This case-controlled study investigates whether the presence of menstrual characteristics, which may increase the exposure of the peritoneal cavity to retrograde menstruation, increases the risk of developing endometriosis. The menstrual characteristics considered were 1. age at menarche of less than 12 years, 2. duration of menstrual flow greater than five days and 3. menstrual cycle lengths of < 28 days. The frequency with which these menstrual characteristics occurred in 305 women with proven endometriosis was compared with their frequency in 305 age-matched women without endometriosis. Adjusting for the confounding factors of parity, age at first childbirth and social class, the only menstrual characteristic that was significantly associated with endometriosis was menstrual cycle lengths of less than 28 days (odds ratio 1.83; 95% confidence intervals 1.60-2.55). There was insufficient evidence to conclude that the presence of menstrual characteristics which may increase the exposure of the peritoneal cavity to retrograde menstruation, increase a women's risk of developing endometriosis. The association of short menstrual cycle lengths with endometriosis may have been consequential rather than causal.
Two highly active synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, lambdacyhalothrin and cypermethrin, were evaluated as thermal fogs against houseflies (Musca domestica Linnaeus) and mosquitos (Aedes aegypti Linnaeus). Lambdacyhalothrin (OMS 3021) showed an average of 2.5 times more knockdown activity and over 5 times more adulticidal activity than cypermethrin against Musca domestica and Aedes aegypti. These results demonstrate that lambdacyhalothrin is highly effective at very low rates as a thermal fog against Ae. aegypti and M. domestica. Commercially available formulations of 2.5% and 5% lambdacyhalothrin can be diluted either with water for ULV cold aerosol space-spraying or with diesel/kerosene for thermal fogging at recommended application rates of 0.5-1 g ai/ha for mosquito control and 2 g ai/ha for housefly control. Due to the very low rates of application, formulated products of lambdacyhalothrin are unlikely to present any acute hazards in normal use. The low dosages required to bring about rapid control of houseflies and mosquitos make this new pyrethroid insecticide particularly cost-effective. Coupled with its good residual activity (Jutsum et al, 1984), lambdacyhalothrin can be adopted as a powerful tool in integrated pest management program for the control of medically important pests and vectors.
A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with a working volume of 8 L and an exchange ratio of 25% was used to enrich biomass for the treatment of the anaerobically treated low pH palm oil mill effluent (POME). The influent concentration was stepwise increased from 5000 ± 500 mg COD/L to 11,500 ± 500 mg COD/L. The performance of the reactor was monitored at different organic loading rates (OLRs). It was found that approximately 90% of the COD content of the POME wastewater was successfully removed regardless of the OLR applied to the SBR. Cycle studies of the SBR show that the oxygen uptake by the biomass while there is no COD reduction may be due to the oxidation of the storage product by the biomass. Further, the growth kinetic parameters of the biomass were determined in batch experiments using respirometer. The maximum specific growth rate (μmax) was estimated to be 1.143 day(-1) while the half saturation constant (Ks) with respect to COD was determined to be 0.429 g COD/L. The decay coefficient (bD) and biomass yield (Y) were found to be 0.131 day(-1) and 0.272 mg biomass/mg COD consumed, respectively.
This is a rare case of antepartum haemorrhage arising from the nonpregnant uterus in a woman with uterine didelphys. The bleeding and subsequent passage of a decidual cast did not have any adverse effect on the ongoing pregnancy.
This study aims to investigate the incidence and causes of hyponatraemia in hospitalised elderly patients. There was a total of 407 new patients. 55 (13.5%) patients were found to have at least one episode of hyponatraemia during their hospitalization. There were 58 deaths. Fifteen out of 55 (27.3%) patients who had hyponatraemia died compared to 43 out of 352 (12.2%) normonatraemic patients (chi-square significant, p < 0.01). The three most common causes of hyponatraemia were syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), poor oral intake and diuretics. The two most common causes of SIADH were lower respiratory tract infection and stroke.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of tongue lesions in Malaysian dental outpatients from the Klang Valley area.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on 600 Malaysian outpatients (257 men, 343 women, mean age, 37.7 years) attending the Primary Dental Care Unit at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya. Demographic and medical data were recorded for all respondents.
RESULTS: One hundred eighty-one patients (30.2%) (81 men, 100 women, mean age 42.0 years) were diagnosed with at least one tongue lesion (n = 207) at the time of examination. Of these, 24 patients (4%) had two or more tongue lesions present synchronously. Seven different lesions were diagnosed: fissured tongue (13.8%), crenated tongue (7.8%), pigmented tongue (6.2%), geographic tongue (2.2%), ankyloglossia (1.7%), hairy tongue (1.0%) and median rhomboid glossitis (0.2%). Their racial prevalences were Malays (n = 65, 10.8%), Indians (n = 62, 10.3%), Chinese (n = 53, 8.8%) and other race (n = 1, 0.2%). A significant relationship was observed between crenated tongue and race; between four types of tongue lesions (fissured tongue, geographic tongue, crenated tongue and pigmented tongue) and age; and between fissured tongue and gender (P
Convective current driven by momentum transfer between magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and their surrounding fluid during magnetophoresis process under a low gradient magnetic field (<100 T m(-1)) is presented. This magnetophoresis induced convective flow, which imposed direct hydrodynamic effects onto the separation kinetics of the MNPs under low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS), is analogous to the natural convection found in heat transportation. Herein, we show the significance of the induced convection in controlling the transport behavior of MNPs, even at a very low particle concentration of 5 mg L(-1), and this feature can be characterized by the newly defined magnetic Grashof number. By incorporating fluid flow equations into the existing magnetophoresis model, we reveal two unique features of this convective flow associated with low gradient magnetophoresis, namely, (1) the continuous homogenization of the MNPs solution and (2) accompanying sweeping flow that accelerates the collection of MNPs. According to both simulation and experimental data, the induced convection boosts the magnetophoretic capture of MNPs by approximately 30 times compared to the situation with no convection.
Misoprostol seems to be a drug with many potential uses apart from the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers. The oral tablet appears to be effective for termination of midtrimester pregnancy when administered intravaginally. Further research should be carried out to determine its full range of action in order that the drug can be utilized to its maximum potential.
Pregnancy following idiopathic aplastic anaemia is rare and is difficult to manage because of life-threatening episodes of bleeding and infections. Only a handful of cases has been reported in the literature. The pregnancies were unsuccessful in the majority. The present report describes a patient with moderately severe idiopathic aplastic anaemia who was managed with intensive haematological support leading to delivery of a healthy infant by caesarean section. Despite platelet transfusion refractoriness as a result of transfusions prior to pregnancy, adequate platelet transfusions prevented excessive bleeding. The literature is reviewed and management with platelet transfusions is discussed.
This prospective, randomised, controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in decreasing the infectious morbidity following elective caesarean section. Two hundred women undergoing elective caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive either 1.2 g of Augmentin intravenously, or no treatment, just before the start of their caesarean section. The two groups of women were comparable in terms of patient characteristics and operation variables. The overall postoperative morbidity rate was 19% in the Augmentin treated group versus 38% in the group that received no prophylaxis (p < 0.01). The incidence of wound sepsis was 3% in the Augmentin group versus 13% in the control group (p < 0.01). The incidence of febrile morbidity with no identifiable cause was 8% in the Augmentin group versus 18% in the control group (p < 0.05). The duration of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the Augmentin group (p < 0.05). A single-dose of prophylactic Augmentin significantly reduced the postoperative morbidity and duration of hospital stay in women who underwent elective caesarean sections.
Magnetic separation is a versatile technique used in sample preparation for diagnostic purpose. For such application, an external magnetic field is applied to drive the separation of target entity (e.g. bacteria, viruses, parasites and cancer cells) from a complex raw sample in order to ease the subsequent task(s) for disease diagnosis. This separation process not only can be achieved via the utilization of high magnetic field gradient, but also, in most cases, low magnetic field gradient with magnitude less than 100 T m-1 is equally feasible. It is the aim of this review paper to summarize the usage of both high gradient magnetic separation and low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS) techniques in this area of research. It is noteworthy that effectiveness of the magnetic separation process not only determines the outcome of a diagnosis but also directly influences its accuracy as well as sensing time involved. Therefore, understanding the factors that simultaneously influence the efficiency of both magnetic separation process and target detection is necessary. Moreover, for LGMS, there are several important considerations that should be taken into account in order to ensure its successful implementation. Hence, this review paper aims to provide an overview to relate all this crucial information by linking the magnetic separation theory to biomedical diagnostic applications.
This study investigated the catalytic co-pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over faujasite-type zeolite derived from electric arc furnace slag (FAU-EAFS) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst-to-feedstock ratio, and HDPE-to-SCB ratio on product fractional yields and chemical compositions were discussed. The co-pyrolysis of SCB and HDPE over FAU-EAFS increased the liquid yield and enhanced the quality of bio-oil. The maximum bio-oil (68.56 wt%) and hydrocarbon yield (74.55%) with minimum yield of oxygenated compounds (acid = 0.57% and ester = 0.67%) were achieved under the optimum experimental conditions of catalyst-to-feedstock ratio of 1:6, HDPE-to-SCB ratio of 40:60, and temperature of 500 °C. The oil produced by catalytic co-pyrolysis had higher calorific value than the oil produced by the pyrolysis of SCB alone.
Dengue virus (DENV) comprises four serotypes (DENV1-4) which cause 390 million global infections with 500,000 hospitalizations and 25,000 fatalities annually. Currently, the only FDA approved DENV vaccine is the chimeric live-attenuated vaccine, Dengvaxia®, which is based on the yellow fever virus (YFV) genome that carries the prM and E genes of the respective DENV 1, 2, 3, and 4 serotypes. However, it has lower efficacies against serotypes DENV1 (51%) and DENV2 (34%) when compared with DENV3 (75%) and DENV4 (77%). The absence of T cell epitopes from non-structural (NS) and capsid (C) proteins of the yellow fever vaccine strain might have prevented Dengvaxia® to elicit robust cellular immune responses, as CD8+ T cell epitopes are mainly localized in the NS3 and NS5 regions. Multi-epitope-based peptide vaccines carrying CD4+, CD8+ T cell and B cell epitopes represent a novel approach to generate specific immune responses. Therefore, assessing and selecting epitopes that can induce robust B and T cell responses is a prerequisite for constructing an efficient multi-epitope peptide vaccine. Potent B and T cell epitopes can be identified by utilizing immunoinformatic analysis, but the immunogenicity of the epitopes have to be experimentally validated. In this review, we presented T cell epitopes that have been predicted by bioinformatic approaches as well as recent experimental validations of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes by ex-vivo stimulation of PBMCs with specific peptides. Immunoproteomic analysis could be utilized to uncover HLA-specific epitopes presented by DENV-infected cells. Based on various approaches, immunodominant epitopes capable of inducing strong immune responses could be selected and incorporated to form a universally applicable multi-epitope-based peptide dengue vaccine.
Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils.
Combining both device and particle designs are the essential concepts to be considered in magnetophoretic system development. Researcher efforts are often dedicated to only one of these design aspects and neglecting the interplay between them. Herein, to bring out importance of the idea of integration between device and particle, we reviewed the working principle of magnetophoretic system (includes both device and particle design concepts). Since, the magnetophoretic force is influenced by both field gradient and magnetization volume, hence, accurate prediction of the magnetophoretic force is relying on the availability of information on both parameters. In device design, we focus on the different strategies used to create localized high-field gradient. For particle design, we emphasize on the scaling between hydrodynamic size and magnetization volume. Moreover, we also briefly discussed the importance of magnetoshape anisotropy related to particle design aspect of magnetophoretic systems. Next, we illustrated the need for integration between device and particle design using microscale applications of magnetophoretic systems, include magnetic tweezers and microfluidic systems, as our working example. On the basis of our discussion, we highlighted several promising examples of microscale magnetophoretic systems which greatly utilized the interplay between device and particle design. Further, we concluded the review with several factors that possibly resulted in the lack of research efforts related to device and particle design integration.
Here we provide a complete review on the use of dynamic light scattering (DLS) to study the size distribution and colloidal stability of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The mathematical analysis involved in obtaining size information from the correlation function and the calculation of Z-average are introduced. Contributions from various variables, such as surface coating, size differences, and concentration of particles, are elaborated within the context of measurement data. Comparison with other sizing techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy and dark-field microscopy, revealed both the advantages and disadvantages of DLS in measuring the size of magnetic nanoparticles. The self-assembly process of MNP with anisotropic structure can also be monitored effectively by DLS.
Protein adsorption onto membrane surfaces is important in fields related to separation science and biomedical research. This study explored the molecular interactions between protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and nitrocellulose films (NC) using electrokinetic phenomena and the effects of these interactions on the streaming potential measurements for different membrane pore morphologies and pH conditions. The data were used to calculate the streaming ratios of membranes-to-proteins and to compare these values to the electrostatic or hydrophobic attachment of the protein molecules onto the NC membranes. The results showed that different pH and membrane pore morphologies contributes to different protein adsorption mechanisms. The protein adsorption was significantly reduced under conditions where the membrane and protein have like-charges due to electrostatic repulsion. At the isoelectric point (IEP) of the protein, the repulsion between the BSA and the NC membrane was at the lowest; thus, the BSA could be easily attached onto the membrane/solution interface. In this case, the protein was considered to be in a compact layer without intermolecular protein repulsions.