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  1. Samsir S, Zakaria R, Razak SA, Ismail MS, Rahim MZA, Lin CS, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 Sep;25(5):68-78.
    PMID: 30914864 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.5.7
    Background: Neuroimaging is increasingly used to locate the lesion that causes cerebral palsy (CP) and its extent in the brains of CP patients. Conventional structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) does not indicate the connectional pattern of white matter; however, with the help of diffusion MRI, fibre tracking of white matter can be done.

    Methods: We used diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography to identify the putative white matter connectivity in the brains of 10 CP patients. We tracked the corticospinal tract (CST) of the patients' upper and lower limbs and calculated the white matter connectivity, as indexed by streamlines representing the probability of connection of the CST.

    Results: Our results show that diffusion MRI with probabilistic tractography, while having some relation with the clinical diagnosis of CP, reveals a high degree of individual variation in the streamlines representing the CST for upper and lower limbs.

    Conclusion: Diffusion MRI with probabilistic tractography provides the state of connectivity from lesioned areas to other parts of the brain and is potentially beneficial to be used as an adjunct to the clinical management of CP, providing a means to monitor intervention outcomes.

  2. Tessema SK, Utama D, Chesnokov O, Hodder AN, Lin CS, Harrison GLA, et al.
    Infect. Immun., 2018 08;86(8).
    PMID: 29784862 DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00485-17
    Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) mediates parasite sequestration to the cerebral microvasculature via binding of DBLβ domains to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) and is associated with severe cerebral malaria. In a cohort of 187 young children from Papua New Guinea (PNG), we examined baseline levels of antibody to the ICAM1-binding PfEMP1 domain, DBLβ3PF11_0521, in comparison to four control antigens, including NTS-DBLα and CIDR1 domains from another group A variant and a group B/C variant. Antibody levels for the group A antigens were strongly associated with age and exposure. Antibody responses to DBLβ3PF11_0521 were associated with a 37% reduced risk of high-density clinical malaria in the follow-up period (adjusted incidence risk ratio [aIRR] = 0.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.45 to 0.88; P = 0.007]) and a 25% reduction in risk of low-density clinical malaria (aIRR = 0.75 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.01; P = 0.06]), while there was no such association for other variants. Children who experienced severe malaria also had significantly lower levels of antibody to DBLβ3PF11_0521 and the other group A domains than those that experienced nonsevere malaria. Furthermore, a subset of PNG DBLβ sequences had ICAM1-binding motifs, formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster, and were similar to sequences from other areas of endemicity. PfEMP1 variants associated with these DBLβ domains were enriched for DC4 and DC13 head structures implicated in endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) binding and severe malaria, suggesting conservation of dual binding specificities. These results provide further support for the development of specific classes of PfEMP1 as vaccine candidates and as biomarkers for protective immunity against clinical P. falciparum malaria.
  3. Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, et al.
    J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2014 Feb;15(2):95-101.
    PMID: 24461239 DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.11.025
    Sarcopenia, a newly recognized geriatric syndrome, is characterized by age-related decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Previous studies have confirmed the association of sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes, such as falls, disability, hospital admission, long term care placement, poorer quality of life, and mortality, which denotes the importance of sarcopenia in the health care for older people. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the operational definition of sarcopenia and standardized intervention programs are still lacking. It is generally agreed by the different working groups for sarcopenia in the world that sarcopenia should be defined through a combined approach of muscle mass and muscle quality, however, selecting appropriate diagnostic cutoff values for all the measurements in Asian populations is challenging. Asia is a rapidly aging region with a huge population, so the impact of sarcopenia to this region is estimated to be huge as well. Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) aimed to promote sarcopenia research in Asia, and we collected the best available evidences of sarcopenia researches from Asian countries to establish the consensus for sarcopenia diagnosis. AWGS has agreed with the previous reports that sarcopenia should be described as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance, and we also recommend outcome indicators for further researches, as well as the conditions that sarcopenia should be assessed. In addition to sarcopenia screening for community-dwelling older people, AWGS recommends sarcopenia assessment in certain clinical conditions and healthcare settings to facilitate implementing sarcopenia in clinical practice. Moreover, we also recommend cutoff values for muscle mass measurements (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioimpedance analysis), handgrip strength (<26 kg for men and <18 kg for women), and usual gait speed (<0.8 m/s). However, a number of challenges remained to be solved in the future. Asia is made up of a great number of ethnicities. The majority of currently available studies have been published from eastern Asia, therefore, more studies of sarcopenia in south, southeastern, and western Asia should be promoted. On the other hand, most Asian studies have been conducted in a cross-sectional design and few longitudinal studies have not necessarily collected the commonly used outcome indicators as other reports from Western countries. Nevertheless, the AWGS consensus report is believed to promote more Asian sarcopenia research, and most important of all, to focus on sarcopenia intervention studies and the implementation of sarcopenia in clinical practice to improve health care outcomes of older people in the communities and the healthcare settings in Asia.
  4. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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