METHODS: PMMA pellets were prepared with three separate concentrations of each of the two antibiotics tested. They were tested to determine the effect of increasing concentration of antibiotics on the biomechanical properties of PMMA and antibiotic activity by measuring the zone of inhibition and broth elution assay.
RESULTS: Ceftaroline PMMA at 3 wt%, three-point bending was 37.17 ± 0.51 N ( p < 0.001) and axial loading was 41.95 N ± 0.51 ( p < 0.001). At 5-wt% vancomycin-PMMA, three-point bending was 41.65 ± 0.79 N ( p = 0.02) and axial loading was 49.49 ± 2.21 N ( p = 0.01). Stiffness of ceftroline-loaded PMMA in low and medium concentration was significantly higher than the vancomycin. The zone of inhibition for ceftaroline was higher than vancomycin. Ceftaroline at 3 wt% eluted up to 6 weeks (0.3 ± 0.1 μg/ml) above the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and vancomycin at 2.5 wt% eluted up to 3 weeks, same as MIC, that is, 0.5 ± 0.0 μg/ml.
CONCLUSIONS: Ceftaroline, loaded at similar concentrations as vancomycin into PMMA, is a more potent alternative based on its more favourable bioactivity and elution properties, while having a lesser effect on the mechanical properties of the cement. The use of 3-wt% ceftaroline as antibiotic laden PMMA against MRSA is recommended. It should be noted that this was an in vitro study and to determine the clinical efficacy would need prospective, controlled and randomized studies.
METHODS: H. pylori-positive patients were assigned to Group A (7-day STT; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily, for 7 days), Group B (7-day STT with bismuth; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and bismuth subcitrate 240 mg twice daily, for 7 days) and Group C (14-day STT; rabeprazole 20 mg twice daily, amoxicillin 1 g twice daily, and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily for 14 days). Eradication was tested using 13 C-UBT at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy.
RESULTS: A total of 364 patients were recruited. In the intention-to-treat analysis, eradication rates were 79.3% (96/121; 95% confidence interval [CI] 71.3-85.6%) for 7-day STT, 81.7% (98/120; 95% CI 73.8-87.6%) for 7-day STT with bismuth, and 88.6% (109/123; 95% CI 81.8-93.1%) for 14-day STT, respectively. Statistical significance was achieved between the 7-day and the 14-day STT treatment (P = 0.048).
CONCLUSIONS: Adding bismuth to the 7-day STT did not result in an increase in the eradication rate. Extending the STT to 14 days, however, achieved a significantly higher eradication rate. Nevertheless, this did not achieve the targeted 90% eradication rate on intention-to-treat analysis.
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate dentatin isolated from C. excavata Burm.f., for anti-ulcer activity against ethanol ulcer model in rats.
METHODS: Gastric acid output, ulcer index, serum profile, histological evaluation using Hematoxylin and eosin (HE), periodic acid Schiff base stainings and immunohistochemical localization for heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70) were all investigated. Possible involvement of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes, radical scavenging, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity were investigated.
RESULTS: Dentatin showed anti-secretory activity against the pylorus ligature model and protected the gastric mucosa from ethanol ulceration, as revealed by the improved macroscopic and histological appearance. Dentatin significantly increased the gastric homogenate content of PGE2 GSH and SOD. Dentatin inhibited the lipid peroxidation as revealed by the reduced gastric content of malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, dentatin up-regulated HSP70 expression. However, dentatin showed insignificant anti-H. pylori activity.
CONCLUSION: Dentatin possesses gastro-protective activity, which could be attributed to the anti-secretory, mucus production, anti-oxidant, and HSP70 activities.