The abuse of antibiotics usage in bird industry has resulted in the emerging antibiotic resistant Enterococci worldwide which has posed a threat clinically to human health. The present study was to screen and identify the potential virulence agents in antibiotic resistance E. faecalis in bird industry in Borneo. Enterococcus bacteria collected from the birds’ faeces and indoor air inside ten birdhouses were identified to species level and their antibiotic resistance was checked using antibiotic susceptibility discs. Specific primers using PCR assay were intended for the detection of four potential virulence genes (ace, AS, efaA, gelE). Out of the thirty-seven Enterococci faecal bacteria, the prevailing bacteria found were Enterococcus qallinacum (51%), Enterococcus faecalis (35%) and Enterococcus harae (8%). The airborne bacteria were reported as Enterococcus faecalis (5%) and Enterococcus qallinacum (1%). Twenty-seven percent of isolates were reported to have Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index ≥ 0.2 with 9 distinct resistance patterns formed. E. faecalis showed higher resistance to vancomycin. Virulence genes were successfully reported in the 15 E. faecalis isolates. Sixty-seven percent of isolates were detected positive for four virulence genes, 27% possessed three (AS, efaA, gelE) genes and 6% possessed two (ace, AS) genes. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes detection were significantly correlated. These virulence genes or antibiotic resistance genes were important in the pathogenesis of E. faecalis infections.
Thirty one Vibrio cholera isolates recovered from cholera outbreak in Bintulu, Sarawak (Malaysia) were detected with the presence of ctx gene by using specific PCR. These isolates were further characterized and differentiated by using the Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and BOX-PCR to determine their genomic fingerprints. The specific PCR result confirmed the identities of 27 isolates out of 31 as pathogenic V. cholerae. The ERIC-PCR generated several genetic profiles consisting of 4-6 bands with sizes in the range of 100 to 600 bp, while the BOX-PCR produced profiles numbering 2-7 bands in the sizes between 200 to 1000 bp. Based on the dendrogram generated from the DNA fingerprinting profiles (ERIC-PCR and BOX-PCR), all of the isolates can be divided into 2 main clusters that is further divided into 2 sub-clusters. The low genetic diversity of the isolates indicated the outbreak of V. cholerae in the study area was due to the contamination from a single or few sources of V. cholerae.
Enterococcus faecium No. 78 (PNCM-BIOTECH 10375) isolated from puto, a type of fermented rice in the Philippines was used to produce lactic acid in repeated batch fermentation mode. Enzymatically liquefied sago starch was used as the sole carbon source, since sago (Metroxylon spp) is a sustainable crop for industrial exploitation. Liquefied sago starch was inoculated with E. faecium to perform the saccharification and fermentation processes simultaneously. Results demonstrated that E. faecium was reused for 11 fermentation cycles with an average lactic acid yield of 36.3 ± 4.71 g/l. The lactic acid production was superior to that of simple batch mode and continuous fermentation in terms of lactic acid concentration. An un-dissociated lactic acid concentration of 1.15 mM affected the productivity of the cells. Work is in progress to maintain and increase the usability of the cells over higher fermentation cycles.