Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 155 in total

  1. Huo L, Li W, Wang X
    Zookeys, 2017.
    PMID: 29118623 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.706.18081
    A new species of the genus Pseudaspidimerus Kapur, 1948 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Pseudaspidimerus palatus Huo & Wang, sp. n. from the Malay Peninsula is described with illustrations and a distribution map. The genus Pseudaspidimerus is recorded for the first time from Malaysia and Singapore.
  2. Chen J, Ahmad R, Li W, Swain M, Li Q
    J R Soc Interface, 2015 Aug 06;12(109):20150325.
    PMID: 26224566 DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0325
    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure-pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication.
  3. Li W, Kandhare AD, Mukherjee AA, Bodhankar SL
    EXCLI J, 2018;17:399-419.
    PMID: 29805347 DOI: 10.17179/excli2018-1036
    Background: Delayed wound healing is a diverse, multifactorial, complex and inter-related complication of diabetes resulting in significant clinical morbidity. Hesperidin possesses potent antidiabetic and wound healing activity. Aim: To evaluate the potential of hesperidin against experimentally induced diabetes foot ulcers. Methods: Diabetes was induced experimentally by streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg, i.p.) in Sprague Dawley rats (180-220 g) and wounds were created on the dorsal surface of the hind paw of rats. Hesperidin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days after wound stabilization. Various biochemical, molecular and histopathological parameters were evaluated in wound tissue. Results: STZ-induced decrease in body weight and increase in blood glucose, food, and water intake was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment. It showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in percent wound closure and serum insulin level. The STZ-induced decrease in SOD and GSH level, as well as elevated MDA and NO levels, were significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated by hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment. Intraperitoneal administration of STZ caused significant down-regulation in VEGF-c, Ang-1, Tie-2, TGF-β and Smad 2/3 mRNA expression in wound tissues whereas hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment showed significant up-regulation in these mRNA expressions. STZ-induced alteration in would architecture was also attenuated by hesperidin (50 and 100 mg/kg) treatment. Conclusion: Together, treatment with hesperidin accelerate angiogenesis and vasculogenesis via up-regulation of VEGF-c, Ang-1/Tie-2, TGF-β and Smad-2/3 mRNA expression to enhance wound healing in chronic diabetic foot ulcers.
  4. Chen J, Ahmad R, Suenaga H, Li W, Sasaki K, Swain M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(7):e0132552.
    PMID: 26161878 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132552
    With ever-growing aging population and demand for denture treatments, pressure-induced mucosa lesion and residual ridge resorption remain main sources of clinical complications. Conventional denture design and fabrication are challenged for its labor and experience intensity, urgently necessitating an automatic procedure. This study aims to develop a fully automatic procedure enabling shape optimization and additive manufacturing of removable partial dentures (RPD), to maximize the uniformity of contact pressure distribution on the mucosa, thereby reducing associated clinical complications. A 3D heterogeneous finite element (FE) model was constructed from CT scan, and the critical tissue of mucosa was modeled as a hyperelastic material from in vivo clinical data. A contact shape optimization algorithm was developed based on the bi-directional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) technique. Both initial and optimized dentures were prototyped by 3D printing technology and evaluated with in vitro tests. Through the optimization, the peak contact pressure was reduced by 70%, and the uniformity was improved by 63%. In vitro tests verified the effectiveness of this procedure, and the hydrostatic pressure induced in the mucosa is well below clinical pressure-pain thresholds (PPT), potentially lessening risk of residual ridge resorption. This proposed computational optimization and additive fabrication procedure provides a novel method for fast denture design and adjustment at low cost, with quantitative guidelines and computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for a specific patient. The integration of digitalized modeling, computational optimization, and free-form fabrication enables more efficient clinical adaptation. The customized optimal denture design is expected to minimize pain/discomfort and potentially reduce long-term residual ridge resorption.
  5. Chen J, Ahmad R, Suenaga H, Li W, Swain M, Li Q
    J Biomech, 2015 Feb 5;48(3):512-9.
    PMID: 25560272 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.11.043
    Although implant-retained overdenture allows edentulous patients to take higher occlusal forces than the conventional complete dentures, the biomechanical influences have not been explored yet. Clinically, there is limited knowledge and means for predicting localized bone remodelling after denture treatment with and without implant support. By using finite element (FE) analysis, this article provides an in-silico approach to exploring the treatment effects on the oral mucosa and potential resorption of residual ridge under three different denture configurations in a patient-specific manner. Based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scans, a 3D heterogeneous FE model was created; and the supportive tissue, mucosa, was characterized as a hyperelastic material. A measured occlusal load (63N) was applied onto three virtual models, namely complete denture, two and four implant-retained overdentures. Clinically, the bone resorption was measured after one year in the two implant-retained overdenture treatment. Despite the improved stability and enhanced masticatory function, the implant-retained overdentures demonstrated higher hydrostatic stress in mucosa (43.6kPa and 39.9kPa for two and four implants) at the posterior ends of the mandible due to the cantilever effect, than the complete denture (33.4kPa). Hydrostatic pressure in the mucosa signifies a critical indicator and can be correlated with clinically measured bone resorption, pointing to severer mandibular ridge resorption posteriorly with implant-retained overdentures. This study provides a biomechanical basis for denture treatment planning to improve long-term outcomes with minimal residual ridge resorption.
  6. Fadel A, Plunkett A, Ashworth J, Mahmoud AM, Ranneh Y, El Mohtadi M, et al.
    J Food Sci Technol, 2018 Mar;55(3):1201-1206.
    PMID: 29487463 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3010-0
    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are major dietary fibre in cereals. Recently, AXs have attracted a great deal of attention because of their biological activities. These activities have been suggested to be related to the content of low molecular weight (Mw) AXs, in particular those with Mw below 32 kDa. Rice bran is a rich source of AXs. However, water extraction of AXs is difficult and often gives low yield. Extrusion processing has been used to increase the solubility of cereal dietary fibre. The aim of this research was to study the effect of extrusion screw-speeds (80 and 160) rpm on the extraction yield and Mw of water extractable AXs from rice bran. It was found that the extraction of AXs increased significantly with an increase in screw speed and was accompanied by a significant decrease in the Mw of AXs from extruded rice bran. The percentage of very low molecular weight AXs (0.79-1.58 kDa) significantly increased with increasing screw speed.
  7. She W, Qi T, Cui M, Yan P, Ng SW, Li W, et al.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 May 02;10(17):14698-14707.
    PMID: 29638107 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b01187
    A family of two-dimensional salen-type lanthanide complexes was synthesized through a facile solution diffusion method. The two-dimensional lanthanide complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analytical techniques. The SCXRD and XPS analyses reveal that the obtained two-dimensional structures are rich in uncoordinated imine (-CH═N-) groups located on the skeleton of the salen-type organic ligand, which retain strong coordination ability with metal ions. On the basis of this unique feature, a highly dispersed CeO2-supported Ni catalyst (Ni/CeO2-CAS) with highly strong metal-support interaction was first synthesized via a coordination-assisted synthesis (CAS) method, which exhibits a much better catalytic activity in the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene than the traditional Ni/CeO2-IWI catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation (IWI). The origin of the improved catalytic activity of Ni/CeO2-CAS as well as the role of Ni@Ce-H2salen was revealed by using diverse characterizations. On the basis of the comparative characterization results, the superior catalytic performance of Ni/CeO2-CAS to Ni/CeO2-IWI could have resulted from the smaller and highly dispersed Ni nanoparticulates, the intensified Ni-CeO2 interaction, the enhanced NiO reducibility, and the higher concentration of oxygen vacancies, favoring the H2 dissociation and adsorption of the nitrobenzene reactant. The Ni/CeO2-CAS catalyst also exhibits high catalytic performance for reduction of diverse nitroarenes to their corresponding functionalized arylamines. We anticipated that this coordination-assisted strategy may provide a new way for preparing other highly oxide-supported catalysts with potential applications in various catalytic reactions.
  8. Xu Q, Li W, Ding L, Yang W, Xiao H, Ong WJ
    Nanoscale, 2019 Jan 23;11(4):1475-1504.
    PMID: 30620019 DOI: 10.1039/c8nr08738e
    Metal-free carbonaceous nanomaterials have witnessed a renaissance of interest due to the surge in the realm of nanotechnology. Among myriads of carbon-based nanostructures with versatile dimensionality, one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and zero-dimensional (0D) carbon dots (CDs) have grown into a research frontier in the past few decades. With extraordinary mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties, CNTs are utilized in transparent displays, quantum wires, field emission transistors, aerospace materials, etc. Although CNTs possess diverse characteristics, their most attractive property is their unique photoluminescence. On the other hand, another growing family of carbonaceous nanomaterials, which is CDs, has drawn much research attention due to its cost-effectiveness, low toxicity, environmental friendliness, fluorescence, luminescence and simplicity to be synthesized and functionalized with surface passivation. Benefiting from these unprecedented properties, CDs have been widely employed in biosensing, bioimaging, nanomedicine, and catalysis. Herein, we have systematically presented the fascinating properties, preparation methods and multitudinous applications of CNTs and CDs (including graphene quantum dots). We will discuss how CNTs and CDs have emerged as auspicious nanomaterials for potential applications, especially in electronics, sensors, bioimaging, wearable devices, batteries, supercapacitors, catalysis and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Last but not least, this review is concluded with a summary, outlook and invigorating perspectives for future research horizons in this emerging platform of carbonaceous nanomaterials.
  9. Wang J, Li Y, Huang J, Li W, Luo Y, Sui X, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2020 Feb 06.
    PMID: 32025678 DOI: 10.1039/c9nr09015k
    In recent assassinations reported in London and Malaysia, nerve agents were used to cause death, by skin poisoning. Skin decontamination is the ultimate and most important defense against nerve agent poisoning, because no effective antidote currently exists. However, almost no existing material can achieve effective and rapid decontamination without irritating the skin. This study links proteins that exhibit no decontamination ability with polymers to form a nanocomposite. This creates a nanospace on the surface of the protein that attracts and traps organic molecules, effectively adsorbing the nerve agent Soman within several seconds, without irritating the skin. Analysis of the different components of proteins and polymers reveals that the decontamination efficiency is considerably affected by the thickness of the coated polymer. Moreover, the thickness of the layer is predominantly determined by the size and species of the core and the crosslinking method. Further in vivo experiments on rats poisoned with Soman verify the efficiency and safety of the nanocomposite. These results could be used to design and synthesize more multi-functional and effective decontamination materials.
  10. Zainudin NA, Condon B, De Bruyne L, Van Poucke C, Bi Q, Li W, et al.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2015 Oct;28(10):1130-41.
    PMID: 26168137 DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-03-15-0068-R
    The Sfp-type 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase Ppt1 is required for activation of nonribosomal peptide synthetases, including α-aminoadipate reductase (AAR) for lysine biosynthesis and polyketide synthases, enzymes that biosynthesize peptide and polyketide secondary metabolites, respectively. Deletion of the PPT1 gene, from the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and the rice pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus, yielded strains that were significantly reduced in virulence to their hosts. In addition, ppt1 mutants of C. heterostrophus race T and Cochliobolus victoriae were unable to biosynthesize the host-selective toxins (HST) T-toxin and victorin, respectively, as judged by bioassays. Interestingly, ppt1 mutants of C. miyabeanus were shown to produce tenfold higher levels of the sesterterpene-type non-HST ophiobolin A, as compared with the wild-type strain. The ppt1 strains of all species were also reduced in tolerance to oxidative stress and iron depletion; both phenotypes are associated with inability to produce extracellular siderophores biosynthesized by the nonribosomal peptide synthetase Nps6. Colony surfaces were hydrophilic, a trait previously associated with absence of C. heterostrophus Nps4. Mutants were decreased in asexual sporulation and C. heterostrophus strains were female-sterile in sexual crosses; the latter phenotype was observed previously with mutants lacking Nps2, which produces an intracellular siderophore. As expected, mutants were albino, since they cannot produce the polyketide melanin and were auxotrophic for lysine because they lack an AAR.
  11. Yan L, Yu J, Zhong Y, Gu Y, Ma Y, Li W, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2020 Mar 01;20(3):1605-1612.
    PMID: 31492322 DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2020.17340
    The present study focuses on the microstructural and bioactive properties evolution in selective laser melting (SLM) β titanium alloys. We have applied cross-scan strategy for improving mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus of SLMed Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys which has been shown to be altering the microstructure and refining the grain size. The cross-scan strategy can refine the microstructure and induce various deformation textures in contrast to the conventional scan strategy. The microstructures of Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys indicate that the cross-scan strategy will yield the best mechanical properties and lower elastic modulus. The corrosion behavior of the Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys was studied during immersion in an acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37±0.50 °C for 28 days. Both the mechanical and bioactive properties showed that the novel Ti-20Mg-5Ta alloys should be ideal for bone implants.
  12. Lam LC, Ong PA, Dikot Y, Sofiatin Y, Wang H, Zhao M, et al.
    Age Ageing, 2015 Sep;44(5):835-40.
    PMID: 26271049 DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afv099
    population ageing will lead to a leap in the dementia population in Asia. However, information about potentials for low-cost and low-risk interventions is limited.
  13. Ji H, Yi Q, Chen L, Wong L, Liu Y, Xu G, et al.
    Clin. Chim. Acta, 2020 Feb;501:147-153.
    PMID: 31678272 DOI: 10.1016/j.cca.2019.10.036
    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among older adults. The goal of this case-control study was to identify circulating miRNAs for the diagnosis of DR. The miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Kit was used to extract serum miRNAs. The μParaflo™ MicroRNA microarray was used to detect the expression levels of the miRNAs. The miRWalk algorithm was applied to predict the target genes of the miRNAs, which were further confirmed by the dual luciferase reporter gene system in HEK293T cells. A microarray was performed between 5 DR cases and 5 age-, sex-, body mass index-, and duration of diabetes-matched type 2 diabetic (T2DM) controls. The quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique was used to validate the differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in 45 DR cases and 45 well-matched controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the performance of the circulating miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers for DR. Our microarray analysis screened out miR-2116-5p and miR-3197 as significantly up-regulated in DR cases compared with the controls. Furthermore, two miRNAs were validated in the 45 DR cases and 45 controls. The ROC analysis suggested that both miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p distinguished DR cases from controls. An additional dual-luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that notch homolog 2 (NOTCH2) was the target gene of miR-2116-5p. Both miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p were identified as promising diagnostic biomarkers for DR. Future research is still needed to explore the molecular mechanisms of miR-3197 and miR-2116-5p in the pathogenesis of DR.
  14. Huang L, Luo X, Shao J, Yan H, Qiu Y, Ke P, et al.
    PMID: 26700953 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2540-5
    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere.
  15. Hu D, Zhu Z, Li S, Deng Y, Wu Y, Zhang N, et al.
    PLoS Pathog., 2019 06;15(6):e1007836.
    PMID: 31242272 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007836
    Dengue is the most widespread vector-borne viral disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) for which there are no safe, effective drugs approved for clinical use. Here, by using sequential antigen panning of a yeast antibody library derived from healthy donors against the DENV envelop protein domain III (DIII) combined with depletion by an entry defective DIII mutant, we identified a cross-reactive human monoclonal antibody (mAb), m366.6, which bound with high affinity to DENV DIII from all four DENV serotypes. Immunogenetic analysis indicated that m366.6 is a germline-like mAb with very few somatic mutations from the closest VH and Vλ germline genes. Importantly, we demonstrated that it potently neutralized DENV both in vitro and in the mouse models of DENV infection without detectable antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) effect. The epitope of m366.6 was mapped to the highly conserved regions on DIII, which may guide the design of effective dengue vaccine immunogens. Furthermore, as the first germline-like mAb derived from a naïve antibody library that could neutralize all four DENV serotypes, the m366.6 can be a tool for exploring mechanisms of DENV infection, and is a promising therapeutic candidate.
  16. Hu L, Xu Z, Wang M, Fan R, Yuan D, Wu B, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2019 10 16;10(1):4702.
    PMID: 31619678 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-12607-6
    Black pepper (Piper nigrum), dubbed the 'King of Spices' and 'Black Gold', is one of the most widely used spices. Here, we present its reference genome assembly by integrating PacBio, 10x Chromium, BioNano DLS optical mapping, and Hi-C mapping technologies. The 761.2 Mb sequences (45 scaffolds with an N50 of 29.8 Mb) are assembled into 26 pseudochromosomes. A phylogenomic analysis of representative plant genomes places magnoliids as sister to the monocots-eudicots clade and indicates that black pepper has diverged from the shared Laurales-Magnoliales lineage approximately 180 million years ago. Comparative genomic analyses reveal specific gene expansions in the glycosyltransferase, cytochrome P450, shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, lysine decarboxylase, and acyltransferase gene families. Comparative transcriptomic analyses disclose berry-specific upregulated expression in representative genes in each of these gene families. These data provide an evolutionary perspective and shed light on the metabolic processes relevant to the molecular basis of species-specific piperine biosynthesis.
  17. Duong M, Islam S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, O'Byrne PM, Schünemann HJ, et al.
    Lancet Respir Med, 2013 Oct;1(8):599-609.
    PMID: 24461663 DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70164-4
    BACKGROUND: Despite the rising burden of chronic respiratory diseases, global data for lung function are not available. We investigated global variation in lung function in healthy populations by region to establish whether regional factors contribute to lung function.

    METHODS: In an international, community-based prospective study, we enrolled individuals from communities in 17 countries between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2009 (except for in Karnataka, India, where enrolment began on Jan 1, 2003). Trained local staff obtained data from participants with interview-based questionnaires, measured weight and height, and recorded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC). We analysed data from participants 130-190 cm tall and aged 34-80 years who had a 5 pack-year smoking history or less, who were not affected by specified disorders and were not pregnant, and for whom we had at least two FEV₁ and FVC measurements that did not vary by more than 200 mL. We divided the countries into seven socioeconomic and geographical regions: south Asia (India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan), east Asia (China), southeast Asia (Malaysia), sub-Saharan Africa (South Africa and Zimbabwe), South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile), the Middle East (Iran, United Arab Emirates, and Turkey), and North America or Europe (Canada, Sweden, and Poland). Data were analysed with non-linear regression to model height, age, sex, and region.

    FINDINGS: 153,996 individuals were enrolled from 628 communities. Data from 38,517 asymptomatic, healthy non-smokers (25,614 women; 12,903 men) were analysed. For all regions, lung function increased with height non-linearly, decreased with age, and was proportionately higher in men than women. The quantitative effect of height, age, and sex on lung function differed by region. Compared with North America or Europe, FEV1 adjusted for height, age, and sex was 31·3% (95% CI 30·8-31·8%) lower in south Asia, 24·2% (23·5-24·9%) lower in southeast Asia, 12·8% (12·4-13·4%) lower in east Asia, 20·9% (19·9-22·0%) lower in sub-Saharan Africa, 5·7% (5·1-6·4%) lower in South America, and 11·2% (10·6-11·8%) lower in the Middle East. We recorded similar but larger differences in FVC. The differences were not accounted for by variation in weight, urban versus rural location, and education level between regions.

    INTERPRETATION: Lung function differs substantially between regions of the world. These large differences are not explained by factors investigated in this study; the contribution of socioeconomic, genetic, and environmental factors and their interactions with lung function and lung health need further clarification.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

  18. Mente A, O'Donnell M, Rangarajan S, Dagenais G, Lear S, McQueen M, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Jul 30;388(10043):465-75.
    PMID: 27216139 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30467-6
    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality is modified by hypertension status.

    METHODS: In this pooled analysis, we studied 133,118 individuals (63,559 with hypertension and 69,559 without hypertension), median age of 55 years (IQR 45-63), from 49 countries in four large prospective studies and estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (as group-level measure of intake). We related this to the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular disease events over a median of 4.2 years (IQR 3.0-5.0) and blood pressure.

    FINDINGS: Increased sodium intake was associated with greater increases in systolic blood pressure in individuals with hypertension (2.08 mm Hg change per g sodium increase) compared with individuals without hypertension (1.22 mm Hg change per g; pinteraction<0.0001). In those individuals with hypertension (6835 events), sodium excretion of 7 g/day or more (7060 [11%] of population with hypertension: hazard ratio [HR] 1.23 [95% CI 1.11-1.37]; p<0.0001) and less than 3 g/day (7006 [11%] of population with hypertension: 1.34 [1.23-1.47]; p<0.0001) were both associated with increased risk compared with sodium excretion of 4-5 g/day (reference 25% of the population with hypertension). In those individuals without hypertension (3021 events), compared with 4-5 g/day (18,508 [27%] of the population without hypertension), higher sodium excretion was not associated with risk of the primary composite outcome (≥ 7 g/day in 6271 [9%] of the population without hypertension; HR 0.90 [95% CI 0.76-1.08]; p=0.2547), whereas an excretion of less than 3 g/day was associated with a significantly increased risk (7547 [11%] of the population without hypertension; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.10-1.45]; p=0.0009).

    INTERPRETATION: Compared with moderate sodium intake, high sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive populations (no association in normotensive population), while the association of low sodium intake with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death is observed in those with or without hypertension. These data suggest that lowering sodium intake is best targeted at populations with hypertension who consume high sodium diets.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).

  19. Savell E, Gilmore AB, Sims M, Mony PK, Koon T, Yusoff K, et al.
    Bull. World Health Organ., 2015 Dec 01;93(12):851-61G.
    PMID: 26668437 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.15.155846
    OBJECTIVE: To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing.

    METHODS: Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders.

    FINDINGS: Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15-1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23-5.17, respectively). Of the 11,842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24-76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities.

    CONCLUSION: Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities.

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