Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 73 in total

  1. Makmor T, Abdillah N, Raja Noriza RA, Nurulhuda MS, Sook-Lu Y, Soo-Kun L, et al.
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(1):14-17.
    Organ shortage is a major concern in many countries. The objective of this paper was to investigate the factors that contribute to the low quantity of organ donation in Malaysia. The 1311 respondents in this survey came from the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian). The survey was based on these components: The reason for not pledging to become a donor; the reason of refusing to become a donor; and whether non-fungible incentive would influence decision. The lack of information and trust were the factors that influenced the respondents to remain apathetic to organ donation. The results denote that people are unlikely to become a donor even if non-fungible incentive were provided to them. Thus, it is important for the government bodies to evaluate the programme and strategies of public education in relation to organ donation.
  2. Makmor, T, Raja Noriza, RA, NurulHuda, MS, Sook-Lu, Y, Soo-Kun, L, Kok-Peng, N, et al.
    JUMMEC, 2016;19(1):1-6.
    Living donation is an important source for organs transplantation in Malaysia. This study aims to investigate
    the Malaysian living donors’ follow-up attendance, their preferences on medical-institutional facilities, and
    the financial circumstances pertaining to the follow-up costs
    Materials and Methods:
    Primary data were collected through a survey of 80 living donors who made their donation at the University
    of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) between 1991 and 2012.
    Out total of 178 donors, only 111 were reachable and 80 of them participated in the survey (72%). The findings
    revealed that most of the donors (71.2%) attend the follow-up regularly. Nevertheless, donors seem to neglect
    the importance of follow-up as they consider themselves healthy (28.9%) or consider the follow-up as being
    troublesome (28.9%). Most donors (67.5%) are not in favour of being treated as patients, but prefer to be
    monitored under donor registry (88.8%) and getting their health service in special clinics for donors (80%).
    The majority of the donors fund the follow-up costs themselves (32.4%), while 25% of the donors’ follow-up
    costs were funded by family members. Among those donors without income and those of low-income (84.8%
    of respondents), 60.3% believe that the follow-up costs should be borne by the government.
    Based on the findings, it is therefore suggested that the government provides all living donors with proper
    free health service through donor registry and donor clinics. Adequate care has to be given to the donors to
    pre-empt any unforeseen health complications due to the organ donation surgical procedures.
  3. Soomro RR, Ndikubwimana T, Zeng X, Lu Y, Lin L, Danquah MK
    Front Plant Sci, 2016;7:113.
    PMID: 26904075 DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2016.00113
    Even though microalgal biomass is leading the third generation biofuel research, significant effort is required to establish an economically viable commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production system. Whilst a significant amount of work has been reported on large-scale cultivation of microalgae using photo-bioreactors and pond systems, research focus on establishing high performance downstream dewatering operations for large-scale processing under optimal economy is limited. The enormous amount of energy and associated cost required for dewatering large-volume microalgal cultures has been the primary hindrance to the development of the needed biomass quantity for industrial-scale microalgal biofuels production. The extremely dilute nature of large-volume microalgal suspension and the small size of microalgae cells in suspension create a significant processing cost during dewatering and this has raised major concerns towards the economic success of commercial-scale microalgal biofuel production as an alternative to conventional petroleum fuels. This article reports an effective framework to assess the performance of different dewatering technologies as the basis to establish an effective two-stage dewatering system. Bioflocculation coupled with tangential flow filtration (TFF) emerged a promising technique with total energy input of 0.041 kWh, 0.05 kg CO2 emissions and a cost of $ 0.0043 for producing 1 kg of microalgae biomass. A streamlined process for operational analysis of two-stage microalgae dewatering technique, encompassing energy input, carbon dioxide emission, and process cost, is presented.
  4. Yeoh AE, Lu Y, Chan JY, Chan YH, Ariffin H, Kham SK, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2010 Mar;34(3):276-83.
    PMID: 19651439 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2009.07.003
    To study genetic epidemiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the Chinese and Malays, we investigated 10 polymorphisms encoding carcinogen- or folate-metabolism and transport. Sex-adjusted analysis showed NQO1 609CT significantly protects against ALL, whilst MTHFR 677CT confers marginal protection. Interestingly, we observed that NQO1 609CT and MTHFR 1298 C-allele have greater genetic impact in boys than in girls. The combination of SLC19A1 80GA heterozygosity and 3'-TYMS -6bp/-6bp homozygous deletion is associated with reduced ALL risk in Malay boys. Our study has suggested the importance of gender and race in modulating ALL susceptibility via the folate metabolic pathway.
  5. Kanesalingam R, Lu YS, Ong JJ, Wong SS, Vijayasingham P, Thayaparan T, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2003 Oct;58(4):587-93.
    PMID: 15190635
    We studied the admission criteria and first 24-hour management of 62 asthmatic patients admitted from Accident and Emergency (A&E) department of a state hospital. Data was collected prospectively over a 6-month period from the doctors' medical records with reference to recommendations of the Malaysian Thoracic Society (MTS) on management of acute asthma. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) records were present in only 14.5% of the A&E notes and 54.8% of the ward notes. Most of these readings were below 75% of predicted normal values. Over half of the patients had records on ability to speak full sentences, and respiratory and pulse rates. Based on other records on criteria for life-threatening features (including arterial blood gases), 42% of patients studied had life threatening asthma exacerbations. Most received appropriate treatment as recommended by the MTS. We conclude that while most patients were admitted and treated appropriately, medical documentation regarding acute asthma assessment were inadequate in some.
    Study site: Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  6. Goh CH, Lu YY, Lau BL, Oy J, Lee HK, Liew D, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Dec;69(6):261-7.
    PMID: 25934956 MyJurnal
    This study reviewed the epidemiology of brain and spinal tumours in Sarawak from January 2009 till December 2012. The crude incidence of brain tumour in Sarawak was 4.6 per 100,000 population/year with cumulative rate 0.5%. Meningioma was the most common brain tumour (32.3%) and followed by astrocytoma (19.4%). Only brain metastases showed a rising trend and cases were doubled in 4 years. This accounted for 15.4% and lung carcinoma was the commonest primary. Others tumour load were consistent. Primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and astrocytoma were common in paediatrics (60%). We encountered more primary spinal tumour rather than spinal metastases. Intradural schwannoma was the commonest and frequently located at thoracic level. The current healthcare system in Sarawak enables a more consolidate data collection to reflect accurate brain tumours incidence. This advantage allows subsequent future survival outcome research and benchmarking for healthcare resource planning.
  7. Mohd-Zaki Z, Bastidas-Oyanedel JR, Lu Y, Hoelzle R, Pratt S, Slater FR, et al.
    Microorganisms, 2016;4(1).
    PMID: 27681895 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms4010002
    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.
  8. Whitton C, Ho JCY, Tay Z, Rebello SA, Lu Y, Ong CN, et al.
    Nutrients, 2017 Sep 25;9(10).
    PMID: 28946670 DOI: 10.3390/nu9101059
    The assessment of diets in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings is challenging. A semi-quantitative 163-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed for the adult Singapore population, and this study aimed to assess its reproducibility and relative validity against 24-h dietary recalls (24 h DR) and biomarkers. The FFQ was administered twice within a six-month interval in 161 adults (59 Chinese, 46 Malay, and 56 Indian). Fasting plasma, overnight urine, and 24 h DR were collected after one month and five months. Intra-class correlation coefficients between the two FFQ were above 0.70 for most foods and nutrients. The median correlation coefficient between energy-adjusted deattenuated FFQ and 24 h DR nutrient intakes was 0.40 for FFQ1 and 0.39 for FFQ2, highest for calcium and iron, and lowest for energy and carbohydrates. Significant associations were observed between urinary isoflavones and soy protein intake (r = 0.46), serum carotenoids and fruit and vegetable intake (r = 0.34), plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) and fish/seafood intake (r = 0.36), and plasma odd chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and dairy fat intake (r = 0.25). Associations between plasma EPA + DHA and fish/seafood intake were consistent across ethnic groups (r = 0.28-0.49), while differences were observed for other associations. FFQ assessment of dietary intakes in modern cosmopolitan populations remains feasible for the purpose of ranking individuals' dietary exposures in epidemiological studies.
  9. Lu Y, Kham SK, Ariffin H, Oei AM, Lin HP, Tan AM, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Mar 18;110(6):1673-80.
    PMID: 24434428 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.7
    Host germline variations and their potential prognostic importance is an emerging area of interest in paediatric ALL.
  10. Lu Y, Jacobson DL, Ashworth LA, Grand RJ, Meyer AL, McNeal MM, et al.
    Am. J. Gastroenterol., 2009 Feb;104(2):444-53.
    PMID: 19174786 DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2008.120
    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently receive immunosuppressive therapy. The immune response in these patients to vaccines has not been well studied. We conducted a prospective, open label study to evaluate the serologic response to influenza vaccine in children with IBD.
  11. Lassale C, Curtis A, Abete I, van der Schouw YT, Verschuren WMM, Lu Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 02 19;8(1):3290.
    PMID: 29459661 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-21661-x
    All blood cells (white blood cells [WBC], red blood cells [RBC] and platelets) can play a role in atherosclerosis. Complete blood count (CBC) is widely available in clinical practice but utility as potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. Our aim was to assess the associations of pre-diagnostic CBC with incidence of CVD in 14,362 adults free of CVD and aged 47.8 (±11.7) years at baseline, followed-up for 11.4 years (992 incident cases). Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate HRs and 95%CI. Comparing the top (T3) to bottom (T1) tertile, increased total WBC, lymphocyte, monocyte and neutrophil counts were associated with higher CVD risk: 1.31 (1.10; 1.55), 1.20 (1.02; 1.41), 1.21 (1.03; 1.41) and 1.24 (1.05; 1.47), as well as mean corpuscular volume (MCV: 1.23 [1.04; 1.46]) and red cell distribution width (RDW: 1.22 [1.03; 1.44]). Platelets displayed an association for count values above the clinically normal range: 1.49 (1.00; 2.22). To conclude, total and differential WBC count, MCV, RDW and platelet count likely play a role in the aetiology of CVD but only WBC provide a modest improvement for the prediction of 10-year CVD risk over traditional CVD risk factors in a general population.
  12. Lou H, Lu Y, Lu D, Fu R, Wang X, Feng Q, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 2;97(1):54-66.
    PMID: 26073780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.005
    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1.
  13. Yang PL, Lu Y, Khoo CM, Leow MK, Khoo EY, Teo A, et al.
    J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 2013 Nov;98(11):4516-23.
    PMID: 24037892 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2013-2454
    Chinese men in Singapore have a higher incidence of hip fractures than Malay and Indian men. We investigated whether there were corresponding ethnic differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) in young men and whether differences in body composition influenced peak BMD.
  14. Yeoh AE, Li Z, Dong D, Lu Y, Jiang N, Trka J, et al.
    Br. J. Haematol., 2018 Jun;181(5):653-663.
    PMID: 29808917 DOI: 10.1111/bjh.15252
    Accurate risk assignment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is essential to avoid under- or over-treatment. We hypothesized that time-series gene expression profiles (GEPs) of bone marrow samples during remission-induction therapy can measure the response and be used for relapse prediction. We computed the time-series changes from diagnosis to Day 8 of remission-induction, termed Effective Response Metric (ERM-D8) and tested its ability to predict relapse against contemporary risk assignment methods, including National Cancer Institutes (NCI) criteria, genetics and minimal residual disease (MRD). ERM-D8 was trained on a set of 131 patients and validated on an independent set of 79 patients. In the independent blinded test set, unfavourable ERM-D8 patients had >3-fold increased risk of relapse compared to favourable ERM-D8 (5-year cumulative incidence of relapse 38·1% vs. 10·6%; P = 2·5 × 10-3 ). ERM-D8 remained predictive of relapse [P = 0·05; Hazard ratio 4·09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·03-16·23] after adjusting for NCI criteria, genetics, Day 8 peripheral response and Day 33 MRD. ERM-D8 improved risk stratification in favourable genetics subgroups (P = 0·01) and Day 33 MRD positive patients (P = 1·7 × 10-3 ). We conclude that our novel metric - ERM-D8 - based on time-series GEP after 8 days of remission-induction therapy can independently predict relapse even after adjusting for NCI risk, genetics, Day 8 peripheral blood response and MRD.
  15. Yew CW, Lu D, Deng L, Wong LP, Ong RT, Lu Y, et al.
    Hum. Genet., 2018 Feb;137(2):161-173.
    PMID: 29383489 DOI: 10.1007/s00439-018-1869-0
    Southeast Asia (SEA) is enriched with a complex history of peopling. Malaysia, which is located at the crossroads of SEA, has been recognized as one of the hubs for early human migration. To unravel the genomic complexity of the native inhabitants of Malaysia, we sequenced 12 samples from 3 indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia and 4 native populations from North Borneo to a high coverage of 28-37×. We showed that the Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia shared a common ancestor with the East Asians, but exhibited some level of gene flow from South Asia, while the North Borneo populations exhibited closer genetic affinity towards East Asians than the Malays. The analysis of time of divergence suggested that ancestors of Negrito were the earliest settlers in the Malay Peninsula, whom first separated from the Papuans ~ 50-33 thousand years ago (kya), followed by East Asian (~ 40-15 kya), while the divergence time frame between North Borneo and East Asia populations predates the Austronesian expansion period implies a possible pre-Neolithic colonization. Substantial Neanderthal ancestry was confirmed in our genomes, as was observed in other East Asians. However, no significant difference was observed, in terms of the proportion of Denisovan gene flow into these native inhabitants from Malaysia. Judging from the similar amount of introgression in the Southeast Asians and East Asians, our findings suggest that the Denisovan gene flow may have occurred before the divergence of these populations and that the shared similarities are likely an ancestral component.
  16. Wu YL, Lu S, Lu Y, Zhou J, Shi YK, Sriuranpong V, et al.
    J Thorac Oncol, 2018 Oct;13(10):1539-1548.
    PMID: 29966800 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtho.2018.06.012
    INTRODUCTION: The phase III randomized PROFILE 1014 study demonstrated superiority of crizotinib to first-line chemotherapy in prolonging progression-free survival (PFS) in previously untreated patients with ALK receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK)-positive advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. This result was consistent with that in the smaller subset of East Asian patients in PROFILE 1014. The subsequent study reported here prospectively evaluated crizotinib in a larger East Asian patient population.

    METHODS: In this open-label phase III study (PROFILE 1029), patients were randomized 1:1 to receive orally administered crizotinib 250 mg twice daily continuously (3-week cycles) or intravenously administered chemotherapy (pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2, or carboplatin [at a dose to produce area under the concentration-time curve of 5-6 mg·min/mL]) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. PFS confirmed by independent radiology review was the primary end point.

    RESULTS: Crizotinib significantly prolonged PFS (hazard ratio, 0.402; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.286-0.565; p < 0.001). The median PFS was 11.1 months with crizotinib and 6.8 months with chemotherapy. The objective response rate was 87.5% (95% CI: 79.6-93.2%) with crizotinib versus 45.6% (95% CI: 35.8-55.7%) with chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The most common adverse events were increased transaminase levels, diarrhea, and vision disorders with crizotinib and leukopenia, neutropenia, and anemia with chemotherapy. Significantly greater improvements from baseline in patient-reported outcomes were seen in crizotinib-treated versus chemotherapy-treated patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: First-line crizotinib significantly improved PFS, objective response rate, and patient-reported outcomes compared with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in East Asian patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC, which is similar to the results from PROFILE 1014. The safety profiles of crizotinib and chemotherapy were consistent with those previously published.

  17. Yeoh AEJ, Lu Y, Chin WHN, Chiew EKH, Lim EH, Li Z, et al.
    J. Clin. Oncol., 2018 Sep 10;36(26):2726-2735.
    PMID: 30044693 DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.3050
    Purpose Although IKZF1 deletion ( IKZF1del) confers a higher risk of relapse in childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), it is uncertain whether treatment intensification will reverse this risk and improve outcomes. The Malaysia-Singapore ALL 2010 study (MS2010) prospectively upgraded the risk assignment of patients with IKZF1del to the next highest level and added imatinib to the treatment of all patients with BCR- ABL1 fusion. Patients and Methods In total, 823 patients with B-ALL treated in the Malyasia-Singapore ALL 2003 study (MS2003; n = 507) and MS2010 (n = 316) were screened for IKZF1del using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. The impact of IKZF1del on the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was compared between the two studies. Results Patient characteristics were similar in both cohorts, including IKZF1del frequencies (59 of 410 [14.4%] v 50 of 275 [18.2%]; P = .2). In MS2003, where IKZF1del was not used in risk assignment, IKZF1del conferred a significantly higher 5-year CIR (30.4% v 8.1%; P = 8.7 × 10-7), particularly in the intermediate-risk group who lacked high-risk features (25.0% v 7.5%; P = .01). For patients with BCR-ABL1-negative disease, IKZF1del conferred a higher 5-year CIR (20.5% v 8.0%; P = .01). In MS2010, the 5-year CIR of patients with IKZF1del significantly decreased to 13.5% ( P = .05) and no longer showed a significant difference in patients with BCR-ABL1-negative disease (11.4% v 4.4%; P = .09). The 5-year overall survival for patients with IKZF1del improved from 69.6% in MS2003 to 91.6% in MS2010 ( P = .007). Conclusion Intensifying therapy for childhood B-ALL with IKZF1del significantly reduced the risk of relapse and improved overall survival. Incorporating IKZF1del screening significantly improved treatment outcomes in contemporary ALL therapy.
  18. Duong M, Islam S, Rangarajan S, Leong D, Kurmi O, Teo K, et al.
    Lancet Glob Health, 2019 May;7(5):e613-e623.
    PMID: 31000131 DOI: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30070-1
    BACKGROUND: The associations between the extent of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) impairment and mortality, incident cardiovascular disease, and respiratory hospitalisations are unclear, and how these associations might vary across populations is unknown.

    METHODS: In this international, community-based cohort study, we prospectively enrolled adults aged 35-70 years who had no intention of moving residences for 4 years from rural and urban communities across 17 countries. A portable spirometer was used to assess FEV1. FEV1 values were standardised within countries for height, age, and sex, and expressed as a percentage of the country-specific predicted FEV1 value (FEV1%). FEV1% was categorised as no impairment (FEV1% ≥0 SD from country-specific mean), mild impairment (FEV1% <0 SD to -1 SD), moderate impairment (FEV1%

  19. Mente A, O'Donnell M, Rangarajan S, Dagenais G, Lear S, McQueen M, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Jul 30;388(10043):465-75.
    PMID: 27216139 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30467-6
    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported a U-shaped association between urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without hypertension is uncertain. We aimed to explore whether the association between sodium intake and cardiovascular disease events and all-cause mortality is modified by hypertension status.

    METHODS: In this pooled analysis, we studied 133,118 individuals (63,559 with hypertension and 69,559 without hypertension), median age of 55 years (IQR 45-63), from 49 countries in four large prospective studies and estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion (as group-level measure of intake). We related this to the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular disease events over a median of 4.2 years (IQR 3.0-5.0) and blood pressure.

    FINDINGS: Increased sodium intake was associated with greater increases in systolic blood pressure in individuals with hypertension (2.08 mm Hg change per g sodium increase) compared with individuals without hypertension (1.22 mm Hg change per g; pinteraction<0.0001). In those individuals with hypertension (6835 events), sodium excretion of 7 g/day or more (7060 [11%] of population with hypertension: hazard ratio [HR] 1.23 [95% CI 1.11-1.37]; p<0.0001) and less than 3 g/day (7006 [11%] of population with hypertension: 1.34 [1.23-1.47]; p<0.0001) were both associated with increased risk compared with sodium excretion of 4-5 g/day (reference 25% of the population with hypertension). In those individuals without hypertension (3021 events), compared with 4-5 g/day (18,508 [27%] of the population without hypertension), higher sodium excretion was not associated with risk of the primary composite outcome (≥ 7 g/day in 6271 [9%] of the population without hypertension; HR 0.90 [95% CI 0.76-1.08]; p=0.2547), whereas an excretion of less than 3 g/day was associated with a significantly increased risk (7547 [11%] of the population without hypertension; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.10-1.45]; p=0.0009).

    INTERPRETATION: Compared with moderate sodium intake, high sodium intake is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in hypertensive populations (no association in normotensive population), while the association of low sodium intake with increased risk of cardiovascular events and death is observed in those with or without hypertension. These data suggest that lowering sodium intake is best targeted at populations with hypertension who consume high sodium diets.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of paper (see Acknowledgments).

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