Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    J Pediatr Nurs, 2019 07 29;48:92-97.
    PMID: 31369963 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedn.2019.07.012
    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between high-risk behaviours and personal and family factors among adolescents in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A nationwide data set was examined for this secondary data analysis. The dependent variable was the degree of risk, which was measured based on the number of high-risk behaviours in which adolescents participated. Age, gender, ethnicity, self-rated academic performance, family size, parental marital status and parental academic attainment were included as independent variables. Analyses stratified by educational level were conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using ordered logit.

    RESULTS: The most common high-risk behaviour among Malaysian adolescents was physical inactivity (35.97%), followed by smoking (13.27%) and alcohol consumption (4.45%). The majority of adolescents had low risks (52.93%), while only a small proportion had high risks (6.08%). Older age was associated with increased odds of having high risks (OR: 1.26). Male adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category compared to female adolescents (OR: 1.28). Compared to Malays, Chinese adolescents had higher odds of being in a high-risk category (OR: 1.71), whereas Indian adolescents had lower odds (OR: 0.65). Excellent academic performance was associated with reduced odds of participating in high-risk behaviours (OR: 0.41).

    CONCLUSION: Personal factors are important determinants of high-risk behaviours. This study provides a better understanding of those adolescent groups that are at greater risk.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: An intervention directed towards reducing participation in high-risk behaviours among adolescents who have both poor academic performance and less-educated parents may yield promising outcomes.

  2. Cheah YK, Lim HK, Kee CC
    Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2018 Jun;5(2):49-54.
    PMID: 30805533 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.02.001
    Background and objectives: The objective of the present study is to examine factors affecting time spent in physical activity among adolescents in Malaysia.

    Patients and methods: A nationally representative data of adolescents that consists of 25399 respondents is used. The demographic (age, gender, education) and lifestyle (fruits and vegetables consumption, carbonated soft drink consumption, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, sex behaviour, participation in physical education class, obesity) determinants of physical activity are assessed using binomial regression.

    Results: The results show that age is negatively associated with time spent in physical activity. However, being male and education levels are positively related to time spent in physical activity. Having unhealthy lifestyle and being obese are associated with low levels of physical activity. Physical education seems to promote participation in physical activity.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, demographic and lifestyle factors play an important role in determining levels of physical activity among adolescents. In order to reduce the prevalence of physically inactive adolescents, policy makers should focus primarily on late adolescents, females, adolescents who engage in unhealthy lifestyle and seldom attend physical education classes, as well as obese adolescents.

  3. Lim HK, Syed MA, Shukor MY
    J Basic Microbiol, 2012 Jun;52(3):296-305.
    PMID: 22052341 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201100121
    A novel molybdate-reducing bacterium, tentatively identified as Klebsiella sp. strain hkeem and based on partial 16s rDNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, has been isolated. Strain hkeem produced 3 times more molybdenum blue than Serratia sp. strain Dr.Y8; the most potent Mo-reducing bacterium isolated to date. Molybdate was optimally reduced to molybdenum blue using 4.5 mM phosphate, 80 mM molybdate and using 1% (w/v) fructose as a carbon source. Molybdate reduction was optimum at 30 °C and at pH 7.3. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibited absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. Inhibitors of electron transport system such as antimycin A, rotenone, sodium azide, and potassium cyanide did not inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme. Mercury, silver, and copper at 1 ppm inhibited molybdenum blue formation in whole cells of strain hkeem.
  4. Syafalni, Lim HK, Ismail N, Abustan I, Murshed MF, Ahmad A
    J Environ Manage, 2012 Dec 15;112:353-9.
    PMID: 22964042 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.001
    In this research, the capability of lateritic soil used as coagulant for the treatment of stabilized leachate from the Penang-Malaysia Landfill Site was investigated. The evaluation of lateritic soil coagulant in comparison with commercialized chemical coagulants, such as alum, was performed using conventional jar test experiments. The optimum pH and coagulant dosage were identified for the lateritic soil coagulant and the comparative alum coagulant. It was found that the application of lateritic soil coagulant was quite efficient in the removal of COD, color and ammoniacal-nitrogen content from the landfill leachate. The optimal pH value was 2.0, while 14 g/L of lateritic soil coagulant was sufficient in removing 65.7% COD, 81.8% color and 41.2% ammoniacal-nitrogen. Conversely, the optimal pH and coagulant dosage for the alum were pH 4.8 and 10 g/L respectively, where 85.4% COD, 96.4% color and 47.6% ammoniacal-nitrogen were removed from the same leachate sample. Additionally, the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) ratio of alum and lateritic soil coagulant was 53:1, which indicated that less sludge was produced and was an environmentally friendly product. Therefore, lateritic soil coagulant can be considered a viable alternative in the treatment of landfill leachate.
  5. Alkarkhi AF, Lim HK, Yusup Y, Teng TT, Abu Bakar MA, Cheah KS
    J Environ Manage, 2013 Jun 15;122:121-9.
    PMID: 23570974 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.03.010
    The ability of aluminum coagulant extracted from red earth to treat Terasil Red R (disperse) and Cibacron Red R (reactive) synthetic dye wastewater was studied. The effects of extractant concentration, soil-to-volume of extractant ratio, and the types of extracting agents (NaOH vs. KCl) on the concentration of aluminum extracted were also investigated. In addition, the efficiency of extracted aluminum was compared with aluminum sulfate, in terms of its capability to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and to remove synthetic color. Factorial design was applied to determine the effect of selected factors on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth (i.e., pH, dose of coagulant, type of coagulant on COD reduction, and color removal). It was found that only selected factors exhibited a significant effect on the amount of aluminum extracted from red earth. It was also determined that all factors and their interactions exhibited a significant effect on COD reduction and color removal when applying the extracted aluminum in a standard coagulation process. The results were also compared to aluminum sulfate. Furthermore, NaOH was found to be a better extractant of aluminum in red earth than KCl. Therefore, the best extracting conditions for both extractants were as follows: 2 M NaOH and in a 1:5 (soil/volume of extractant) ratio; 1 M KCl and 1:5 ratio. In treating synthetic dye wastewater, the extracted coagulant showed comparable treatment efficiency to the commercial coagulant. The extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the dispersed dye by 85% and to remove 99% of the color of the dispersed dye, whereas the commercial coagulant reduced 90% of the COD and removed 99% of the color of the dispersed dye. Additionally, the extracted coagulant was able to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 73% and to remove 99% of the color of the reactive dye. However, the commercial coagulant managed to reduce the COD of the reactive dye by 94% and to remove 96% of the color for the reactive dye.
  6. Ng SP, Lai OM, Abas F, Lim HK, Tan CP
    Food Res Int, 2014 Oct;64:919-930.
    PMID: 30011735 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.08.045
    The rheological properties, microstructure, textural properties, colour and droplet size distribution of mayonnaise-like emulsion models prepared using 10-30wt.% of palm olein-based diacylglycerol (POL-DAG) oil were compared with those of the control (100wt.% VCO) model. There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the particle size distribution of the oil droplets, the textural properties, and the rheological properties of the various emulsion models. The rheological analysis included the determination of the flow curves, yield stress, thixotropy, apparent viscosity, and viscoelastic parameters. The concentrated oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion with 30wt.% POL-DAG substitution exhibited high thixotropy. The POL-DAG content had a substantial effect on the rheological properties of yield stress, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). The pseudoplastic behaviour of the emulsions was demonstrated. The size of the particles in the 30% POL-DAG-substituted emulsion was dramatically increased after one day and 30days of storage. All of the emulsion samples with POL-DAG substituted for VCO showed a relatively non-uniform bimodal droplet size distribution after one day of storage. In general, substitution of 10-20wt.% POL-DAG oil is appropriate for preparing O/W emulsions that had flow curves and textural properties similar to those of the control sample.
  7. Yoong LF, Lim HK, Tran H, Lackner S, Zheng Z, Hong P, et al.
    Neuron, 2020 05 06;106(3):452-467.e8.
    PMID: 32155441 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.02.002
    Dendrite arbor pattern determines the functional characteristics of a neuron. It is founded on primary branch structure, defined through cell intrinsic and transcription-factor-encoded mechanisms. Developing arbors have extensive acentrosomal microtubule dynamics, and here, we report an unexpected role for the atypical actin motor Myo6 in creating primary branch structure by specifying the position, polarity, and targeting of these events. We carried out in vivo time-lapse imaging of Drosophila adult sensory neuron differentiation, integrating machine-learning-based quantification of arbor patterning with molecular-level tracking of cytoskeletal remodeling. This revealed that Myo6 and the transcription factor Knot regulate transient surges of microtubule polymerization at dendrite tips; they drive retrograde extension of an actin filament array that specifies anterograde microtubule polymerization and guides these microtubules to subdivide the tip into multiple branches. Primary branches delineate functional compartments; this tunable branching mechanism is key to define and diversify dendrite arbor compartmentalization.
  8. Ng SP, Khor YP, Lim HK, Lai OM, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al.
    Foods, 2020 Jul 03;9(7).
    PMID: 32635372 DOI: 10.3390/foods9070877
    The present study focused on investigating the storage stability of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions with high oil volume fractions prepared with palm olein-based diacylglycerol oil (POL-DAG)/soybean oil (SBO) blends at 25 °C. The incorporation of different ratios of oil blends significantly influenced (p < 0.05) the texture, color, droplet size distribution, and rheological parameters of the emulsions. Only emulsions incorporated with 10% to 20% POL-DAG in oil phase exhibited pseudoplastic behavior that fitted the Power Law model well. Furthermore, the O/W emulsions prepared with POL-DAG/SBO blends exhibited elastic properties, with G' higher than G". During storage, the emulsion was found to be less solid-like with the increase in tan δ values. All emulsions produced with POL-DAG/SBO blends also showed thixotropic behavior. Optical microscopy revealed that the POL-DAG incorporation above 40% caused aggregated droplets to coalesce and flocculate and, thus, larger droplet sizes were observed. The current results demonstrated that the 20% POL-DAG substituted emulsion was more stable than the control emulsion. The valuable insights gained from this study would be able to generate a lot more possible applications using POL-DAG, which could further sustain the competitiveness of the palm oil industry.
  9. Lim HK, Ghazali SM, Kee CC, Lim KK, Chan YY, Teh HC, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:8.
    PMID: 23294728 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-8
    BACKGROUND: Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986-2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5-47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21-30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67-2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65-2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63-2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22-2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98-2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05-1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46-2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15-1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18-20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90-2.94); 20-29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82-3.89; 31-40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47-3.28); 41-50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69-2.20) ; 51-60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15-1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03-1.22)) urban as reference.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower socio-economic status.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006)
  10. Lim HK, Teh HC, Lim LH, Lau JK, Kee CC, Ghazali SM, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(11):4563-70.
    PMID: 26107204
    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a learnt behavior during adolescence and understanding the factor/s associated with smoking will assist in identifying suitable measures in combating the rising prevalence of smoking among adolescents. This research aimed to identify the factor/s associated with smoking among form four students in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Multistage sampling was used to select a representative sample of students in 2008 and data were collected using a self-administered validated questionnaire. This study revealed that the overall smoking prevalence was 19.0% with a significantly higher proportion of male smokers (35.8%) as compared to females (3.15%). Adolescents who were male (aOR 6.6, 95%CI 2.61-16.4), those who had peer/s who smoked (aOR 4.03, 95% CI 1.31-12.4), and those who studied in rural areas and Felda Settlements ( aOR 4.59, 95 CI 1.11-18.0; aOR 9.42, 95%CI 3.91-29.1) were more likely to smoke in the past one week. On the other hand, adolescents with better knowledge on the hazards of smoking and negative attitudes towards smoking were less likely to smoke (aOR 0.51, 95%CI 0.37-0.72; aOR 0.67, 95%CI 0.46-0.99). Future promotional and interventional programmes on smoking should be considered and the above identified risk factors integrated to reduce smoking prevalence among students of school-going ages in Kota Tinggi. Johor.
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