Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 55 in total

  1. Khosravi Y, Dieye Y, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e112214.
    PMID: 25386948 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112214
    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major gastric pathogen that has been associated with humans for more than 60,000 years. H. pylori causes different gastric diseases including dyspepsia, ulcers and gastric cancers. Disease development depends on several factors including the infecting H. pylori strain, environmental and host factors. Another factor that might influence H. pylori colonization and diseases is the gastric microbiota that was overlooked for long because of the belief that human stomach was a hostile environment that cannot support microbial life. Once established, H. pylori mainly resides in the gastric mucosa and interacts with the resident bacteria. How these interactions impact on H. pylori-caused diseases has been poorly studied in human. In this study, we analyzed the interactions between H. pylori and two bacteria, Streptococcus mitis and Lactobacillus fermentum that are present in the stomach of both healthy and gastric disease human patients. We have found that S. mitis produced and released one or more diffusible factors that induce growth inhibition and coccoid conversion of H. pylori cells. In contrast, both H. pylori and L. fermentum secreted factors that promote survival of S. mitis during the stationary phase of growth. Using a metabolomics approach, we identified compounds that might be responsible for the conversion of H. pylori from spiral to coccoid cells. This study provide evidences that gastric bacteria influences H. pylori physiology and therefore possibly the diseases this bacterium causes.
  2. Ahmed N, Loke MF, Kumar N, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2013 Sep;18 Suppl 1:1-4.
    PMID: 24011237 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12069
    We describe features of key additions to the existing pool of publicly accessible Helicobacter pylori genome sequences and sequences of Helicobacter pylori phages from April 2012 to March 2013. In addition, important studies involving H. pylori genomes, especially those pertaining to genomic diversity, disease outcome, H. pylori population structure and evolution are reviewed. High degree of homologous recombination contributes to increased diversity of H. pylori genomes. New methods of resolving H. pylori population structure to an ultrafine level led to the proposal of new subpopulations. As the magnitude of diversity in the H. pylori gene pool becomes more and more clear, geographic and demographic factors should be brought to analysis while identifying disease-specific biomarkers and defining new virulence mechanisms.
  3. Lee WC, Goh KL, Loke MF, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2017 Feb;22(1).
    PMID: 27258354 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12321
    Helicobacter pylori colonizes almost half of the human population worldwide. H. pylori strains are genetically diverse, and the specific genotypes are associated with various clinical manifestations including gastric adenocarcinoma, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). However, our current knowledge of the H. pylori metabolism is limited. To understand the metabolic differences among H. pylori strains, we investigated four Malaysian H. pylori clinical strains, which had been previously sequenced, and a standard strain, H. pylori J99, at the phenotypic level.
  4. Loke MF, Ng CG, Vilashni Y, Lim J, Ho B
    Sci Rep, 2016 05 25;6:26784.
    PMID: 27222005 DOI: 10.1038/srep26784
    Helicobacter pylori may reside in the human stomach as two morphological forms: the culturable spiral form and the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) coccoid form. This bacterium transforms from spiral to coccoid under in vitro suboptimal conditions. However, both spiral and coccoid have demonstrated its infectivity in laboratory animals, suggesting that coccoid may potentially be involved in the transmission of H. pylori. To determine the relevance of the coccoid form in viability and infectivity, we compared the protein profiles of H. pylori coccoids obtained from prolonged (3-month-old) culture with that of 3-day-old spirals of two H. pylori standard strains using SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical mass spectra)-based approach. The protein profiles reveal that the coccoids retained basal level of metabolic proteins and also high level of proteins that participate in DNA replication, cell division and biosynthesis demonstrating that coccoids are viable. Most interestingly, these data also indicate that the H. pylori coccoids possess higher level of proteins that are involved in virulence and carcinogenesis than their spiral counterparts. Taken together, these findings have important implications in the understanding on the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal diseases, as well as the probable transmission mode of this bacterium.
  5. Khosravi Y, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:1462.
    PMID: 27695448
    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant species of the human gastric microbiota and is present in the stomach of more than half of the human population worldwide. Colonization by H. pylori causes persistent inflammatory response and H. pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest singular risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop malignancy. Besides H. pylori, other microbial species have also been shown to be related to gastritis. We previously reported that interspecies microbial interaction between H. pylori and S. mitis resulted in alteration of their metabolite profiles. In this study, we followed up by analyzing the changing protein profiles of H. pylori and S. mitis by LC/Q-TOF mass spectrometry to understand the different response of the two bacterial species in a multi-species micro-environment. Differentially-expressed proteins in mono- and co-cultures could be mapped into 18 biological pathways. The number of proteins involve in RNA degradation, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis were increased in co-cultured H. pylori. On the other hand, fewer proteins involve in citrate cycle, glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, translation, metabolism, and cell signaling were detected in co-cultured H. pylori. This is consistent with our previous observation that in the presence of S. mitis, H. pylori was transformed to coccoid. Interestingly, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), a major enzyme used in glycolysis, was found in abundance in co-cultured S. mitis and this may have enhanced the survival of S. mitis in the multi-species microenvironment. On the other hand, thioredoxin (TrxA) and other redox-regulating enzymes of H. pylori were less abundant in co-culture possibly suggesting reduced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays an important role in tissue damage and carcinogenesis. Using the in vitro co-culture model, this study emphasized the possibility that pathogen-microbiota interaction may have a protective effect against H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis.
  6. Péré-Védrenne C, Flahou B, Loke MF, Ménard A, Vadivelu J
    Helicobacter, 2017 Sep;22 Suppl 1.
    PMID: 28891140 DOI: 10.1111/hel.12407
    The current article is a review of the most important and relevant literature published in 2016 and early 2017 on non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter infections in humans and animals, as well as interactions between H. pylori and the microbiota of the stomach and other organs. Some putative new Helicobacter species were identified in sea otters, wild boars, dogs, and mice. Many cases of Helicobacter fennelliae and Helicobacter cinaedi infection have been reported in humans, mostly in immunocompromised patients. Mouse models have been used frequently as a model to investigate human Helicobacter infection, although some studies have investigated the pathogenesis of Helicobacters in their natural host, as was the case for Helicobacter suis infection in pigs. Our understanding of both the gastric and gut microbiome has made progress and, in addition, interactions between H. pylori and the microbiome were demonstrated to go beyond the stomach. Some new approaches of preventing Helicobacter infection or its related pathologies were investigated and, in this respect, the probiotic properties of Saccharomyces, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. were confirmed.
  7. Munusamy K, Loke MF, Vadivelu J, Tay ST
    Microb Pathog, 2021 Mar;152:104614.
    PMID: 33202254 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104614
    Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. The ability to form biofilm is essential for Candida albicans pathogenesis and drug resistance. In this study, the planktonic cell and biofilm proteomes of C. albicans SC5314 strain analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were compared. In total, 280 and 449 proteins are annotated from the planktonic cell and biofilm proteomes, respectively. The biofilm proteome demonstrated significantly higher proportion of proteins associated with the endomembrane system, mitochondrion and cytoplasm than planktonic proteome. Among proteins detected, 143 and 207 biological processes are annotated, of which, 38 and 102 are specific to the planktonic cell and biofilm proteomes, respectively, while 105 are common biological processes. The specific biological processes of C. albicans planktonic cell proteome are associated with cell polarity, energy metabolism and nucleotide (purine) metabolism, oxido-reduction coenzyme metabolic process, monosaccharide and amino acid (methionine) biosynthesis, regulation of anatomical structure morphogenesis and cell cycling, and single organism reproduction. Meanwhile, regulation of cellular macromolecule biosynthesis and metabolism, transcription and gene expression are major biological processes specifically associated with C. albicans biofilm proteome. Biosynthesis of leucine, isoleucine, and thiocysteine are highlighted as planktonic-related pathways, whereas folate metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis of amino acids (lysine, serine and glycine) are highlighted as biofilm-related pathways. In summary, LC-MS-based proteomic analysis reveals different adaptative strategies of C. albicans via specific biological and metabolic processes for planktonic cell and biofilm lifestyles. The mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD007830 (for biofilm proteome) and PXD007831 (for planktonic cell proteome).
  8. Haseeb A, Ajit Singh V, Teh CSJ, Loke MF
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2019 5 30;27(2):2309499019850324.
    PMID: 31138005 DOI: 10.1177/2309499019850324
    BACKGROUND: Ceftaroline is a cephalosporin that is effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using ceftaroline-loaded Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as antibiotic cement against MRSA versus vancomycin-loaded PMMA in an in vitro setting.

    METHODS: PMMA pellets were prepared with three separate concentrations of each of the two antibiotics tested. They were tested to determine the effect of increasing concentration of antibiotics on the biomechanical properties of PMMA and antibiotic activity by measuring the zone of inhibition and broth elution assay.

    RESULTS: Ceftaroline PMMA at 3 wt%, three-point bending was 37.17 ± 0.51 N ( p < 0.001) and axial loading was 41.95 N ± 0.51 ( p < 0.001). At 5-wt% vancomycin-PMMA, three-point bending was 41.65 ± 0.79 N ( p = 0.02) and axial loading was 49.49 ± 2.21 N ( p = 0.01). Stiffness of ceftroline-loaded PMMA in low and medium concentration was significantly higher than the vancomycin. The zone of inhibition for ceftaroline was higher than vancomycin. Ceftaroline at 3 wt% eluted up to 6 weeks (0.3 ± 0.1 μg/ml) above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and vancomycin at 2.5 wt% eluted up to 3 weeks, same as MIC, that is, 0.5 ± 0.0 μg/ml.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ceftaroline, loaded at similar concentrations as vancomycin into PMMA, is a more potent alternative based on its more favourable bioactivity and elution properties, while having a lesser effect on the mechanical properties of the cement. The use of 3-wt% ceftaroline as antibiotic laden PMMA against MRSA is recommended. It should be noted that this was an in vitro study and to determine the clinical efficacy would need prospective, controlled and randomized studies.

  9. Chee CS, Chang KM, Loke MF, Angela Loo VP, Subrayan V
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2022.
    PMID: 27280065 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2022
    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of our study was to characterize the human salivary proteome and determine the changes in protein expression in two different stages of diabetic retinopathy with type-2 diabetes mellitus: (1) with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and (2) with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Type-2 diabetes mellitus without diabetic retinopathy (XDR) was designated as control.
    METHOD: In this study, 45 saliva samples were collected (15 samples from XDR control group, 15 samples from NPDR disease group and 15 samples from PDR disease group). Salivary proteins were extracted, reduced, alkylated, trypsin digested and labeled with an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) before being analyzed by an Orbitrap fusion tribrid mass spectrometer. Protein annotation, fold change calculation and statistical analysis were interrogated by Proteome Discoverer. Biological pathway analysis was performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD003723-PX003725.
    RESULTS: A total of 315 proteins were identified from the salivary proteome and 119 proteins were found to be differentially expressed. The differentially expressed proteins from the NPDR disease group and the PDR disease group were assigned to respective canonical pathways indicating increased Liver X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (LXR/RXR) activation, Farnesoid X receptor/Retinoid X receptor (FXR/RXR) activation, acute phase response signaling, sucrose degradation V and regulation of actin-based motility by Rho in the PDR disease group compared to the NPDR disease group.
    CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Progression from non-proliferative to proliferative retinopathy in type-2 diabetic patients is a complex multi-mechanism and systemic process. Furthermore, saliva was shown to be a feasible alternative sample source for diabetic retinopathy biomarkers.
  10. Khosravi Y, Dieye Y, Poh BH, Ng CG, Loke MF, Goh KL, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:610421.
    PMID: 25105162 DOI: 10.1155/2014/610421
    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.
  11. Teh X, Khosravi Y, Lee WC, Leow AH, Loke MF, Vadivelu J, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(7):e101481.
    PMID: 25003707 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101481
    Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent for diseases ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease to gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. Emergence of resistance to antibiotics possesses a challenge to the effort to eradicate H. pylori using conventional antibiotic-based therapies. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of these strains have yet to be identified and are important for understanding the evolutional pattern and selective pressure imposed by the environment.
  12. Khosravi Y, Ling LC, Loke MF, Shailendra S, Prepageran N, Vadivelu J
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 May;271(5):1227-33.
    PMID: 23880921 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-013-2637-3
    This study aims to assess the association between microbial composition, biofilm formation and chronic otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Malaysia. A total of 45 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic suppurative otitis media and 15 asymptomatic control patients were studied. Swab samples were obtained from these subjects. Samples were studied by conventional microbiological culturing, PCR-based microbial detection and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Streptococcus species were detected in subjects of both patient and control groups. Biofilm was observed in approximately half of the smear prepared from swab samples obtained from subjects of the patient group. Most of these were polymicrobial biofilms. S. aureus biofilm was most prevalent among nasal samples while H. influenzae biofilm was more common among ear and throat samples. Results from this study supported the hypothesis that chronic otorhinolaryngologic diseases may be biofilm related. Due to the presence of unculturable bacteria in biofilms present in specimens from ear, nose and throat, the use of molecular methods in combination with conventional microbiological culturing has demonstrated an improvement in the detection of bacteria from such specimens in this study.
  13. Khosravi Y, Loke MF, Chua EG, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:654939.
    PMID: 22792048 DOI: 10.1100/2012/654939
    Carbapenems are the primary choice of treatment for severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. However, the emergence of carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) is of global concern. In this study, 90 imipenem- (IPM- or IP-) resistant P. aeruginosa (IRPA) isolates, including 32 previously tested positive and genotyped for MBL genes by PCR, were subjected to double-disk synergy test (DDST), combined disk test (CDT), and imipenem/imipenem-inhibitor (IP/IPI) E-test to evaluate their MBLs detection capability. All three methods were shown to have a sensitivity of 100%. However, DDST was the most specific of the three (96.6%), followed by IP/IPI E-test interpreted based on the single criteria of IP/IPI ≥8 as positive (62.1%), and CDT was the least specific (43.1%). Based on the data from this evaluation, we propose that only IRPA with IP MIC >16 μg/mL and IP/IPI ≥8 by IP/IPI E-test should be taken as positive for MBL activity. With the new dual interpretation criteria, the MBL IP/IPI E-test was shown to achieve 100% sensitivity as well as specificity for the IRPA in this study. Therefore, the IP/IPI E-test is a viable alternative phenotypic assay to detect MBL production in IRPA in our population in circumstances where PCR detection is not a feasible option.
  14. Khosravi Y, Loke MF, Chua EG, Tay ST, Vadivelu J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2016;2016:9562039.
    PMID: 27314061
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1100/2012/654939.].
  15. Tan GM, Looi CY, Fernandez KC, Vadivelu J, Loke MF, Wong WF
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:11046.
    PMID: 26078204 DOI: 10.1038/srep11046
    Helicobacter pylori at multiplicity of infection (MOI ≥ 50) have been shown to cause apoptosis in RAW264.7 monocytic macrophage cells. Because chronic gastric infection by H. pylori results in the persistence of macrophages in the host's gut, it is likely that H. pylori is present at low to moderate, rather than high numbers in the infected host. At present, the effect of low-MOI H. pylori infection on macrophage has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptional regulation of H. pylori-infected RAW264.7 cells at MOI 1, 5 and 10 in the absence of cellular apoptosis. Microarray data revealed up- and down-regulation of 1341 and 1591 genes, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for DNA replication and cell cycle-associated molecules, including Aurora-B kinase (AurkB) were down-regulated. Immunoblot analysis verified the decreased expression of AurkB and downstream phosphorylation of Cdk1 caused by H. pylori infection. Consistently, we observed that H. pylori infection inhibited cell proliferation and progression through the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints. In summary, we suggest that H. pylori disrupts expression of cell cycle-associated genes, thereby impeding proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, and such disruption may be an immunoevasive strategy utilized by H. pylori.
  16. Ng CG, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J, Ho B
    Food Microbiol., 2017 Apr;62:68-76.
    PMID: 27889168 DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2016.10.010
    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment.
  17. Leow AH, Azmi AN, Loke MF, Vadivelu J, Graham DY, Goh KL
    J Dig Dis, 2018 Nov;19(11):674-677.
    PMID: 30307122 DOI: 10.1111/1751-2980.12679
    OBJECTIVE: The 7-day standard triple therapy (STT) gives unacceptablly low eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). We aimed to examine whether extending STT from 7 days to 14 days or adding a bismuth compound to a 7-day STT would result in better eradication rates.

    METHODS: H. pylori-positive patients were assigned to Group A (7-day STT; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, for 7 days), Group B (7-day STT with bismuth; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and bismuth subcitrate 240 mg twice daily, for 7 days) and Group C (14-day STT; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 14 days). Eradication was tested using 13 C-UBT at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy.

    RESULTS: A total of 364 patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates were 79.3% (96/121; 95% confidence interval [CI] 71.3-85.6%) for 7-day STT, 81.7% (98/120; 95% CI 73.8-87.6%) for 7-day STT with bismuth, and 88.6% (109/123; 95% CI 81.8-93.1%) for 14-day STT, respectively. Statistical significance was achieved between the 7-day and the 14-day STT treatment (P = 0.048).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adding bismuth to the 7-day STT did not result in an increase in the eradication rate. Extending the STT to 14 days, however, achieved a significantly higher eradication rate. Nevertheless, this did not achieve the targeted 90% eradication rate on intention-to-treat analysis.

  18. Wong EHJ, Ng CG, Goh KL, Vadivelu J, Ho B, Loke MF
    Sci Rep, 2018 01 23;8(1):1409.
    PMID: 29362474 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-19697-0
    The biofilm-forming-capability of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be among factors influencing treatment outcome. However, H. pylori exhibit strain-to-strain differences in biofilm-forming-capability. Metabolomics enables the inference of spatial and temporal changes of metabolic activities during biofilm formation. Our study seeks to examine the differences in metabolome of low and high biofilm-formers using the metabolomic approach. Eight H. pylori clinical strains with different biofilm-forming-capability were chosen for metabolomic analysis. Bacterial metabolites were extracted using Bligh and Dyer method and analyzed by Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. The data was processed and analyzed using the MassHunter Qualitative Analysis and the Mass Profiler Professional programs. Based on global metabolomic profiles, low and high biofilm-formers presented as two distinctly different groups. Interestingly, low-biofilm-formers produced more metabolites than high-biofilm-formers. Further analysis was performed to identify metabolites that differed significantly (p-value 
  19. Sidahmed HMA, Vadivelu J, Loke MF, Arbab IA, Abdul B, Sukari MA, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2019 Mar 01;55:31-39.
    PMID: 30668441 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.06.036
    BACKGROUND: Clausena excavata Burm.f. (Rutaceae) has been used for the treatment of stomach disorders including peptic ulcer.

    PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate dentatin isolated from C. excavata Burm.f., for anti-ulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats.

    METHODS: Gastric acid output, ulcer index, serum profile, histological evaluation using Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid Schiff base stainings and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) were all investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, radical scavenging, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity were investigated.

    RESULTS: Dentatin showed anti-secretory activity against the pylorus ligature model and protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol ulceration, as revealed by the improved macroscopic and histological appearance. Dentatin significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of PGE2 GSH and SOD. Dentatin inhibited the lipid peroxidation as revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, dentatin up-regulated HSP70 expression. However, dentatin showed insignificant anti-H. pylori activity.

    CONCLUSION: Dentatin possesses gastro-protective activity, which could be attributed to the anti-secretory, mucus production, anti-oxidant, and HSP70 activities.

  20. Miswan Z, Lukman SK, Abd Majid FA, Loke MF, Saidin S, Hermawan H
    Int J Pharm, 2016 Dec 30;515(1-2):460-466.
    PMID: 27793709 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2016.10.056
    Active ingredients of ginsenoside, Rg1 and Re, are able to inhibit the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and promote the growth of vascular endothelial cells. These capabilities are of interest for developing a novel drug-eluting stent to potentially solve the current problem of late-stent thrombosis and poor endotheliazation. Therefore, this study was aimed to incorporate ginsenoside into degradable coating of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Drug mixture composed of ginseng extract and 10% to 50% of PLGA (xPLGA/g) was coated on electropolished stainless steel 316L substrate by using a dip coating technique. The coating was characterized principally by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and contact angle analysis, while the drug release profile of ginsenosides Rg1 and Re was determined by using mass spectrometry at a one month immersion period. Full and homogenous coating coverage with acceptable wettability was found on the 30PLGA/g specimen. All specimens underwent initial burst release dependent on their composition. The 30PLGA/g and 50PLGA/g specimens demonstrated a controlled drug release profile having a combination of diffusion- and swelling-controlled mechanisms of PLGA. The study suggests that the 30PLGA/g coated specimen expresses an optimum composition which is seen as practicable for developing a controlled release drug-eluting stent.
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