Enadenotucirev (EnAd) is a group B oncolytic adenovirus developed for systemic delivery and currently undergoing clinical evaluation for advanced cancer therapy. For differentiated carcinomas, systemic delivery would likely expose virus particles to the basolateral surface of cancer cells rather than the apical surface encountered during natural infection. Here, we compare the ability of EnAd and adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) to infect polarised colorectal carcinoma cells from the apical or basolateral surfaces. Whereas Ad5 infection was more efficient via the apical than basolateral surface, EnAd readily infected cells from either surface. Progeny particles from EnAd were released preferentially via the apical surface for all cell lines and routes of infection. These data further support the utility of group B adenoviruses for systemic delivery and suggest that progeny virus are more likely to be released into the tumour rather than back through the basolateral surface into the blood stream.
The Zn-Al mixed metal oxide (ZnAl-MMO) with a plate-like structure was derived from Zn-Al layered double hydroxide. The ZnAl-MMO with a Zn/Al molar ratio of 3:1 exhibits superior absorption ability for H2S in a simulated coal gas at 600 ℃ due to the special structure of the ZnAl-MMO. Besides ZnS, elemental sulfur is also produced during the desulfurization process. The deactivation model could well simulate the absorption behavior of H2S. The sulfidation reaction over the sorbent shows large initial reaction rate constants (1110-5390 m3 min-1 kg-1) and low activation energy (29.5 kJ mol-1). The regeneration rate of the used sorbent can reach 99.8% under the optimum conditions. The regenerated sorbents still show high sulfur capacity (ca. 30%), implying its great application potential for industrial-scale desulfurization of the hot coal gas.
A novel, cost-effective and real-time process monitoring and control system was developed to maintain stable operation of waste-to-energy gasification process. It comprised a feedback loop control that utilized the differential temperatures of the oxidation and reduction zones in the gasifier to determine the regional heat-flow (endothermic or exothermic), to assess the availability of oxidizing agent (for instance, air or O2) at the char bed and to calculate the fuel feeding rate. Based on the correlations developed, the air-to-fuel ratio or the equivalence air ratio (ER) for air gasification could be instantaneously adjusted to maintain stable operation of the gasifier. This study demonstrated a simplification of complex reaction dynamics in the gasification process to differential temperature profiling of the gasifier. The monitoring and control system was tested for more than 70 h of continuous operation in a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier with refuse-derived fuel (RDF) prepared from municipal solid wastes (MSW). With the system, fuel feeding rate could be adjusted accurately to stabilize the operating temperature and ER in the gasifier and generate syngas with consistent properties. Significant reductions in the fluctuations of temperature profiles at oxidation and reduction zones (from higher than 100 °C to lower than 50 °C), differential temperatures (from ±200 to ±50 °C) in gasifier and the flow rate (from 16 ± 6.5 to 12 ± 1.8 L/min), composition of main gas components, LHV (from 6.2 ± 3.1 to 5.7 ± 1.6 MJ/Nm3) and tar content (from 8.0 ± 9.7 to 7.5 ± 4.2 g/Nm3) of syngas were demonstrated. The developed gasifier monitoring and control system is adaptable to various types (updraft, downdraft, and fluidized-bed) and scales (lab, pilot, large scale) of gasifiers with different types of fuel.
Endovascular stent graft repair has become a common treatment for complicated Stanford type B aortic dissection to restore true lumen flow and induce false lumen thrombosis. Using computational fluid dynamics, this study reports the differences in flow patterns and wall shear stress distribution in complicated Stanford type B aortic dissection patients after endovascular stent graft repair. Five patients were included in this study: 2 have more than 80% false lumen thrombosis (group 1), while 3 others had less than 80% false lumen thrombosis (group 2) within 1 year following endovascular repair. Group 1 patients had concentrated re-entry tears around the abdominal branches only, while group 2 patients had re-entry tears that spread along the dissection line. Blood flow inside the false lumen which affected thrombus formation increased with the number of re-entry tears and when only small amounts of blood that entered the false lumen exited through the branches. In those cases where dissection extended below the abdominal branches (group 2), patients with fewer re-entry tears and longer distance between the tears had low wall shear stress contributing to thrombosis. This work provides an insight into predicting the development of complete or incomplete false lumen thrombosis and has implications for patient selection for treatment.
The 11th International Oncolytic Virus Conference (IOVC) was held from April 9-12, 2018 in Oxford, UK. This is part of the high-profile academic-led series of meetings that was started back in 2002 by Steve Russell and John Bell, with most of the previous meetings being held in North America (often in Banff). The conference brought together many of the major players in oncolytic virotherapy from all over the world, addressing all stages of research and development-from aspects of basic science and cellular immunology all the way through to early- and late-phase clinical trials. The meeting welcomed 352 delegates from 24 countries. The top seven delegate countries, namely, the UK, US, Canada, The Netherlands, Germany, Japan and South Korea, contributed 291 delegates while smaller numbers coming from Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, China, Finland, France, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Malaysia, Poland, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. Academics comprised about half of the attendees, industry 30% and students 20%. The next IOVC is scheduled to be held on Vancouver Island in autumn 2019. Here we share brief summaries of the oral presentations from invited speakers and proffered papers in the different subtopics presented at IOVC 2018.