universal M13 and wild-type phage M13 RAPD dendogram was generated to illustrate the genetic relationship of the isolates and reference strains.
  7. Lai YK, Lai NM, Lee SW
    Ann. Hematol., 2017 May;96(5):839-845.
    PMID: 28197721 DOI: 10.1007/s00277-017-2945-6
    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may have a higher risk of developing diabetes. The aim of the review was to synthesise the evidence on the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes. A systematic search on Medline, EMBASE, AMED and CENTRAL databases for studies published between January 1966 and September 2016 that assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and diabetes was conducted. This was supplemented by a review of the reference list of retrieved articles. We extracted data on study characteristics, outcomes and performed an assessment on the methodological quality of the studies. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Fifteen relevant publications involving 949,260 participants were identified, from which seven studies contributed to the meta-analysis. G6PD deficiency was associated with a higher odd of diabetes (odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.73). The odds ratio of diabetes among men was higher (2.22, 1.31-3.75) compared to women (1.87, 1.12-3.12). This association was broadly consistent in the sensitivity analysis. Current evidence suggests that G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for diabetes, with higher odds among men compared to women. Further research is needed to determine how G6PD deficiency moderates diabetes.
  8. Leong SL, Chaiyakunapruk N, Lee SW
    Sci Rep, 2017 02 27;7(1):39.
    PMID: 28232737 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-00075-1
    Anthracyclines play an important role in the management of patients with cancer but the development of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) remains a significant concern for most clinicians. Recently, genetic approach has been used to identify patients at increased risk of ACT. This systematic review assessed the association between genomic markers and ACT. A systematic literature search was performed in Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Studies, CINAHL Plus, AMED, EMBASE and HuGE Navigator from inception until May 2016. Twenty-eight studies examining the association of genetic variants and ACT were identified. These studies examined 84 different genes and 147 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Meta-analyses showed 3 risk variants significantly increased the risk for ACT; namely ABCC2 rs8187710 (pooled odds ratio: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.36-3.54), CYBA rs4673 (1.55; 1.05-2.30) and RAC2 rs13058338 (1.79; 1.27-2.52). The current evidence remains unclear on the potential role of pharmacogenomic screening prior to anthracycline therapy. Further research is needed to improve the diagnostic and prognostic role in predicting ACT.
  9. Lee SW, Loo CH, Tan WC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):338-339.
    PMID: 30350820 MyJurnal
    Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP) was first described in 1927 by Gougerot and further characterised by Carteud.1 It is relatively rare, and the exact pathophysiology was not well known. Over the years, multiple treatment modalities were proposed. We report our experience with three cases of CRP which showed complete clearance with tetracycline group of antibiotics.
  10. Lee SW, Lai NM, Chaiyakunapruk N, Chong DW
    Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2017 01;83(1):172-179.
    PMID: 27081765 DOI: 10.1111/bcp.12976
    AIM: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common genetic disorder, affecting nearly 400 million individuals worldwide. Whilst it is known that a number of drugs, foods and chemicals can trigger haemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals, the association between herbal and dietary supplements and haemolysis is less clear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between herbal or dietary supplements and adverse events in G6PD deficient individuals.

    METHODS: We searched 14 electronic databases from their inception until November 2015 for articles describing the use of herbal or dietary supplements in G6PD deficient individuals. Additional publications were identified from manually searching textbooks, conference abstracts and the grey literature. All study designs were included as long as they contained clinical information. These gathered findings were summarized narratively.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two publications met inclusion criteria. These reported on 10 herbal and dietary supplements. Overall evidence linking haemolysis to a herbal/dietary supplement was only found for henna. No evidence of harm was observed for vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, Gingko biloba and α-lipoic acid.

    CONCLUSIONS: The review showed that there was insufficient evidence to contravene the use of most herbal or dietary products at therapeutic doses in G6PD deficient subjects.

  11. Lee SW, Sim KY, Wendy W, Zulhisyam AK
    Vet World, 2016 Mar;9(3):231-4.
    PMID: 27057104 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.231-234
    This study was revealed the potential of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract as an immunostimulator agent in controlling motile aeromonad septicemia due to Aeromonas hydrophila in red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis sp.
  12. Lee SW, Lee JY, Tan CS, Wong CP
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2016 Jan;95(2):e2457.
    PMID: 26765440 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000002457
    Ramadan is the holy month for Muslims whereby they fast from predawn to after sunset and is observed by all healthy Muslim adults as well as a large population of type 2 diabetic Muslims.To determine the comparative effectiveness of various strategies that have been used for type 2 diabetic Muslim who fast during Ramadan.A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies (RCT) as well as observational studies for patients with type 2 diabetes who fasted during Ramadan was conducted. Eight databases were searched from January 1980 through October 2015 for relevant studies. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed study for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. A network meta-analysis for each outcome was fitted separately, combining direct and indirect evidence for each comparison.Twenty-nine studies, 16 RCTs and 13 observational studies each met the inclusion criteria. The most common strategy used was drug changes during the Ramadan period, which found that the use of DPP-4 (Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor -4) inhibitors were associated with a reduction in incidence of experiencing hypoglycemia during Ramadan in both RCTs (pooled relative risk: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.72) as well as in observational studies (pooled relative risk: 0.27; 0.09-0.75). Ramadan-focused education was shown to be beneficial in reducing hypoglycemia in observational studies but not RCTs (0.25 versus 1.00). Network meta-analyses suggest that incretin mimetics can reduce the risk of hypoglycemia by nearly 1.5 times.The newer antidiabetic agents appear to lower the risk of hypoglycemia and improved glycemic control when compared with sulfonylureas. Ramadan-focused education shows to be a promising strategy but more rigorous examination from RCTs are required.
  13. Lee SW, Liong ML, Yuen KH, Krieger JN
    Complement Ther Med, 2014 Dec;22(6):965-9.
    PMID: 25453515 DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2014.10.010
    The immune system has been implicated as one mechanism underlying the benefits of acupuncture therapy. Evidence suggests that acupuncture can ameliorate symptoms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), but the association between clinical response and the immune system has not been investigated.
  14. Lee SW, Chaiyakunapruk N, Chong HY, Liong ML
    BJU Int., 2015 Aug;116(2):252-64.
    PMID: 25381743 DOI: 10.1111/bju.12983
    To compare the effectiveness of various treatments used for lower pole renal calculi.
  15. Tay ZW, Zakaria SS, Zamhari AK, Lee SW
    Clin Case Rep, 2018 Nov;6(11):2096-2098.
    PMID: 30455899 DOI: 10.1002/ccr3.1814
    The current trend of managing maxillary tuberosity fractures is traumatic and results in the loss of bone and teeth. Treatment options that chose to retain the fractured segments and teeth have been perceived to be unfavorable. This case report shows that maxillary tuberosity fractures can be treated conservatively.
  16. Kua CH, Mak VSL, Huey Lee SW
    J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019 03;20(3):362-372.e11.
    PMID: 30581126 DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.10.026
    OBJECTIVES: Deprescribing is effective in addressing concerns relating to polypharmacy in residents of nursing homes. However, the clinical outcomes of deprescribing interventions among residents in nursing homes are not well understood. We evaluated the impact of deprescribing interventions by health care professionals on clinical outcomes among the older residents in nursing homes.

    DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials. (PROSPERO CRD42016050028).

    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials in a nursing home setting that included participants of at least 60 years of age.

    MEASURES: Falls, all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and potentially inappropriate medication were assessed in the meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 41 randomized clinical studies (18,408 residents) that examined deprescribing (defined as either medication discontinuation, substitution, or reduction) in nursing were identified. Deprescribing interventions significantly reduced the number of residents with potentially inappropriate medications by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.89). In subgroup analysis, medication review-directed deprescribing interventions reduced all-cause mortality by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84), as well as the number of fallers by 24% (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other deprescribing interventions, medication review-directed deprescribing had significant benefits on older residents in nursing homes. Further research is required to elicit other clinical benefits of medication review-directed deprescribing practice.

  17. Lee SW, Loh SW, Ong C, Lee JH
    Ann Transl Med, 2019 Oct;7(19):513.
    PMID: 31728366 DOI: 10.21037/atm.2019.09.32
    The objectives of this review are to describe the limitations of commonly used clinical outcomes [e.g., mortality, ventilation parameters, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS)] in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) studies; and to explore other pertinent clinical outcomes that pediatric critical care practitioners should consider in future clinical practice and research studies. These include long-term pulmonary function, risk of pulmonary hypertension (PHT), nutrition status and growth, PICU-acquired weakness, neurological outcomes and neurocognitive development, functional status, health-related quality of life (HRQOL)], health-care costs, caregiver and family stress. PubMed was searched using the following keywords or medical subject headings (MESH): "acute lung injury (ALI)", "acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)", "pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS)", "acute hypoxemia respiratory failure", "outcomes", "pediatric intensive care unit (PICU)", "lung function", "pulmonary hypertension", "growth", "nutrition', "steroid", "PICU-acquired weakness", "functional status scale", "neurocognitive", "psychology", "health-care expenditure", and "HRQOL". The concept of contemporary measure outcomes was adapted from adult ARDS long-term outcome studies. Articles were initially searched from existing PARDS articles pool. If the relevant measure outcomes were not found, where appropriate, we considered studies from non-ARDS patients within the PICU in whom these outcomes were studied. Long-term outcomes in survivors of PARDS were not follow-up in majority of pediatric studies regardless of whether the new or old definitions of ARDS in children were used. Relevant studies were scarce, and the number of participants was small. As such, available studies were not able to provide conclusive answers to most of our clinical queries. There remains a paucity of data on contemporary clinical outcomes in PARDS studies. In addition to the current commonly used outcomes, clinical researchers and investigators should consider examining these contemporary outcome measures in PARDS studies in the future.
  18. Leong WS, Liong ML, Liong YV, Wu DB, Lee SW
    Urology, 2014 Jan;83(1):40-4.
    PMID: 24044912 DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2013.08.004
    To determine the efficacy of a combination of simultaneous shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), hydration with controlled inversion therapy compared with SWL with hydration alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones.
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