105 articles related to colorectal cancer(CRC) were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. 56 articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Research into the genetic basis for colorectal cancer included studies in germline mutations of known syndromes as well as polymorphisms that conferred individuals a higher odds ratio for developing CRC. Several studies also documented the variety of somatic mutations seen in cases of sporadic CRC in Malaysia. Studies into the knowledge and attitudes of Malaysians regarding CRC revealed poor appreciation of the common symptoms, risk factors and available measures for its early detection. This may explain the observed facts that more Malaysians present with late stage CRC than seen in developed countries. The small amount of data recorded concerning the outcome of treatment also suggests overall survival of Malaysian CRC patients for comparable stage of CRC is lower than achieved in developed countries.
The rich corporate life of the medical student and the medical students' societies at our medical school (at the present National University of Singapore) is generally unappreciated by its graduates and regrettably, even more unknown to the medical student of today. The present generation of medical students of NUS do not know of their rich history. We have published documentation of student activities from the founding of the medical school in 1905 till the establishment of the then University of Malaya in 1950, reviewed herein. Materials presented after 1950 were gathered from personal communications from key players in the students' societies and from editors of the medical students' publications.
The Medical Alumni is unique in being the oldest alumni association with medical, dental and pharmacy graduates from our seminal medical school, that has now evolved into the faculties of medicine in 2 countries, namely Malaysia and Singapore. Founded in 1923, the medical alumni association has undergone several name changes with its evolution and activism. After the Japanese Occupation, it was given its present name in 1947, comprising 3 branches working under a common Constitution operating in 2 separate countries. It is also unique in being the only association recognised by the Registrar of Societies with membership in 2 countries. Following the development of medical professional and academic bodies, the medical alumni wound down its medico-political activities to concentrate on providing social and mutual support for its members and its alma mater.
Even though artificial heart valve implants have a history of some 30 years, there is to this day no ideal valve substitute. Each of the categories of substitutes used has its own advantages as well as problems. Since my last review on the subject, that appeared in this journal, was some 13 years ago (Lim, 1977), it is perhaps appropriate to provide an update on the status of cardiac valve replacement for the general local readership.
Forty-five Asian patients (Indians 35, Chinese 8, Malay 2) with histologically proven lichen planus were studied by immunofluorescence. The most characteristic feature, seen in 93% of the cases, was shaggy deposition of fibrinogen along the basement membrane. Immunoglobulin deposition along the basement membrane was notably, absent. Colloid bodies were observed in 87% of the cases. Fibrinogen was the most common immunoreactant, and its presence in colloid bodies was always associated with fibrinogen deposition along the basement membrane zone. Colloid bodies also contained a variety of other immunoreactants. However, staining for IgM was noted to be the most intense. The combination of shaggy deposition of fibrinogen along the basement membrane, in the absence of immunoglobulins, and the presence of colloid bodies around the basement membrane zone, is highly characteristic of lichen planus. The pattern of immunofluorescence among Asians with lichen planus, conforms to that observed in other races. There did not appear to be any difference in the immunofluorescence staining with pattern in the three racial groups studied.
Introduction: Giving two intravenous anaesthetic agents simultaneously generally results in an additive effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between propofol and thiopental when given to patients who have had sedative premedication. Methods: Fifty patients were admitted into the study. All patients received oral midazolam 3.75 mg and intravenous fentanyl 100 mg before induction of anaesthesia. Twenty patients received an infusion of either propofol or thiopental while 30 patients received an infusion of an admixture of both drugs. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the interaction between the two drugs. Results: The interaction between propofol and thiopental was
additive. The average dose at loss of the eyelash reflex for propofol and thiopental was 0.71 mg kg-1 and 1.54 mg kg-1 respectively. Premedication decreased the induction dose by 38.2%. Conclusion: Propofol and thiopental interact in an additive fashion when given at induction of anaesthesia.
A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m2 for overweight and 27.0 kg/m2 for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention programmes showed that weight loss is not easy to achieve nor maintain. Laboratory research worldwide has uncovered several genetic and biochemical markers associated with obesity. Similar studies in Malaysia have found some biomarkers with an association to obesity in the local population but none of great significance.
Patient adherence to prescribed medication regimens is important in diabetes care to prevent or delay microvascular and macrovascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy and myocardial infarction. In Penang Hospital, Malaysia, pharmacists collaborate with physicians in diabetes care through a pharmacist-managed Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC) in the Endocrine Clinic, in operation since 2006.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the pharmacist-managed DMTAC program in improving glycaemic control, lipid parameters and patients' medication adherence.
METHOD: A retrospective study among patients enrolled in the DMTAC program was conducted between September 2007 and December 2008. Data was included from patients with a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) >8% and who had completed eight visits with the pharmacists. Medical records and DMTAC forms that provided patients' demographics, medication regimens, adherence and laboratory parameters as well as pharmacists' interventions were reviewed. HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were evaluated. Documented data of patients' adherence to medication regimen [Modified Morisky Medication Adherence Score (MMMAS); high adherence if score >8, medium adherence if score 6 to <8 and low adherence if score <6] was also evaluated.
RESULTS: A total of 43 patients (53.5% females; 46.5% Malays, 44.2% Chinese and 9.3% Indians) were included in the analysis. A mean reduction in HbA1c of 1.73% (p<0.001), mean reduction in FBG of 2.65mmol/l (p=0.01) and mean reduction in LDL cholesterol of 0.38mmol/l (p=0.007) were achieved. The difference in TG and HDL cholesterol were not significant. Patients' adherence to medication regimens improved significantly with an increase in the mean MMMAS score from 7.00 to 10.84 (p<0.001) after completion of the DMTAC program.
CONCLUSION: The pharmacist-managed DMTAC program resulted in significant improvements in HbA1c, glucose and LDL cholesterol levels as well as medication adherence in patients with diabetes.
KEYWORDS: Diabetes; Malaysia; Medication Adherence; Pharmacists
Study site: Diabetes Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC), Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
Successful human reproduction remains an enigma, but this is slowly changing in the current era of expanding scientific knowledge. The discovery of various molecular factors such as adhesion molecules, proteases and cytokines have in recent years been at the forefront of medical research. The growing importance of immunology in particular has led to novel new immuno-modulatory therapies and increasing research into this new aspect of reproductive immunology may well prove to be the most important breakthrough in understanding the fundamentals of human reproduction. Implantation represents the first step in the complex interactions and processes involved in foetal-maternal interaction, which continues throughout pregnancy gestation and culminates in the birth of an infant. It is therefore vital that we understand the myriad processes controlling implantation in order to build a firm foundation for exploring reproductive immunology research in the new millennium. This review brings together and presents an overview of the potential roles of currently known molecular factors such as adhesion molecules, proteases, cytokines and its interaction with the maternal immune response, incorporating the findings of previous published research performed by the author on cytokines and reproductive immunology.
Phenothiazines have been associated with various ocular adverse effects, in particular cataract and corneal deposits. Several effects are vision threatening. Awareness of these effects, in particular by Psychiatrists and Ophthalmologist, is essential for prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report two patients presented to us with corneal deposits and lenticular opacities following long term use of Phenothiazines.
The indirect fluorescence antibody technique has been employed to study the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in Singapore. 42.5% of clinically suspected cases of toxoplasmosis showed antibody titres. Of these, 17.5% had titres greater than or equal to 1.64. Malays and Indians have higher positive rates compared to the main ethnic group, the Chinese. Antibody titres are found in both males and females and span through the various age groups. The possible mode of transmission is discussed and the importance of congenital toxoplasmosis is indicated.
Three new variants of acidic proline-rich proteins (At, Au, Aw) were found in human parotid saliva by isoelectric focusing and basic gel electrophoresis. Electrophoretic comparison of the purified proteins and their tryptic peptides suggested minor charge and size differences from other acidic PRPs. Genetic and biochemical studies indicate that the At and Aw proteins are allelic products of the PRH1 locus. Gene frequencies of the At productive allele (PRH1(6)) in Japanese, Chinese, and Malays were 0.008, 0.012, and 0.004, respectively. The Au protein was also found in Japanese (2 in 746 samples), Chinese (1 in 215 samples), and Malays (1 in 220 samples), however, the Aw protein was found only in one Japanese (n = 746). These three proteins were not found in 106 Indian subjects.