China is a multinational country composed of 56 ethnic groups of which the Han Chinese accounts for 91.60%. Qinghai Province is located in the northeastern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, has an area of 72.12 km2, and is the fourth largest province in China. In the present study, we investigated the genetic polymorphisms of 20 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a Qinghai Han population, as well as its genetic relationships with other populations. A total of 273 alleles were identified in 2 000 individuals at 20 loci, and the allelic frequency ranged from 0.000 2 to 0.532 7. The 20 STR loci showed a relatively high polymorphic rate in the studied group. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged 0.613 0-0.907 5 and 0.614 8-0.920 0, respectively. The combined power of discrimination, and the probability of exclusion in duo and trio cases were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 999 999 34, 0.999 996 0 and 0.999 999 996 5, respectively. Analyses of interpopulation differentiation revealed that the most significant differences were found between the Qinghai Han and Malaysian, while no significant differences were found between the Qinghai Han and Han people from Shaanxi and Jiangsu. The results of principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis and phylogenetic reconstructions also suggested the close relationships between the Qinghai Han and other two Han populations. The present results, therefore, indicated that these 20 STR loci could be used for paternity testing and individual identification in forensic applications, and may also provide information for the studies of genetic relationships between Qinghai Han and other groups.
In 2010, the Asian Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ASCI) provided recommendations for cardiac CT and MRI, and this document reflects an update of the 2010 ASCI appropriate use criteria (AUC). In 2016, the ASCI formed a new working group for revision of AUC for noninvasive cardiac imaging. A major change that we made in this document is the rating of various noninvasive tests (exercise electrocardiogram, echocardiography, positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance, and cardiac computed tomography/angiography), compared side by side for their applications in various clinical scenarios. Ninety-five clinical scenarios were developed from eight selected pre-existing guidelines and classified into four sections as follows: 1) detection of coronary artery disease, symptomatic or asymptomatic; 2) cardiac evaluation in various clinical scenarios; 3) use of imaging modality according to prior testing; and 4) evaluation of cardiac structure and function. The clinical scenarios were scored by a separate rating committee on a scale of 1-9 to designate appropriate use, uncertain use, or inappropriate use according to a modified Delphi method. Overall, the AUC ratings for CT were higher than those of previous guidelines. These new AUC provide guidance for clinicians choosing among available testing modalities for various cardiac diseases and are also unique, given that most previous AUC for noninvasive imaging include only one imaging technique. As cardiac imaging is multimodal in nature, we believe that these AUC will be more useful for clinical decision making.