Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Menon RK, Gopinath D, Li KY, Leung YY, Botelho MG
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2019 Feb;48(2):263-273.
    PMID: 30145064 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijom.2018.08.002
    The objectives of this systematic review were to investigate the efficacy of amoxicillin/amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for reducing the risk of postoperative infection after third molar surgery and to evaluate the adverse outcomes in these patients, as well as in healthy volunteers. A systematic search of four databases was performed on May 26, 2017. Eleven studies qualified for the qualitative analysis and eight were found suitable for meta-analysis. The results suggest that both amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction (overall relative risk (RR) 0.25, P<0.001). However, with the exclusion of randomized controlled trials with a split-mouth design (due to an inadequate crossover period after antibiotic treatment), only amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was found to be effective (RR 0.21, P<0.001). The risk of adverse effects was significantly higher in the amoxicillin-clavulanic acid group (RR=4.12, P=0.023) than in the amoxicillin group (RR 1.57, P=0.405). In conclusion, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin may significantly reduce the risk of infection after third molar extraction. However, their use in third molar surgery should be viewed with caution, as recent clinical trials on healthy volunteers have shown evidence of the negative impact of amoxicillin use on bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance.
  2. Ho EC, Ong WMW, Li K, Zhang H, Bei YTE, Medapati SVR, et al.
    Int J Audiol, 2018 10;57(10):776-783.
    PMID: 29957077 DOI: 10.1080/14992027.2018.1476781
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors associated with late presentation at first hearing aid (HA) fitting, HA choice and usage among users in Singapore.

    DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study.

    STUDY SAMPLE: 1068 subjects issued with HAs at a tertiary hospital from 2001 to 2013.

    RESULTS: Half of the subjects presented with more severe (>55 dB) hearing loss (HL) in their better ear. In multivariable analysis, older age, Malay ethnicity, conductive and mixed HL, and combination type of HL were associated with more severe HL at first presentation. Over 70% of subjects were older than 65 years. Worse pure tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds of the better ear, gradual onset and sensorineural HL were associated with older age presentation. For unilaterally fitted subjects, PTA thresholds were the only determinant of having the better ear aided. Better PTA thresholds, younger age and sensorineural HL were associated with choosing in ear compared to behind the ear HAs. Younger age and worse PTA of the better ear were associated with ≥4 h of daily HA usage.

    CONCLUSIONS: Age, ethnicity and type of HL were important determinants for more severe HL at first HA fitting. Older patients and those with better hearing were less likely to use their HAs regularly.

  3. Ou W, Li K, Feng Y, Huang Q, Ge Z, Sun J, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2019 04;35(4):414-418.
    PMID: 30229664 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2018.0197
    To date, there are 16 types of CRF01_AE/B circulating recombinant forms identified, and most of them are distributed in Asian countries such as China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Previous HIV molecular epidemiological surveys showed that CRF01_AE (27.6%) and B (9.6%) subtypes are predominant strains in mainland of China. At the same time, the HIV-1 virus spreads faster in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population than in other risk groups. In Shanghai district, ∼66.0% of newly reported cases were infected through homosexual transmission. In this study, we report a novel recombinant strain of CRF01_AE/B. The near full-length genome phylogenetic tree showed that the strain clustered with the CRF01_AE reference sequence and placed in the peripheral position within the branch of the CRF01_AE strain. Subregional evolutionary results indicated that the CRF01_AE subtype was derived from cluster 4 of CRF01_AE, which is mainly distributed in northern China. The subtype B was correlated with the U.S./Europe B, which are widely prevalent in the Chinese MSM population. In recent years, a large number of recombinant forms between CRF01_AE and B strains are continuously emerging in China. Therefore, understanding the current epidemic recombinant forms will have significant implications for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.
  4. Li K, Yan S, Wang N, He W, Guan H, He C, et al.
    Transbound Emerg Dis, 2020 Jan;67(1):121-132.
    PMID: 31408582 DOI: 10.1111/tbed.13330
    Since its first emergence in 1998 in Malaysia, Nipah virus (NiV) has become a great threat to domestic animals and humans. Sporadic outbreaks associated with human-to-human transmission caused hundreds of human fatalities. Here, we collected all available NiV sequences and combined phylogenetics, molecular selection, structural biology and receptor analysis to study the emergence and adaptive evolution of NiV. NiV can be divided into two main lineages including the Bangladesh and Malaysia lineages. We formly confirmed a significant association with geography which is probably the result of long-term evolution of NiV in local bat population. The two NiV lineages differ in many amino acids; one change in the fusion protein might be involved in its activation via binding to the G protein. We also identified adaptive and positively selected sites in many viral proteins. In the receptor-binding G protein, we found that sites 384, 386 and especially 498 of G protein might modulate receptor-binding affinity and thus contribute to the host jump from bats to humans via the adaption to bind the human ephrin-B2 receptor. We also found that site 1645 in the connector domain of L was positive selected and involved in adaptive evolution; this site might add methyl groups to the cap structure present at the 5'-end of the RNA and thus modulate its activity. This study provides insight to assist the design of early detection methods for NiV to assess its epidemic potential in humans.
  5. Smith GJ, Fan XH, Wang J, Li KS, Qin K, Zhang JX, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006 Nov 7;103(45):16936-41.
    PMID: 17075062
    The development of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses in poultry in Eurasia accompanied with the increase in human infection in 2006 suggests that the virus has not been effectively contained and that the pandemic threat persists. Updated virological and epidemiological findings from our market surveillance in southern China demonstrate that H5N1 influenza viruses continued to be panzootic in different types of poultry. Genetic and antigenic analyses revealed the emergence and predominance of a previously uncharacterized H5N1 virus sublineage (Fujian-like) in poultry since late 2005. Viruses from this sublineage gradually replaced those multiple regional distinct sublineages and caused recent human infection in China. These viruses have already transmitted to Hong Kong, Laos, Malaysia, and Thailand, resulting in a new transmission and outbreak wave in Southeast Asia. Serological studies suggest that H5N1 seroconversion in market poultry is low and that vaccination may have facilitated the selection of the Fujian-like sublineage. The predominance of this virus over a large geographical region within a short period directly challenges current disease control measures.
  6. Li T, Heenan TMM, Rabuni MF, Wang B, Farandos NM, Kelsall GH, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 04 02;10(1):1497.
    PMID: 30940801 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09427-z
    Ceramic fuel cells offer a clean and efficient means of producing electricity through a variety of fuels. However, miniaturization of cell dimensions for portable device application remains a challenge, as volumetric power densities generated by readily-available planar/tubular ceramic cells are limited. Here, we demonstrate a concept of 'micro-monolithic' ceramic cell design. The mechanical robustness and structural integrity of this design is thoroughly investigated with real-time, synchrotron X-ray diffraction computed tomography, suggesting excellent thermal cycling stability. The successful miniaturization results in an exceptional power density of 1.27 W cm-2 at 800 °C, which is among the highest reported. This holistic design incorporates both mechanical integrity and electrochemical performance, leading to mechanical property enhancement and representing an important step toward commercial development of portable ceramic devices with high volumetric power (>10 W cm-3), fast thermal cycling and marked mechanical reliability.
  7. Li K, Anderson G, Viallon V, Arveux P, Kvaskoff M, Fournier A, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res., 2018 12 03;20(1):147.
    PMID: 30509329 DOI: 10.1186/s13058-018-1073-0
    BACKGROUND: Few published breast cancer (BC) risk prediction models consider the heterogeneity of predictor variables between estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) and negative (ER-) tumors. Using data from two large cohorts, we examined whether modeling this heterogeneity could improve prediction.

    METHODS: We built two models, for ER+ (ModelER+) and ER- tumors (ModelER-), respectively, in 281,330 women (51% postmenopausal at recruitment) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (the agreement between predicted and observed tumor risks) were assessed both internally and externally in 82,319 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative study. We performed decision curve analysis to compare ModelER+ and the Gail model (ModelGail) regarding their applicability in risk assessment for chemoprevention.

    RESULTS: Parity, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy and body height were only associated with ER+ tumors. Menopausal status, age at menarche and at menopause, hormone replacement therapy, postmenopausal body mass index, and alcohol intake were homogeneously associated with ER+ and ER- tumors. Internal validation yielded a C-statistic of 0.64 for ModelER+ and 0.59 for ModelER-. External validation reduced the C-statistic of ModelER+ (0.59) and ModelGail (0.57). In external evaluation of calibration, ModelER+ outperformed the ModelGail: the former led to a 9% overestimation of the risk of ER+ tumors, while the latter yielded a 22% underestimation of the overall BC risk. Compared with the treat-all strategy, ModelER+ produced equal or higher net benefits irrespective of the benefit-to-harm ratio of chemoprevention, while ModelGail did not produce higher net benefits unless the benefit-to-harm ratio was below 50. The clinical applicability, i.e. the area defined by the net benefit curve and the treat-all and treat-none strategies, was 12.7 × 10- 6 for ModelER+ and 3.0 × 10- 6 for ModelGail.

    CONCLUSIONS: Modeling heterogeneous epidemiological risk factors might yield little improvement in BC risk prediction. Nevertheless, a model specifically predictive of ER+ tumor risk could be more applicable than an omnibus model in risk assessment for chemoprevention.

  8. Matejcic M, Lesueur F, Biessy C, Renault AL, Mebirouk N, Yammine S, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2018 11 15;143(10):2437-2448.
    PMID: 30110135 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31797
    There are both limited and conflicting data on the role of dietary fat and specific fatty acids in the development of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we investigated the association between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples collected at recruitment from375 incident pancreatic cancer cases and375 matched controls. Associations of specific fatty acids with pancreatic cancer risk were evaluated using multivariable conditional logistic regression models with adjustment for established pancreatic cancer risk factors. Statistically significant inverse associations were found between pancreatic cancer incidence and levels of heptadecanoic acid (ORT3-T1 [odds ratio for highest versus lowest tertile] =0.63; 95%CI[confidence interval] = 0.41-0.98; ptrend = 0.036), n-3 polyunsaturated α-linolenic acid (ORT3-T1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.39-0.92; ptrend = 0.02) and docosapentaenoic acid (ORT3-T1 = 0.52; 95%CI = 0.32-0.85; ptrend = 0.008). Industrial trans-fatty acids were positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk among men (ORT3-T1 = 3.00; 95%CI = 1.13-7.99; ptrend = 0.029), while conjugated linoleic acids were inversely related to pancreatic cancer among women only (ORT3-T1 = 0.37; 95%CI = 0.17-0.81; ptrend = 0.008). Among current smokers, the long-chain n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio was positively associated with pancreatic cancer risk (ORT3-T1 = 3.40; 95%CI = 1.39-8.34; ptrend = 0.007). Results were robust to a range of sensitivity analyses. Our findings suggest that higher circulating levels of saturated fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may be related to lower risk of pancreatic cancer. The influence of some fatty acids on the development of pancreatic cancer may be sex-specific and modulated by smoking.
  9. Naudin S, Li K, Jaouen T, Assi N, Kyrø C, Tjønneland A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2018 08 15;143(4):801-812.
    PMID: 29524225 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.31367
    Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In our study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, 1,283 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 476,106 cancer-free participants, followed up for 14 years. Amounts of lifetime and baseline alcohol were estimated through lifestyle and dietary questionnaires, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Alcohol intake was positively associated with PC risk in men. Associations were mainly driven by extreme alcohol levels, with HRs comparing heavy drinkers (>60 g/day) to the reference category (0.1-4.9 g/day) equal to 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.29) for lifetime and baseline alcohol, respectively. Baseline alcohol intakes from beer (>40 g/day) and spirits/liquors (>10 g/day) showed HRs equal to 1.58 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.34) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.94), respectively, compared to the reference category (0.1-2.9 g/day). In women, HR estimates did not reach statistically significance. The alcohol and PC risk association was not modified by smoking status. Findings from a large prospective study suggest that baseline and lifetime alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake.
  10. Muller DC, Murphy N, Johansson M, Ferrari P, Tsilidis KK, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    BMC Med, 2016 Jun 14;14:87.
    PMID: 27296932 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-016-0630-6
    BACKGROUND: Life expectancy is increasing in Europe, yet a substantial proportion of adults still die prematurely before the age of 70 years. We sought to estimate the joint and relative contributions of tobacco smoking, hypertension, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and poor diet towards risk of premature death.

    METHODS: We analysed data from 264,906 European adults from the EPIC prospective cohort study, aged between 40 and 70 years at the time of recruitment. Flexible parametric survival models were used to model risk of death conditional on risk factors, and survival functions and attributable fractions (AF) for deaths prior to age 70 years were calculated based on the fitted models.

    RESULTS: We identified 11,930 deaths which occurred before the age of 70. The AF for premature mortality for smoking was 31 % (95 % confidence interval (CI), 31-32 %) and 14 % (95 % CI, 12-16 %) for poor diet. Important contributions were also observed for overweight and obesity measured by waist-hip ratio (10 %; 95 % CI, 8-12 %) and high blood pressure (9 %; 95 % CI, 7-11 %). AFs for physical inactivity and excessive alcohol intake were 7 % and 4 %, respectively. Collectively, the AF for all six risk factors was 57 % (95 % CI, 55-59 %), being 35 % (95 % CI, 32-37 %) among never smokers and 74 % (95 % CI, 73-75 %) among current smokers.

    CONCLUSIONS: While smoking remains the predominant risk factor for premature death in Europe, poor diet, overweight and obesity, hypertension, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol consumption also contribute substantially. Any attempt to minimise premature deaths will ultimately require all six factors to be addressed.

  11. Bhoo-Pathy N, Uiterwaal CS, Dik VK, Jeurnink SM, Bech BH, Overvad K, et al.
    Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2013 Nov;11(11):1486-92.
    PMID: 23756220 DOI: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.05.029
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few modifiable risk factors have been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. There is little evidence for the effects of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, or tea intake on risk of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association of total coffee, caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption with risk of pancreatic cancer.

    METHODS: This study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, comprising male and female participants from 10 European countries. Between 1992 and 2000, there were 477,312 participants without cancer who completed a dietary questionnaire and were followed up to determine pancreatic cancer incidence. Coffee and tea intake was calibrated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were computed using multivariable Cox regression.

    RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 y, 865 first incidences of pancreatic cancers were reported. When divided into fourths, neither total intake of coffee (HR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.27; high vs low intake), decaffeinated coffee (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.76-1.63; high vs low intake), nor tea were associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.22, 95% CI, 0.95-1.56; high vs low intake). Moderately low intake of caffeinated coffee was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74), compared with low intake. However, no graded dose response was observed, and the association attenuated after restriction to histologically confirmed pancreatic cancers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on an analysis of data from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort, total coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.

  12. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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