METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases were systematically searched from their inceptions until 10 December 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing individuals who underwent resistance training and control participants. We applied a random-effects model to calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD).
RESULTS: 33 trials reported IGF-1 level as an outcome measure. The pooled estimate demonstrated a significant increase in IGF-1 (WMD: 10.34 ng/ml, 95 % CI: 4.93, 15.74, p = 0.000, I2 = 90.3 %) after resistance training compared with the control group. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the increase in IGF-1 levels following resistance training was only statistically significant in treatment duration ≤16 weeks (WMD: 8.04 ng/ml), participants aged more than 60 years old (WMD: 9.84 ng/ml); and in women (WMD: 17.27 ng/ml). Subsequent analysis of the relationship between participants' age with plasma IGF-1 alterations revealed a U shape correlation in non-liner dose response, in which resistance training resulted in a declined IGF-1 level up to 40 years of age. Beyond 40 years old, the IGF-1 level was increased following resistance training.
CONCLUSION: We have successfully demonstrated that resistance training was associated with an increased IGF-1 level among those who received the training for ≤16 weeks, among participants older than 60 years old, and among women. Further studies are warranted to clarify the mechanisms underlying the influence of resistance training on IGF-1.
METHODS: In this open-label phase III study (PROFILE 1029), patients were randomized 1:1 to receive orally administered crizotinib 250 mg twice daily continuously (3-week cycles) or intravenously administered chemotherapy (pemetrexed 500 mg/m2, plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2, or carboplatin [at a dose to produce area under the concentration-time curve of 5-6 mg·min/mL]) every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles. PFS confirmed by independent radiology review was the primary end point.
RESULTS: Crizotinib significantly prolonged PFS (hazard ratio, 0.402; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.286-0.565; p < 0.001). The median PFS was 11.1 months with crizotinib and 6.8 months with chemotherapy. The objective response rate was 87.5% (95% CI: 79.6-93.2%) with crizotinib versus 45.6% (95% CI: 35.8-55.7%) with chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The most common adverse events were increased transaminase levels, diarrhea, and vision disorders with crizotinib and leukopenia, neutropenia, and anemia with chemotherapy. Significantly greater improvements from baseline in patient-reported outcomes were seen in crizotinib-treated versus chemotherapy-treated patients.
CONCLUSIONS: First-line crizotinib significantly improved PFS, objective response rate, and patient-reported outcomes compared with standard platinum-based chemotherapy in East Asian patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC, which is similar to the results from PROFILE 1014. The safety profiles of crizotinib and chemotherapy were consistent with those previously published.