DATA SOURCE: Six major databases were searched from inception till June 2015: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials.
STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Two reviewers independently rated methodological quality using the modified Downs and Black Scale and extracted and synthesized key findings (i.e., participant characteristics, study design, physical function and fitness outcomes, and adverse events).
RESULTS: Eight of 276 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which none showed high research quality. Four studies assessed physical function outcomes and 4 studies evaluated aerobic fitness as outcome measures. Significant improvements on these 2 outcomes were generally found. Other physical or fitness outcomes including body composition, muscular strength, and balance were rarely reported.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: There is weak evidence supporting aquatic exercise training to improve physical function and aerobic fitness among adults with spinal cord injury. Suggestions for future research include reporting details of exercise interventions, evaluating other physical or fitness outcomes, and improving methodological quality.
METHODS: Seventy-three consecutive patients who required antenatal corticosteroids for either preterm labour or prelabour caesarean section were recruited and given a standard course of 12mg dexamethasone phosphate, twelve hours apart. Venous blood samples were taken before administration, at six hours and 36 hours after the first dose of dexamethasone.
RESULTS: The total white count trend was 10.31±2.62 at baseline, 11.44±3.05 at six hours and 12.20±3.49 at 36 hours. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was 3.60±1.31, 8.73±3.63 and 3.24±1.49 respectively, reflecting relative neutrophilia and lymphopenia which normalised by 36 hours.
CONCLUSION: In contrast to previous studies, we found only a slight increment in total white cell count of about 10%. The marginal changes described in our study would not normally raise any clinical concern, although vigilance should be exercised if higher levels were observed.
Methods: Adult chemotherapy-naïve patients with confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) grade 0-1, ongoing androgen deprivation (serum testosterone <50 ng/dL) with prostate specific antigen (PSA) or radiographic progression were randomized to receive abiraterone acetate (1000 mg, QD) + prednisone (5 mg, BID) or placebo + prednisone (5 mg, BID), until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Primary endpoint was improvements in time to PSA progression (TTPP).
Results: Totally, 313 patients were randomized (abiraterone: n = 157; prednisone: n = 156); and baseline characteristics were balanced. At clinical cut-off (median follow-up time: 3.9 months), 80% patients received treatment (abiraterone: n = 138, prednisone: n = 112). Median time to PSA progression was not reached with abiraterone versus 3.8 months for prednisone, attaining 58% reduction in PSA progression risk (HR = 0.418; p