Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 41 in total

  1. Busra MFM, Lokanathan Y
    Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2019;20(12):992-1003.
    PMID: 31364511 DOI: 10.2174/1389201020666190731121016
    Tissue engineering focuses on developing biological substitutes to restore, maintain or improve tissue functions. The three main components of its application are scaffold, cell and growthstimulating signals. Scaffolds composed of biomaterials mainly function as the structural support for ex vivo cells to attach and proliferate. They also provide physical, mechanical and biochemical cues for the differentiation of cells before transferring to the in vivo site. Collagen has been long used in various clinical applications, including drug delivery. The wide usage of collagen in the clinical field can be attributed to its abundance in nature, biocompatibility, low antigenicity and biodegradability. In addition, the high tensile strength and fibril-forming ability of collagen enable its fabrication into various forms, such as sheet/membrane, sponge, hydrogel, beads, nanofibre and nanoparticle, and as a coating material. The wide option of fabrication technology together with the excellent biological and physicochemical characteristics of collagen has stimulated the use of collagen scaffolds in various tissue engineering applications. This review describes the fabrication methods used to produce various forms of scaffolds used in tissue engineering applications.
  2. Lokanathan Y, Mohd-Adnan A, Kua BC, Nathan S
    J Fish Dis, 2016 Sep;39(9):1069-83.
    PMID: 27086498 DOI: 10.1111/jfd.12474
    Cryptocaryonosis is a major problem for mariculture, and the absence of suitable sero-surveillance tools for the detection of cryptocaryonosis makes it difficult to screen Cryptocaryon irritans-infected fish, particularly asymptomatic fish. In this study, we proposed a serum-based assay using selected C. irritans proteins to screen infected and asymptomatic fish. Eight highly expressed genes were chosen from an earlier study on C. irritans expressed sequence tags and ciliate glutamine codons were converted to universal glutamine codons. The chemically synthesized C. irritans genes were then expressed in an Escherichia coli expression host under optimized conditions. Five C. irritans proteins were successfully expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. These proteins were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen sera from experimentally immunized fish and naturally infected fish. Sera from both categories of fish reacted equally well with the expressed C. irritans recombinant proteins as well as with sonicated theronts. This study demonstrated the utility of producing ciliate recombinant proteins in a heterologous expression host. An ELISA was successfully developed to diagnose infected and asymptomatic fish using the recombinant proteins as antigens.
  3. Lokanathan Y, Mohd-Adnan A, Wan KL, Nathan S
    BMC Genomics, 2010;11:76.
    PMID: 20113487 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-76
    Cryptocaryon irritans is a parasitic ciliate that causes cryptocaryonosis (white spot disease) in marine fish. Diagnosis of cryptocaryonosis often depends on the appearance of white spots on the surface of the fish, which are usually visible only during later stages of the disease. Identifying suitable biomarkers of this parasite would aid the development of diagnostic tools and control strategies for C. irritans. The C. irritans genome is virtually unexplored; therefore, we generated and analyzed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of the parasite to identify genes that encode for surface proteins, excretory/secretory proteins and repeat-containing proteins.
  4. Maarof M, Lokanathan Y, Ruszymah HI, Saim A, Chowdhury SR
    Protein J, 2018 12;37(6):589-607.
    PMID: 30343346 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-018-9800-z
    Growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are involved in wound healing. Human dermal fibroblasts secrete wound-healing mediators in culture medium known as dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). However, the composition and concentration of the secreted proteins differ with culture conditions and environmental factors. We cultured human skin fibroblasts in vitro using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (EpiLife™ Medium [KM1] and defined keratinocyte serum-free medium [KM2]) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. We identified and compared their proteomic profiles using bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA), 1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D SDS-PAGE), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS/MS). DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 had higher protein concentrations than DFCM-FM but not statistically significant. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS identified the presence of fibronectin, serotransferrin, serpin and serum albumin. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis identified 59, 46 and 58 secreted proteins in DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2 and DFCM-FM, respectively. The most significant biological processes identified in gene ontology were cellular process, metabolic process, growth and biological regulation. STRING® analysis showed that most secretory proteins in the DFCMs were associated with biological processes (e.g. wound healing and ECM organisation), molecular function (e.g. ECM binding) and cellular component (e.g. extracellular space). ELISA confirmed the presence of fibronectin and collagen in the DFCMs. In conclusion, DFCM secretory proteins are involved in cell adhesion, attachment, proliferation and migration, which were demonstrated to have potential wound-healing effects by in vitro and in vivo studies.
  5. Omar N, Lokanathan Y, Mohd Razi ZR, Bt Haji Idrus R
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Jul 08;19(1):167.
    PMID: 31286956 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2581-x
    BACKGROUND: Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known as Indian Pennywort, is a tropical medicinal plant from Apiaceae family native to Southeast Asian countries. It has been widely used as a nerve tonic in Ayuverdic medicine since ancient times. However, whether it can substitute for neurotrophic factors to induce human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSCs) differentiation into the neural lineage remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a raw extract of C. asiatica (L.) (RECA) on the neural differentiation of hMSCs in vitro.

    METHODS: The hMSCs derived from human Wharton's jelly umbilical cord (hWJMSCs; n = 6) were treated with RECA at different concentrations; 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 and 2400 μg/ml. The cytotoxicity of RECA was evaluated via the MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and cell proliferation assays. The hWJMSCs were then induced to neural lineage for 9 days either with RECA alone or RECA in combination with neurotrophic factors (NF). Cell morphological changes were observed under an inverted microscope, while the expression of the neural markers S100β, p75 NGFR, MBP, GFAP and MOG was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The cell cycle profile of differentiated and undifferentiated hWJMSCs was investigated through cell cycle analysis.

    RESULTS: RECA exerted effects on both proliferation and neural differentiation of hWJMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. RECA reduced the proliferation of hWJMSCs and was cytotoxic to cells above 1600 μg/ml, with IC50 value, 1875 ± 55.67 μg/ml. In parallel with the reduction in cell viability, cell enlargement was also observed at the end of the induction. Cells treated with RECA alone had more obvious protein expression of the neural markers compared to the other groups. Meanwhile, gene expression of the aforementioned markers was detected at low levels across the experimental groups. The supplementation of hWJMSCs with RECA did not change the normal life cycle of the cells.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although RECA reduced the proliferation of hWJMSCs, a low dose of RECA (400 μg/ml), alone or in combination of neurotrophic factors (NF + RECA 400 μg/ml), has the potential to differentiate hWJMSCs into Schwann cells and other neural lineage cells.

  6. Imran SAM, Yazid MD, Cui W, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Sep 14;22(18).
    PMID: 34576063 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22189900
    Telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2) has a well-known function at the telomeres, which acts to protect the telomere end from being recognized as a DNA break or from unwanted recombination. This protection mechanism prevents DNA instability from mutation and subsequent severe diseases caused by the changes in DNA, such as cancer. Since TRF2 actively inhibits the DNA damage response factors from recognizing the telomere end as a DNA break, many more studies have also shown its interactions outside of the telomeres. However, very little has been discovered on the mechanisms involved in these interactions. This review aims to discuss the known function of TRF2 and its interaction with the DNA damage response (DDR) factors at both telomeric and non-telomeric regions. In this review, we will summarize recent progress and findings on the interactions between TRF2 and DDR factors at telomeres and outside of telomeres.
  7. Hasmad HN, Bt Hj Idrus R, Sulaiman N, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2022 Feb 03;23(3).
    PMID: 35163664 DOI: 10.3390/ijms23031743
    Cardiac patch implantation helps maximize the paracrine function of grafted cells and serves as a reservoir of soluble proangiogenic factors required for the neovascularization of infarcted hearts. We have previously fabricated a cardiac patch, EF-HAM, composed of a human amniotic membrane (HAM) coated with aligned PLGA electrospun fibers (EF). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the biocompatibility and angiogenic effects of EF-HAM scaffolds with varying fiber thicknesses on the paracrine behavior of skeletal muscle cells (SkM). Conditioned media (CM) obtained from SkM-seeded HAM and EF-HAM scaffolds were subjected to multiplex analysis of angiogenic factors and tested on HUVECs for endothelial cell viability, migration, and tube formation analyses. All three different groups of EF-HAM scaffolds demonstrated excellent biocompatibility with SkM. CM derived from SkM-seeded EF-HAM 7 min scaffolds contained significantly elevated levels of proangiogenic factors, including angiopoietin-1, IL-8, and VEGF-C compared to plain CM, which was obtained from SkM cultured on the plain surface. CM obtained from all SkM-seeded EF-HAM scaffolds significantly increased the viability of HUVECs compared to plain CM after five days of culture. However, only EF-HAM 7 min CM induced a higher migration capacity in HUVECs and formed a longer and more elaborate capillary-like network on Matrigel compared with plain CM. Surface roughness and wettability of EF-HAM 7 min scaffolds might have influenced the proportion of skeletal myoblasts and fibroblasts growing on the scaffolds and subsequently potentiated the angiogenic paracrine function of SkM. This study demonstrated the angioinductive properties of EF-HAM composite scaffold and its potential applications in the repair and regeneration of ischemic tissues.
  8. Razali RA, Vijakumaran U, Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y
    Pharmaceutics, 2023 May 18;15(5).
    PMID: 37242776 DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics15051534
    Numerous biomaterials have been developed over the years to enhance the outcomes of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. These products are specifically designed to prevent postoperative bleeding, optimize wound healing, and reduce inflammation. However, there is no singular material on the market that can be deemed the optimal material for the nasal pack. We systematically reviewed the available evidence to assess the functional biomaterial efficacy after ESS in prospective studies. The search was performed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 31 articles were identified in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB 2) was used to assess each study's risk of bias. The studies were critically analyzed and categorized into types of biomaterial and functional properties, according to synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) guidelines. Despite the heterogeneity between studies, it was observed that chitosan, gelatin, hyaluronic acid, and starch-derived materials exhibit better endoscopic scores and significant potential for use in nasal packing. The published data support the idea that applying a nasal pack after ESS improves wound healing and patient-reported outcomes.
  9. Subramaniam T, Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y, Law JX
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Jun 17;22(12).
    PMID: 34204292 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22126486
    Skin injury is quite common, and the wound healing is a complex process involving many types of cells, the extracellular matrix, and soluble mediators. Cell differentiation, migration, and proliferation are essential in restoring the integrity of the injured tissue. Despite the advances in science and technology, we have yet to find the ideal dressing that can support the healing of cutaneous wounds effectively, particularly for difficult-to-heal chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, bed sores, and venous ulcers. Hence, there is a need to identify and incorporate new ideas and methods to design a more effective dressing that not only can expedite wound healing but also can reduce scarring. Calcium has been identified to influence the wound healing process. This review explores the functions and roles of calcium in skin regeneration and reconstruction during would healing. Furthermore, this review also investigates the possibility of incorporating calcium into scaffolds and examines how it modulates cutaneous wound healing. In summary, the preliminary findings are promising. However, some challenges remain to be addressed before calcium can be used for cutaneous wound healing in clinical settings.
  10. Rabiatul AR, Lokanathan Y, Rohaina CM, Chowdhury SR, Aminuddin BS, Ruszymah BH
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2015;26(17):1297-311.
    PMID: 26335265 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2015.1088183
    Scaffold design is an important aspect of in vitro model development. In this study, nanoscaffold surface modification, namely UV radiation and genipin cross-linking to immobilize collagen on the surface of electrospun poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofiber sheet was investigated. Samples were divided into four groups; PMMA nanofibers (PMMA), collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMACOL), genipin cross-linked collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAGEN), and UV-irradiated collagen-coated PMMA nanofibers (PMMAUV). 6 h of UV radiation significantly reduced the hydrophobicity of PMMA nanofibers from (131.88° ± 1.33°) to (110.04° ± 0.27°) (p 
  11. Ubaidah MA, Chua KH, Ami M, Zainal A, Saim A, Saim L, et al.
    J Int Adv Otol, 2015 Apr;11(1):23-9.
    PMID: 26223713 DOI: 10.5152/iao.2015.539
    Loss of auditory hair cells is a major cause of deafness. The presence of auditory progenitor cells in the inner ear raises the hope for mammalian inner ear cell regeneration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of growth factor supplementations, namely a combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and beta (β)-fibroblast growth factor (βFGF), on the expression of hair cell-specific markers by cells harvested from the cochlear membrane. This would provide an insight into the capability of these cells to differentiate into hair cells.
  12. Maarof M, Mh Busra MF, Lokanathan Y, Bt Hj Idrus R, Rajab NF, Chowdhury SR
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):144-161.
    PMID: 30547385 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00612-z
    Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Thus, we aimed to develop an acellular three-dimensional (3D) skin patch with dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) and collagen hydrogel for immediate treatment of skin loss. Fibroblasts from human skin samples were cultured using serum-free keratinocyte-specific media (KM1 or KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively. The acellular 3D skin patch was soft, semi-solid, and translucent. Collagen mixed with DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 showed higher protein release compared to collagen plus DFCM-FM. In vitro and in vivo testing revealed that DFCM and collagen hydrogel did not induce an immune response. The implantation of the 3D skin patch with or without DFCM on the dorsum of BALB/c mice demonstrated a significantly faster healing rate compared to the no-treatment group 7 days after implantation, and all groups had complete re-epithelialization at day 17. Histological analysis confirmed the structure and integrity of the regenerated skin, with positive expression of cytokeratin 14 and type I collagen in the epidermal and dermal layer, respectively. These findings highlight the possibility of using fibroblast secretory factors together with collagen hydrogel in an acellular 3D skin patch that can be used allogeneically for immediate treatment of full-thickness skin loss.
  13. Selvarajah J, Mh Busra MF, Bin Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    J Biomater Sci Polym Ed, 2020 09;31(13):1722-1740.
    PMID: 32458725 DOI: 10.1080/09205063.2020.1774841
    Nasal injury following nasal surgery is an adverse consequence, and prompt treatment should be initiated. Nasal packing, either non-absorbable or absorbable, are commonly used after nasal surgery to prevent bleeding and promote wound healing. In the current study, a novel gelatine sponge crosslinked with genipin was evaluated for suitability to be used as nasal packing and compared to one of the frequently used commercial nasal packing made up of polyurethane. Gelatine at 7% and 10% (w/v) concentration were crosslinked with varying concentrations of genipin, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.2% (v/v). The gelatine sponges were further characterised by its water uptake ability, biodegradation, water vapour transmission rate, porosity, contact angle, chemical composition, crosslinking degree, and mechanical properties. The gelatine sponges absorbed five times more water than their dry weight and were degraded within five days. The water vapour transmission rate of the gelatine sponges was 1187.7 ± 430.2 g/(m-2 day) for 7% gelatine and 779.4 ± 375.5 g/(m-2 day) for 10% gelatine. Crosslinking of gelatine with genipin resulted in lower porosity and did not affect the wettability of gelatine sponge (contact angle: 95.3 ± 12.1° for 7% gelatine and 88.4 ± 7.2° for 10% gelatine). In terms of biodegradability, the gelatine sponges took 24-48 h to degrade completely. Genipin crosslinking improved the degradation resistance and mechanical strength of gelatine sponge. The physical and chemical properties of the gelatine sponge, i.e. biodegradability and mechanical durability, support its potential as nasal packing.
  14. Maarof M, Mohd Nadzir M, Sin Mun L, Fauzi MB, Chowdhury SR, Idrus RBH, et al.
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 08;13(4).
    PMID: 33567703 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040508
    The current strategy for rapid wound healing treatment involves combining a biomaterial and cell-secreted proteins or biomolecules. This study was aimed at characterizing 3-dimensional (3D) collagen hydrogels fortified with dermal fibroblast-conditioned medium (DFCM) as a readily available acellular skin substitute. Confluent fibroblasts were cultured with serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (KM1 and KM2) and fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to obtain DFCM. Subsequently, the DFCM was mixed with collagen (Col) hydrogel and chondroitin-4-sulphate (C4S) to fabricate 3D constructs termed Col/C4S/DFCM-KM1, Col/C4S/DFCM-KM2, and Col/C4S/DFCM-FM. The constructs successfully formed soft, semi-solid and translucent hydrogels within 1 h of incubation at 37 °C with strength of <2.5 Newton (N). The Col/C4S/DFCM demonstrated significantly lower turbidity compared to the control groups. The Col/C4S/DFCM also showed a lower percentage of porosity (KM1: 35.15 ± 9.76%; KM2: 6.85 ± 1.60%; FM: 14.14 ± 7.65%) compared to the Col (105.14 ± 11.87%) and Col/C4S (143.44 ± 27.72%) constructs. There were no changes in both swelling and degradation among all constructs. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that all groups consisted of oxygen-hydrogen bonds (O-H) and amide I, II, and III. In conclusion, the Col/C4S/DFCM constructs maintain the characteristics of native collagen and can synergistically deliver essential biomolecules for future use in skin therapeutic applications.
  15. Lokanathan Y, Omar N, Ahmad Puzi NN, Saim A, Hj Idrus R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 Jan;23(1):4-14.
    PMID: 27540320 MyJurnal
    Centella asiatica, locally well known in Malaysia as pegaga, is a traditional herb that has been used widely in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine, and in the traditional medicine of other Southeast Asian countries including Malaysia. Although consumption of the plant is indicated for various illnesses, its potential neuroprotective properties have been well studied and documented. In addition to past studies, recent studies also discovered and/or reconfirmed that C. asiatica acts as an antioxidant, reducing the effect of oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. At the in vitro level, C. asiatica promotes dendrite arborisation and elongation, and also protects the neurons from apoptosis. In vivo studies have shown that the whole extract and also individual compounds of C. asiatica have a protective effect against various neurological diseases. Most of the in vivo studies on neuroprotective effects have focused on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, learning and memory enhancement, neurotoxicity and other mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, and epilepsy. Recent studies have embarked on finding the molecular mechanism of neuroprotection by C. asiatica extract. However, the capability of C. asiatica in enhancing neuroregeneration has not been studied much and is limited to the regeneration of crushed sciatic nerves and protection from neuronal injury in hypoxia conditions. More studies are still needed to identify the compounds and the mechanism of action of C. asiatica that are particularly involved in neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Furthermore, the extraction method, biochemical profile and dosage information of the C. asiatica extract need to be standardised to enhance the economic value of this traditional herb and to accelerate the entry of C. asiatica extracts into modern medicine.
  16. Busra FM, Lokanathan Y, Nadzir MM, Saim A, Idrus RBH, Chowdhury SR
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):33-43.
    PMID: 28894402 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.5
    INTRODUCTION: Collagen type I is widely used as a biomaterial for tissue-engineered substitutes. This study aimed to fabricate different three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using ovine tendon collagen type I (OTC-I), and compare the attachment, proliferation and morphological features of human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) on the scaffolds.

    METHODS: This study was conducted between the years 2014 to 2016 at the Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre. OTC-I was extracted from ovine tendon, and fabricated into 3D scaffolds in the form of sponge, hydrogel and film. A polystyrene surface coated with OTC-I was used as the 2D culture condition. Genipin was used to crosslink the OTC-I. A non-coated polystyrene surface was used as a control. The mechanical strength of OTC-I scaffolds was evaluated. Attachment, proliferation and morphological features of HDF were assessed and compared between conditions.

    RESULTS: The mechanical strength of OTC-I sponge was significantly higher than that of the other scaffolds. OTC-I scaffolds and the coated surface significantly enhanced HDF attachment and proliferation compared to the control, but no differences were observed between the scaffolds and coated surface. In contrast, the morphological features of HDF including spreading, filopodia, lamellipodia and actin cytoskeletal formation differed between conditions.

    CONCLUSION: OTC-I can be moulded into various scaffolds that are biocompatible and thus could be suitable as scaffolds for developing tissue substitutes for clinical applications and in vitro tissue models. However, further study is required to determine the effect of morphological properties on the functional and molecular properties of HDF.

  17. Maarof M, Chowdhury SR, Saim A, Bt Hj Idrus R, Lokanathan Y
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Apr 22;21(8).
    PMID: 32331278 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21082929
    Fibroblasts secrete many essential factors that can be collected from fibroblast culture medium, which is termed dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM). Fibroblasts isolated from human skin samples were cultured in vitro using the serum-free keratinocyte-specific medium (Epilife (KM1), or define keratinocytes serum-free medium, DKSFM (KM2) and serum-free fibroblast-specific medium (FM) to collect DFCM-KM1, DFCM-KM2, and DFCM-FM, respectively). We characterised and evaluated the effects of 100-1600 µg/mL DFCM on keratinocytes based on attachment, proliferation, migration and gene expression. Supplementation with 200-400 µg/mL keratinocyte-specific DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2 enhanced the attachment, proliferation and migration of sub-confluent keratinocytes, whereas 200-1600 µg/mL DFCM-FM significantly increased the healing rate in the wound healing assay, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM was suitable to enhance keratinocyte attachment and proliferation. A real-time (RT2) profiler polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array showed that 42 genes in the DFCM groups had similar fold regulation compared to the control group and most of the genes were directly involved in wound healing. In conclusion, in vitro keratinocyte re-epithelialisation is supported by the fibroblast-secreted proteins in 200-400 µg/mL DFCM-KM1 and DFCM-KM2, and 400-800 µg/mL DFCM-FM, which could be useful for treating skin injuries.
  18. Hussin HM, Lawi MM, Haflah NHM, Kassim AYM, Idrus RBH, Lokanathan Y
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2020 04;17(2):237-251.
    PMID: 32036567 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-019-00235-6
    BACKGROUND: Centella asiatica (L.) is a plant with neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties; however, its effects on the neurodifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and on peripheral nerve injury are poorly explored. This study aimed to investigate the effects of C. asiatica (L.)-neurodifferentiated MSCs on the regeneration of peripheral nerve in a critical-size defect animal model.

    METHODS: Nerve conduit was developed using decellularised artery seeded with C. asiatica-neurodifferentiated MSCs (ndMSCs). A 1.5 cm sciatic nerve injury in Sprague-Dawley rat was bridged with reversed autograft (RA) (n = 3, the gold standard treatment), MSC-seeded conduit (MC) (n = 4) or ndMSC-seeded conduit (NC) (n = 4). Pinch test and nerve conduction study were performed every 2 weeks for a total of 12 weeks. At the 12th week, the conduits were examined by histology and transmission electron microscopy.

    RESULTS: NC implantation improved the rats' sensory sensitivity in a similar manner to RA. At the 12th week, nerve conduction velocity was the highest in NC compared with that of RA and MC. Axonal regeneration was enhanced in NC and RA as shown by the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP). The average number of myelinated axons was significantly higher in NC than in MC but significantly lower than in RA. The myelin sheath thickness was higher in NC than in MC but lower than in RA.

    CONCLUSION: NC showed promising effects on nerve regeneration and functional restoration similar to those of RA. These findings revealed the neuroregenerative properties of C. asiatica and its potential as an alternative strategy for the treatment of critical size nerve defect.

  19. Imran SAM, Yazid MD, Idrus RBH, Maarof M, Nordin A, Razali RA, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2021 Apr 09;22(8).
    PMID: 33918710 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22083888
    Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) was first discovered during the transition of cells from the primitive streak during embryogenesis in chicks. It was later discovered that EMT holds greater potential in areas other than the early development of cells and tissues since it also plays a vital role in wound healing and cancer development. EMT can be classified into three types based on physiological functions. EMT type 3, which involves neoplastic development and metastasis, has been the most thoroughly explored. As EMT is often found in cancer stem cells, most research has focused on its association with other factors involving cancer progression, including telomeres. However, as telomeres are also mainly involved in aging, any possible interaction between the two would be worth noting, especially as telomere dysfunction also contributes to cancer and other age-related diseases. Ascertaining the balance between degeneration and cancer development is crucial in cell biology, in which telomeres function as a key regulator between the two extremes. The essential roles that EMT and telomere protection have in aging reveal a potential mutual interaction that has not yet been explored, and which could be used in disease therapy. In this review, the known functions of EMT and telomeres in aging are discussed and their potential interaction in age-related diseases is highlighted.
  20. Wan-Chiew N, Baki MM, Fauzi MB, Lokanathan Y, Azman M
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Aug 06;13(16).
    PMID: 34451158 DOI: 10.3390/polym13162619
    Vocal fold injection is a preferred treatment in glottic insufficiency because it is relatively quick and cost-saving. However, researchers have yet to discover the ideal biomaterial with properties suitable for human vocal fold application. The current systematic review employing PRISMA guidelines summarizes and discusses the available evidence related to outcome measures used to characterize novel biomaterials in the development phase. The literature search of related articles published within January 2010 to March 2021 was conducted using Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), Google Scholar and PubMed databases. The search identified 6240 potentially relevant records, which were screened and appraised to include 15 relevant articles based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The current study highlights that the characterization methods were inconsistent throughout the different studies. While rheologic outcome measures (viscosity, elasticity and shear) were most widely utilized, there appear to be no target or reference values. Outcome measures such as cellular response and biodegradation should be prioritized as they could mitigate the clinical drawbacks of currently available biomaterials. The review suggests future studies to prioritize characterization of the viscoelasticity (to improve voice outcomes), inflammatory response (to reduce side effects) and biodegradation (to improve longevity) profiles of newly developed biomaterials.
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