Displaying all 19 publications

  1. Pok EH, Lee WJ
    World J Gastroenterol, 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14315-28.
    PMID: 25339819 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14315
    Medical therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus is ineffective in the long term due to the progressive nature of the disease, which requires increasing medication doses and polypharmacy. Conversely, bariatric surgery has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for obese diabetic individuals; it has low complication rates and results in durable weight loss, glycemic control and improvements in the quality of life, obesity-related co-morbidity and overall survival. The finding that glucose homeostasis can be achieved with a weight loss-independent mechanism immediately after bariatric surgery, especially gastric bypass, has led to the paradigm of metabolic surgery. However, the primary focus of metabolic surgery is the alteration of the physio-anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract to achieve glycemic control, metabolic control and cardio-metabolic risk reduction. To date, metabolic surgery is still not well defined, as it is used most frequently for less obese patients with poorly controlled diabetes. The mechanism of glycemic control is still incompletely understood. Published research findings on metabolic surgery are promising, but many aspects still need to be defined. This paper examines the proposed mechanism of diabetes remission, the efficacy of different types of metabolic procedures, the durability of glucose control, and the risks and complications associated with this procedure. We propose a tailored approach for the selection of the ideal metabolic procedure for different groups of patients, considering the indications and prognostic factors for diabetes remission.
  2. Chang SS, Chen YY, Yip PS, Lee WJ, Hagihara A, Gunnell D
    PLoS Med, 2014 Apr;11(4):e1001622.
    PMID: 24691071 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001622
    BACKGROUND: Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in Taiwan and Hong Kong but appeared to be greatest in people aged 15-24 y in Japan and people aged 25-64 y in the Republic of Korea. The lack of specific codes for charcoal-burning suicide in the International Classification of Diseases and variations in coding practice in different countries are potential limitations of this study.

    CONCLUSIONS: Charcoal-burning suicides increased markedly in some East/Southeast Asian countries (Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) in the first decade of the 21st century, but such rises were not experienced by all countries in the region. In countries with a rise in charcoal-burning suicide rates, the timing, scale, and sex/age pattern of increases varied by country. Factors underlying these variations require further investigation, but may include differences in culture or in media portrayals of the method. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  3. Takhampunya R, Kim HC, Tippayachai B, Kengluecha A, Klein TA, Lee WJ, et al.
    Virol J, 2011;8:449.
    PMID: 21943222 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-449
    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) genotype V reemerged in Asia (China) in 2009 after a 57-year hiatus from the continent, thereby emphasizing a need to increase regional surveillance efforts. Genotypic characterization was performed on 19 JEV-positive mosquito pools (18 pools of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and 1 pool of Cx. bitaeniorhynchus) from a total of 64 positive pools collected from geographically different locations throughout the Republic of Korea (ROK) during 2008 and 2010.
  4. Pok EH, Lee WJ, Ser KH, Chen JC, Chen SC, Tsou JJ, et al.
    Asian J Surg, 2016 Jan;39(1):21-8.
    PMID: 25964106 DOI: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2015.03.006
    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a popular stand-alone bariatric surgery, despite a paucity of long-term data. Hence, this study is to report the long-term outcome of LSG as primary bariatric procedure and the result of revisional surgery.
  5. Mohamed AM, Wong KH, Lee WJ, Marizan Nor M, Mohd Hussaini H, Rosli TI
    Saudi Dent J, 2018 Apr;30(2):142-150.
    PMID: 29628737 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2017.12.001
    Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of resin infiltration on colour changes and surface roughness of artificial white spot lesions (WSLs) on maxillary and mandibular premolar.

    Materials and methods: Sixty (60) extracted sound Maxilla (Mx) and Mandibular (Mn) premolars were randomly divided into 2 groups (test and control). Artificial WSLs were produced on buccal surface of teeth and were immersed in artificial saliva for 8 weeks. Colour components (L∗, a∗, b∗) and surface roughness (Sa∗) were assessed on 40 teeth using colour difference meter RD-100 and Alicona® Infinite Focus profilometer respectively. The measurements were done at baseline (T1), directly after artificial WSLs (T2), after 24 hours immersed in saliva and application of resin (T3) and immersion in artificial saliva for 1 (T4), 2 (T5), 4 (T6), 6 (T7) and 8 (T8) weeks. SEM images analysis were carried out on 20 teeth in four time points.

    Results: The values of L∗ (lightness), b∗ (yellow/blue) and Sa∗ (surface roughness) are gradually reduced to the baseline value. Whereas, the value of a∗ gradually increased with distinct treatment time to achieve the baseline value. The higher value of L∗ and Sa∗, the whiter the lesion suggesting higher degree of enamel demineralization and surface roughness. Lower L∗ values suggest a masking colour effect.

    Conclusion: The material produced favorable esthetics on colour and the surface roughness of teeth at distinct treatment times. It is recommended to be used to improve WSL post orthodontic treatment.

  6. Subramaniam S, Jeoung JW, Lee WJ, Kim YK, Park KH
    Jpn. J. Ophthalmol., 2018 Nov;62(6):634-642.
    PMID: 30229404 DOI: 10.1007/s10384-018-0620-7
    PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic capability of three-dimensional (3D) neuro-retinal rim thickness (NRR) with existing optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scan parameters using high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT).

    DESIGN: Retrospective study.

    METHODS: Based on the mean deviation (MD) of the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA), the 152 subjects were categorized into mild (MD > - 6 dB, 100), moderate (MD - 6 to - 12 dB, 26), and severe (MD

  7. Lee WJ, Tan CP, Sulaiman R, Hee YY, Chong GH
    Food Chem, 2020 Jan 30;304:125427.
    PMID: 31494501 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125427
    Solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical carbon dioxide (SEDS) and spray drying (SD) were used to microencapsulate red palm oil (RPO) to prolong the functionality of carotenes and vitamin E. The protective effects provided by SEDS and SD were evaluated in terms of the oxidative stability (65 °C for 35 days), fatty acid compositions, color change and degradation kinetics of carotenes and vitamin E (25 °C, 45 °C, 65 °C, and 85 °C for up to 198 days). SEDS microcapsules (SEDS-M) were the most oxidatively stable (total oxidation (Totox): 26.5), followed by SD microcapsules (SD-M) (34.9) and RPO (56.7). Degradation of carotenes and vitamin E fitted well a first-order kinetic model (average absolute relative deviation = 2-16%). SEDS-M offered better protection to vitamin E (Ea = 36 kJ/mol), whereas SD-M provided better protection for α + β carotene (Ea = 29 kJ/mol). Overall, encapsulation protected RPO during storage, with SEDS-microencapsulated RPO performing better than SD-microencapsulated RPO.
  8. Lei M, Zhang N, Lee WJ, Tan CP, Lai OM, Wang Y, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 May 15;312:126047.
    PMID: 31884300 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126047
    Formation of foams is critical for tailoring the texture and mouthfeel of fat-based products. Diacylglycerol (DAG) is regarded as a preferable alternative structurant to hydrogenated lipid. Effect of DAG concentration (2-10 wt%) on the characteristics of oleogels and foams including crystal polymorphisms, size and distribution, rheological and thermodynamic properties was investigated. Oleogel prepared with 10 wt% DAG had comparable whipping and foaming stability to that of 6 wt% fully hydrogenated palm oil (FHPO). DAG formed small plate-crystals which tend to occur at the bubble surface, whereas FHPO showed needle-like crystals that were formed mainly in the continuous phase. For the 2 wt% FHPO-8 wt% DAG-based oil foams, interfacial templating crystallization effect contributed to the smaller bubble size and improved rheological properties whereby less oil drainage and foam breakdown occurred. Hence, the non-aqueous foam formed by DAG has broad application prospect because of the thermoresponsive properties and the desirable health benefits.
  9. Yang J, Qiu C, Li G, Lee WJ, Tan CP, Lai OM, et al.
    Food Chem, 2020 Oct 15;327:127014.
    PMID: 32434126 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127014
    The influence of diacylglycerol (DAG) combined with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) on the stability of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions containing hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) was studied. Polarized light microscope revealed that DAG promoted HPO to crystallize at the water-oil interface, providing the combination of Pickering and network stabilization effects. It was proposed that the molecular compatibility of fatty acids in DAG with HPO accounted for the promotional effect. The interfacial crystallization of DAG together with the surface activity of PGPR led to the formation of emulsions with uniform small droplets and high freeze-thaw stability. Further exploration of physical properties indicated that the combination of DAG and PGPR dramatically improved the emulsion's viscoelasticity and obtained a larger deformation yield. Water droplets in DAG-based emulsions acted as active fillers to improve the network rigidity. Therefore, DAG is a promising material to be used as emulsifier to enhance the physical stability of W/O emulsions.
  10. Wang S, Lee WJ, Wang Y, Tan CP, Lai OM, Wang Y
    J Agric Food Chem, 2020 Aug 05;68(31):8391-8403.
    PMID: 32511921 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01346
    Medium-chain diacylglycerol (MCD), medium-long-chain diacylglycerol (MLCD), and long-chain diacylglycerol (LCD) were prepared through enzymatic esterification using different conditions at temperatures of 55-70 °C and reaction times of 1.5-5 h and in the presence of 5-6% Novozym 435. Subsequently, purification was performed using three different techniques, namely, molecular distillation (MD), deodorization (DO), and silica gel column chromatography (SGCC). Variations in terms of the physicochemical and thermodynamic properties, crystallization properties, and kinetics of the diacylglycerols (DAGs) before and after purification were determined. Irrespective of the DAG chain lengths, SGCC was able to produce samples with high DAG purity (96-99 wt %), followed by MD (58-79 wt %) and DO (39-59 wt %). A higher 1,3-DAG/1,2-DAG ratio was recorded for all samples, with the highest ratio recorded for SGCC purified samples. Regardless of the purification techniques used, the solid fat content (SFC) profiles of crude samples with steep curves were altered post-purification, showing a gradual increment in SFC along with increasing temperature. Modification of the Avrami constant and coefficient suggested the modification of the crystal growth mechanism post-purification. Crystallization and melting temperatures of products with a higher DAG purity were shifted to a higher temperature region. Variations were also reflected in terms of the crystal polymorphism, whereby the α and β' crystals transitioned into the more stable β form in purified samples accompanied by modification in the microstructures and crystal sizes. However, there was insignificant change in the morphology of MLCD crystal after purification, except for the decrease in crystal sizes. In conclusion, synthesis of MCD, MLCD, and LCD comprising different DAG purities had distinctive SFC profiles, thermodynamic properties, crystallization kinetics, and crystal morphologies, which can be further incorporated into the preparation of a variety of fat products to obtain end products with desired characteristics.
  11. Lee WJ, Goh PS, Lau WJ, Ismail AF, Hilal N
    Membranes (Basel), 2021 Mar 25;11(4).
    PMID: 33806115 DOI: 10.3390/membranes11040235
    Water constitutes one of the basic necessities of life. Around 71% of the Earth is covered by water, however, not all of it is readily available as fresh water for daily consumption. Fresh water scarcity is a chronic issue which poses a threat to all living things on Earth. Seawater, as a natural resource abundantly available all around the world, is a potential water source to fulfil the increasing water demand. Climate-independent seawater desalination has been touted as a crucial alternative to provide fresh water. While the membrane-based desalination process continues to dominate the global desalination market, the currently employed membrane fabrication materials and processes inevitably bring adverse impacts to the environment. This review aims to elucidate and provide a comprehensive outlook of the recent efforts based on greener approaches used for desalination membrane fabrication, which paves the way towards achieving sustainable and eco-friendly processes. Membrane fabrication using green chemistry effectively minimizes the generation of hazardous compounds during membrane preparation. The future trends and recommendations which could potentially be beneficial for researchers in this field are also highlighted.
  12. Chen WH, Chang CM, Mutuku JK, Lam SS, Lee WJ
    Environ Res, 2021 06;197:110975.
    PMID: 33689824 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.110975
    The deposition phenomenon of microparticle and SAR-CoV-2 laced bioaerosol in human airways is studied by Taguchi methods and response surface methodology (RSM). The data used herein is obtained from simulations of airflow dynamics and deposition fractions of drug particle aerosols in the downstream airways of asthma patients using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete particle motion (DPM). Three main parameters, including airflow rate, drug dose, and particle size, affecting aerosol deposition in the lungs of asthma patients are examined. The highest deposition fraction (DF) is obtained at the flow rate of 45 L min-1, the drug dose of 200 μg·puff-1, and the particle diameter of 5 μm. The optimized combination of levels for the three parameters for maximum drug deposition is performed via the Taguchi method. The importance of the influencing factors rank as particle size > drug dose > flow rate. RSM reveals that the combination of 30 L min-1, 5 μm, 200 μg·puff- has the highest deposition fraction. In part, this research also studied the deposition of bioaerosols contaminated with the SAR-CoV-2 virus, and their lowest DF is 1.15%. The low DF of bioaerosols reduces the probability of the SAR-CoV-2 virus transmission.
  13. Chen WH, Chang CM, Mutuku JK, Lam SS, Lee WJ
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 08 15;416:125856.
    PMID: 34492805 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125856
    Inhalation of aerosols such as pharmaceutical aerosols or virus aerosol uptake is of great concern to the human population. To elucidate the underlying aerosol dynamics, the deposition fractions (DFs) of aerosols in healthy and asthmatic human airways of generations 13-15 are predicted. The Navier-stokes equations governing the gaseous phase and the discrete phase model for particles' motion are solved using numerical methods. The main forces responsible for deposition are inertial impaction forces and complex secondary flow velocities. The curvatures and sinusoidal folds in the asthmatic geometry lead to the formation of complex secondary flows and hence higher DFs. The intensities of complex secondary flows are strongest at the generations affected by asthma. The DF in the healthy airways is 0%, and it ranges from 1.69% to 52.93% in the asthmatic ones. From this study, the effects of the pharmaceutical aerosol particle diameters in the treatment of asthma patients can be established, which is conducive to inhibiting the inflammation of asthma airways. Furthermore, with the recent development of COVID-19 which causes pneumonia, the predicted physics and effective simulation methods of bioaerosols delivery to asthma patients are vital to prevent the exacerbation of the chronic ailment and the epidemic.
  14. Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, et al.
    J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2014 Feb;15(2):95-101.
    PMID: 24461239 DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.11.025
    Sarcopenia, a newly recognized geriatric syndrome, is characterized by age-related decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Previous studies have confirmed the association of sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes, such as falls, disability, hospital admission, long term care placement, poorer quality of life, and mortality, which denotes the importance of sarcopenia in the health care for older people. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the operational definition of sarcopenia and standardized intervention programs are still lacking. It is generally agreed by the different working groups for sarcopenia in the world that sarcopenia should be defined through a combined approach of muscle mass and muscle quality, however, selecting appropriate diagnostic cutoff values for all the measurements in Asian populations is challenging. Asia is a rapidly aging region with a huge population, so the impact of sarcopenia to this region is estimated to be huge as well. Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) aimed to promote sarcopenia research in Asia, and we collected the best available evidences of sarcopenia researches from Asian countries to establish the consensus for sarcopenia diagnosis. AWGS has agreed with the previous reports that sarcopenia should be described as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance, and we also recommend outcome indicators for further researches, as well as the conditions that sarcopenia should be assessed. In addition to sarcopenia screening for community-dwelling older people, AWGS recommends sarcopenia assessment in certain clinical conditions and healthcare settings to facilitate implementing sarcopenia in clinical practice. Moreover, we also recommend cutoff values for muscle mass measurements (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioimpedance analysis), handgrip strength (<26 kg for men and <18 kg for women), and usual gait speed (<0.8 m/s). However, a number of challenges remained to be solved in the future. Asia is made up of a great number of ethnicities. The majority of currently available studies have been published from eastern Asia, therefore, more studies of sarcopenia in south, southeastern, and western Asia should be promoted. On the other hand, most Asian studies have been conducted in a cross-sectional design and few longitudinal studies have not necessarily collected the commonly used outcome indicators as other reports from Western countries. Nevertheless, the AWGS consensus report is believed to promote more Asian sarcopenia research, and most important of all, to focus on sarcopenia intervention studies and the implementation of sarcopenia in clinical practice to improve health care outcomes of older people in the communities and the healthcare settings in Asia.
  15. Koh JC, Loo WM, Goh KL, Sugano K, Chan WK, Chiu WY, et al.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016 Aug;31(8):1405-13.
    PMID: 27010240 DOI: 10.1111/jgh.13385
    The incidence of obesity is increasing in Asia, with implications on gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. The Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup comprises regional experts with the aim of studying relationship between obesity and the GI and liver diseases in Asia. Through literature review and the modified Delphi process, consensus statements examining the impact of obesity on esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, and liver diseases, exploring relationship between gut microbiome and obesity, and assessing obesity therapies have been produced by the Gut and Obesity in Asia Workgroup. Sixteen experts participated with 9/15 statements having strong consensus (>80% agreement). The prevalence of obesity in Asia is increasing (100% percentage agreement in brackets), and this increased prevalence of obesity will result in a greater burden of obesity-related GI and liver diseases (93.8%). There was consensus that obesity increases the risk of gastric cancer (75%) and colorectal neoplasia (87.5%). Obesity was also associated with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma (66.7%) and pancreatic cancer (66.7%) in Asia. The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asia is on the rise (100%), and the risk of NAFLD in Asia (100%) is increased by obesity. Obesity is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (93.8%). Regarding therapy, it was agreed that bariatric surgery was an effective treatment modality for obesity (93.8%) but there was less agreement on its benefit for NAFLD (62.5%). These experts' consensus on obesity and GI diseases in Asia forms the basis for further research, and its translation into addressing this emerging issue.
  16. Lim JA, Lee ST, Moon J, Jun JS, Kim TJ, Shin YW, et al.
    Ann Neurol, 2019 03;85(3):352-358.
    PMID: 30675918 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25421
    OBJECTIVE: There is no scale for rating the severity of autoimmune encephalitis (AE). In this study, we aimed to develop a novel scale for rating severity in patients with diverse AE syndromes and to verify the reliability and validity of the developed scale.

    METHODS: The key items were generated by a panel of experts and selected according to content validity ratios. The developed scale was initially applied to 50 patients with AE (development cohort) to evaluate its acceptability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity. Then, the scale was applied to another independent cohort (validation cohort, n = 38).

    RESULTS: A new scale consisting of 9 items (seizure, memory dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, consciousness, language problems, dyskinesia/dystonia, gait instability and ataxia, brainstem dysfunction, and weakness) was developed. Each item was assigned a value of up to 3 points. The total score could therefore range from 0 to 27. We named the scale the Clinical Assessment Scale in Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE). The new scale showed excellent interobserver (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.97) and intraobserver (ICC = 0.96) reliability for total scores, was highly correlated with modified Rankin scale (r = 0.86, p

  17. Koh ZJ, Tai BC, Kow L, Toouli J, Lakdawala M, Delko T, et al.
    Obes Surg, 2019 06;29(6):1781-1788.
    PMID: 30767187 DOI: 10.1007/s11695-019-03716-8
    PURPOSE: Prevalence of obesity in Asia has been on the increasing trend, with corresponding increase in utilisation of bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to examine differences in weight loss outcomes following bariatric surgery between Asian ethnicities.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted of patients undergoing primary laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between 2009 and 2013 in 14 centres from Singapore, Malaysia, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Switzerland, and the USA. All patients with available follow-up data at 12 months and 36 months post-surgery were included in this study. Outcome measures used were percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) and percentage total weight loss (%TWL). Differences in outcomes between ethnicities were analysed after adjusting for age, gender, baseline body mass index (BMI), and presence of diabetes.

    RESULTS: The study population (n = 2150) consisted of 1122 Chinese, 187 Malays, 309 Indians, 67 Japanese, 259 Koreans, and 206 Caucasians. 67.1% were female and 32.9% were male. Mean age was 37.1 ± 11.2 years. Mean pre-operative BMI was 40.7 ± 8.1 kg/m2. With the Caucasian population as reference, Japanese had the best %TWL (3.90, 95% CI 1.16-6.63, p 

  18. Howson JMM, Zhao W, Barnes DR, Ho WK, Young R, Paul DS, et al.
    Nat Genet, 2017 Jul;49(7):1113-1119.
    PMID: 28530674 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3874
    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10-8, in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.
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