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  1. Waran V, Selladurai BM, Bahuri NF, George GJ, Lim GP, Khine M
    J Trauma, 2008 Feb;64(2):362-5; discussion 365.
    PMID: 18301199 DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318070cc88
    : We present our initial experience using a simple and relatively cost effective system using existing mobile phone network services and conventional handphones with built in cameras to capture carefully selected images from hard copies of scan images and transferring these images from a hospital without neurosurgical services to a university hospital with tertiary neurosurgical service for consultation and management plan.
  2. Zamhuri A, Lim GP, Ma NL, Tee KS, Soon CF
    Biomed Eng Online, 2021 Apr 01;20(1):33.
    PMID: 33794899 DOI: 10.1186/s12938-021-00873-9
    MXene is a recently emerged multifaceted two-dimensional (2D) material that is made up of surface-modified carbide, providing its flexibility and variable composition. They consist of layers of early transition metals (M), interleaved with n layers of carbon or nitrogen (denoted as X) and terminated with surface functional groups (denoted as Tx/Tz) with a general formula of Mn+1XnTx, where n = 1-3. In general, MXenes possess an exclusive combination of properties, which include, high electrical conductivity, good mechanical stability, and excellent optical properties. MXenes also exhibit good biological properties, with high surface area for drug loading/delivery, good hydrophilicity for biocompatibility, and other electronic-related properties for computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the attractive physicochemical and biocompatibility properties, the novel 2D materials have enticed an uprising research interest for application in biomedicine and biotechnology. Although some potential applications of MXenes in biomedicine have been explored recently, the types of MXene applied in the perspective of biomedical engineering and biomedicine are limited to a few, titanium carbide and tantalum carbide families of MXenes. This review paper aims to provide an overview of the structural organization of MXenes, different top-down and bottom-up approaches for synthesis of MXenes, whether they are fluorine-based or fluorine-free etching methods to produce biocompatible MXenes. MXenes can be further modified to enhance the biodegradability and reduce the cytotoxicity of the material for biosensing, cancer theranostics, drug delivery and bio-imaging applications. The antimicrobial activity of MXene and the mechanism of MXenes in damaging the cell membrane were also discussed. Some challenges for in vivo applications, pitfalls, and future outlooks for the deployment of MXene in biomedical devices were demystified. Overall, this review puts into perspective the current advancements and prospects of MXenes in realizing this 2D nanomaterial as a versatile biological tool.
  3. Koo HC, Lim GP, Kaur S, Chan KQ, Chan KE, Chung C, et al.
    Children (Basel), 2021 Jul 02;8(7).
    PMID: 34356548 DOI: 10.3390/children8070569
    BACKGROUND: Optimal bone health is vital in children to prevent osteoporosis later in life, and body composition plays a crucial role in it. However, the literature reports contradictory results when considering the relationship between body composition and bone health in children. This study aimed to examine the bone health and its relationship with body composition in Malaysian schoolchildren.

    METHODS: In this cross sectional study, body composition data (weight, height, body fat percentage [% fat], fat mass, fat free mass, visceral fat, waist circumference [WC] and body mass index-for-age [BMI z-score]) and bone health data (Z-score and broadband ultrasound attenuation [BUA]) were collected from 415 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years, cluster sampled from randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    RESULTS: Girls generally had significantly higher height, body fat percentage, fat mass, visceral fat and Z-score as compared to boys. A steady increase of the mean BUA value was observed with increasing age in both sexes. The mean BUA value of the present study across the population was significantly higher than that of schoolchildren from Nigeria (p < 0.001), Colombia (p < 0.001) and Spain (p = 0.002). Significant positive correlations were found between all the body composition variables and bone outcome variables across the population. Further, BUA was significantly correlated with weight (β = 0.172; p = 0.001), height (β = 0.299; p < 0.001), % fat (β = 0.131; p = 0.007), fat mass (β = 0.130; p = 0.007), fat free mass (β = 0.209; p < 0.001), visceral fat (β = 0.127, p = 0.008), WC (β = 0.165; p = 0.001) and BMI z-score (β = 0.162; p = 0.001), after controlling for sex, age and ethnicity. Similarly, after confounders adjusted, Z-score was significantly predicted by weight (β = 0.160; p = 0.001), height (β = 0.310; p < 0.001), % fat (β = 0.104; p = 0.032), fat mass (β = 0.107; p = 0.026), fat free mass (β = 0.218; p < 0.001), visceral fat (β = 0.107, p = 0.026), WC (β = 0.145; p = 0.002) and BMI z-score (β = 0.150; p = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings have revealed that body composition variables were positive correlated with bone outcome variables, suggesting that adipose tissue acts to stimulate bone growth. Further clinical and molecular studies in the future is recommended to fully illustrate the complex interactions between adiposity and bone health.

  4. Koo HC, Lim GP, Kaur S, Chan KQ, Florence Tan YX, Pang XJ, et al.
    Nutr J, 2020 07 16;19(1):73.
    PMID: 32677967 DOI: 10.1186/s12937-020-00588-y
    BACKGROUND: To date, there is no validated whole grain assessment tool for children in any Southeast Asian countries. Hence, there is a need for a valid tool to assess whole grain intake among Malaysian children. This study aimed to develop, validate and test the reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in estimating whole grain intake among Malaysian children.

    METHODS: A total of 392 children participated in the FFQ development and 112 children aged 9-12 years participated in the validation phase; with a subsample of 50 children participating in the reproducibility phase. Three-day diet record (3DR) as the reference method in validation phase. Spearman correlations, mean difference, Bland-Altman plot and cross-classification analyses were used to assess validity. The reproducibility was tested through a repeat administration of the FFQ, with 1 month time interval. Reproducibility analyses involved intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and cross-classification analyses.

    RESULTS: The FFQ consisted of 156 whole grain food items from six food groups. Mean intake of whole grain in FFQ1 and 3DR were correlated well (r = 0.732), demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Bland Altman plots showed relatively good agreement for both the dietary methods. Cross-classification of whole grain intake between the two methods showed that

  5. Lim GP, Soon CF, Ma NL, Morsin M, Nayan N, Ahmad MK, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 10;201:111592.
    PMID: 34175291 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111592
    MXene based nanomaterial is an uprising two-dimensional material gaining tremendous scientific attentions due to its versatile properties for the applications in electronic devices, power generation, sensors, drug delivery, and biomedicine. However, the cytotoxic effects of MXene still remained a huge concern. Therefore, stringent analysis of biocompatibility of MXene is an essential requirement before introduction to human physiological system. Several in vitro and in vivo toxicological studies have been reported to investigate the interactions between MXenes with living organisms such as microbes, mammalian cells and animal models. The biological response and cytotoxicity reported were dependent on the physicochemical properties of MXene. The biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of MXene were dependent on size, dose, and surface coating. This review demystifies the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies associated with MXene. Various methods proposed to mitigate the cytotoxicity of MXene for in vivo applications were revealed. The machine learning methods were developed to predict the cytotoxicity of experimentally synthesized MXene compounds. Finally, we also discussed the current research gaps of applying MXenes in biomedical interventions.
  6. Tan SY, Mei Wong JL, Sim YJ, Wong SS, Mohamed Elhassan SA, Tan SH, et al.
    Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018 10 10;13(1):364-372.
    PMID: 30641727 DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2018.10.008
    Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is a serious and lifelong condition commonly characterised by abnormally elevated blood glucose levels due to a failure in insulin production or a decrease in insulin sensitivity and function. Over the years, prevalence of diabetes has increased globally and it is classified as one of the leading cause of high mortality and morbidity rate. Furthermore, diabetes confers a huge economic burden due to its management costs as well as its complications are skyrocketing. The conventional medications in diabetes treatment focusing on insulin secretion and insulin sensitisation cause unwanted side effects to patients and lead to incompliance as well as treatment failure. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, other treatments such as gene therapy and induced β-cells regeneration have not been widely introduced to manage diabetes. Therefore, this review aims to deliver an overview of the current conventional medications in diabetes, discovery of newer pharmacological drugs and gene therapy as a potential intervention of diabetes in the future.
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