Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.
Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.
METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.
RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.
Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.
Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.
Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.
Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.
METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed in 42 patients with MODY aged 1 month to 18 years among a cohort of 759 patients with diabetes, identified with the following four clinical criteria: age of diagnosis ≤18 years; negative pancreatic autoantibodies; family history of diabetes; or persistently detectable C-peptide; or diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features. GCK gene mutations were first screened by Sanger sequencing. GCK mutation-negative patients were further analyzed by WES.
RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 24 patients: 20 mutations in GCK, 1 in HNF4A, 1 in INS, 1 in ABCC8, and a 17q12 microdeletion. Four previously unpublished novel GCK mutations: c.1108G>C in exon 9, and c.1339C>T, c.1288_1290delCTG, and c.1340_1343delGGGGinsCTGGTCT in exon 10 were detected. WES identified a novel missense mutation c.311A>G in exon 3 in the INS gene, and copy number variation analysis detected a 1.4 Mb microdeletion in the long arm of the chromosome 17q12 region. Compared with mutation-negative subjects, the mutation-positive subjects had lower hemoglobin A1c and initial blood glucose levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Most MODY cases in this study were due to GCK mutations, which is in contrast to previous reports in Chinese patients. Diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features should be a clinical criterion for MODY genetic analysis. Mutational analysis by WES provided a precise diagnosis of MODY subtypes. Moreover, WES can be useful for detecting large deletions in coding regions in addition to point mutations.
METHOD: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus and Web of sciences were investigated to identify relevant articles up to June 2019. The search strategy combined the Medical Subject Heading and Title and/or abstract keywords. The combined effect sizes were calculated as weight mean difference (WMD) using the random-effects model. Between study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Cochran's Q test and I2.
RESULTS: Four RCTs studies investigated Carnosine use versus any control for at least 2 weeks were identified and analyzed. Overall results from the random-effects model on included studies, with 184 participants, indicated that carnosine intervention reduced HbA1C levels in intervention vs control groups (WMD: -0.92 %, 95 % CI: -1.20, -0.63, I2:69 %). Four studies, including a total of 183 participants, reported TG changes as an outcome measure variable, but combined results did not show significant reduction in this outcome (WMD: -14.46 mg/dl, 95 % CI: -29.11, 0.19, I2:94 %). Furthermore, combined results did not show any significant change in HOMA-IR, Cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, or HDL-C.
CONCLUSION: Carnosine supplementation results in a decrease in HbA1C, but elicits no effect on HOMA-IR, Cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, TG and HDL-C. Future studies with a larger sample sizes, varied doses of carnosine, and population-specific sub-groups are warranted to confirm, and enhance, the veracity of our findings.
METHODS: This study was a retrospective, consecutive, interventional case series. Patients who underwent MHRD surgery with sub-PFO injection of OVD to stabilize inverted ILM flap onto the macular hole (MH) were reviewed. The color fundus and optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were collected and evaluated. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after surgery were compared as the functional outcome.
RESULTS: The study included 8 eyes of 8 consecutive patients (mean age: 61.8 ± 7.1 years; mean follow-up period: 9.0 ± 2.5 months). All eyes (100%) achieved successful MH closure; 7 eyes (87.5%) demonstrated complete retinal reattachment, and 1 eye (12.5%) had minimal residual subretinal fluid parafoveally. Of the 8 patients, 7 patients (87.5%) had achieved improvement in BCVA after the primary surgery, whereas 1 eye remained stable. The average BCVA before and after the surgery at the last visit improved from 20/843 (1.63 ± 0.48 logMAR) to 20/200 (1.00 ± 0.39 logMAR) (P = 0.016). Anatomically, near-normal foveal contour was noted in five (62.5%) eyes at the final follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of sub-PFO injection of OVD in MHRD surgery could stabilize inverted ILM flaps, achieve good anatomical results and improve postoperative BCVA.
FINDINGS: In this study, we collected and tested 253 rectal swabs from pet dogs; of which 64 samples (25.3%) tested positive for AstVs with diarrhea and 15 more samples (5.9%) also was identified as AstVs, however without any clinical signs. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 partial ORF1b sequences from these samples revealed that they are similar to AstVs, which can be subdivided into three lineages. Interestingly, out of the 39 isolates sequenced, 16 isolates are shown to be in the Mamastrovirus 5/canine astrovirus (CAstV) lineage and the remaining 23 isolates displayed higher similarities with known porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) 5 and 2. Further, analysis of 13 capsid sequences from these isolates showed that they are closely clustered with Chinese or Italy CAstV isolates.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that CAstVs commonly circulate in pet dogs, and our sequencing results have shown the genomic diversity of CAstVs leading to increasing number of clusters.
METHODS: Thirty-five cases of highly myopic eyes with MHRD in 35 patients who underwent an initially successful vitrectomy with macular plug and were followed up for at least 3 years were reviewed. The anatomical outcomes were evaluated by fundus examination, fundus photographs and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Myopic features after the surgery were differentiated according to recommendations of the Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia (META-PM) Study Group. The best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs) before and after surgery were analysed as the functional outcome. Main outcome measures time-course changes in BCVA and complications.
RESULTS: The mean patient age was 61.0 ± 11.4 years. The follow-up was 45.2 ± 8.6 months (ranged from 36 to 71 months). The mean axial length was 29.3 ± 1.2 mm. All eyes demonstrated attached retina, but 2 eyes (5.7%) developed reopened macular holes until the last follow-up. Complications of postoperative rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were detected in 2 eyes (5.7%) within 1 year and retina reattached after the secondary vitrectomy. Three cases (8.6%) of prolonged subretinal fluid lasting more than 1 year were detected but finally absorbed completely. Comparing 1-3 years postoperatively, myopic features showed significant progression of myopic maculopathy category (p = 0.035). Functionally, significantly improved BCVA could be maintained postoperatively between 6 months and 3 years. However, vision of 14 eyes (40.0%) worsened within 1-3 years postoperatively, and visual deterioration was associated with progression of myopic maculopathy (p = 0.004) and pre-existing disease of glaucoma (p = 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: A vitrectomy combined with macular plug provided favourable outcomes in the long term, over the ≥3-year follow-up period.