Malaysia enjoys a comprehensive range of health services, the government being committed to the principles of universal access to high quality health care, which the Ministry of Health provides through a wide variety of nation wide network of clinics and hospitals. One of the major problems is the availability of comprehensiveness and quality of health care in remote health centres. When patients are transferred from the health centres to the hospitals for further treatment, this not only incurs inconvenience to the patients and their family but also increases the cost to the health care system. Teleprimary care is one of the tools to overcome this problem. The doctors in the remote clinics are able to discuss the problem cases through teleconsultation with the doctors and specialist in the hospitals using an audiovisual system to provide better care in the health centers without transferring the patients to the hospitals. Only the essential and needy patients are referred to the hospitals. This has not only reduced the number of patients referred to the hospitals but it has reduced the cost to the health care system. It has also provided a more comprehensive care to the patients in the health centres. The doctors in the health centers are also provided training and are also updated on the latest in medicine. This method of training has made doctors in the health centers more efficient and satisfied.
Telemedicine is fast becoming popular in many countries in the world. It has several advantages such as being cost saving and providing better access to health care in the remote areas in many parts of the world. However, it has some disadvantages as well. One of the major problems is the problem of patients' rights and confidentiality in the use of telemedicine. There are no standard guidelines and procedures in the practice of telemedicine as yet. Both the patient and the physician are unsure of the standard of practice and how to maintain confidentiality. The patient is uncertain as to how to protect her/his rights in the use of telemedicine. The issue of litigation is also unclear as to where the physician is practicing when he/she uses telemedicine. Is she/he practicing in the country where the patient is or is the physician practicing in the country of her/his origin? These issues need to be addressed urgently so that telemedicine will have standards of ethical practice and the patient's rights and confidentiality will be protected.
This paper describes selected maternal and child health indicators based on a cross-sectional study of citizens and migrants in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 1,515 women were interviewed from a multi-stage random sample of households in eight urban centers. Among the 1,411 women in the sample who had experienced a pregnancy before, 76% were local citizens and 24% were migrants. There were statistically significant differences between citizens and migrants in ethnicity, religion, education, household income, and access to treated water supply and sanitary toilet facilities. Significantly fewer migrants practiced any form of contraception and obtained any antenatal care during any pregnancy. Furthermore, citizens tended to initiate care as early as three months but migrants as late as seven months. Despite these differences, only the infant mortality rate, and not pregnancy wastage, was statistically significantly higher among migrants. Pregnancy interval was also similar between the two groups. The influence of several socioeconomic factors on pregnancy wastage and infant mortality was explored.
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide demands increased efforts in the prevention and management of obesity. This article aims to present consensus statements promoting appropriate consumer education and communication programs for weight-loss agents in Asia.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although 58 genomic regions have been associated with CAD thus far, most of the heritability is unexplained, indicating that additional susceptibility loci await identification. An efficient discovery strategy may be larger-scale evaluation of promising associations suggested by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Hence, we genotyped 56,309 participants using a targeted gene array derived from earlier GWAS results and performed meta-analysis of results with 194,427 participants previously genotyped, totaling 88,192 CAD cases and 162,544 controls. We identified 25 new SNP-CAD associations (P < 5 × 10-8, in fixed-effects meta-analysis) from 15 genomic regions, including SNPs in or near genes involved in cellular adhesion, leukocyte migration and atherosclerosis (PECAM1, rs1867624), coagulation and inflammation (PROCR, rs867186 (p.Ser219Gly)) and vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation (LMOD1, rs2820315). Correlation of these regions with cell-type-specific gene expression and plasma protein levels sheds light on potential disease mechanisms.
Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.