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  1. Lye MS
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1984 Apr;13(2):156-62.
    PMID: 6497315
    A survey was conducted in six selected rural villages to obtain baseline data on socioeconomic status, nutrition, environmental sanitation and behavioural aspects in relation to diarrhoeal diseases, using a standard questionnaire. Subsequent to this, children 0-4 years of age were followed weekly for six months for diarrhoeal disease. Eleven variables representing socioeconomic status, nutritional status, housing condition, environmental sanitation, mother's knowledge and beliefs were investigated using stepwise logistic regression to determine significant predictors of diarrhoeal disease. Children who were below two years of age, living in conditions of poor sanitation and poor quality water supply, whose houses were prone to flooding and who had mothers whose sanitary habits were not influenced by their religious beliefs, were at significantly greater risk of diarrhoeal disease.
  2. Collett D, Lye MS
    Stat Med, 1987 10 1;6(7):853-61.
    PMID: 3321316
    To assess the public health importance of malaria on Banggi Island, Sabah, baseline epidemiological and entomological data were obtained in a study of three villages. These data were used to model the transmission of malaria using a non-seasonal version of the deterministic model of Dietz, Molineaux and Thomas. The model provided a satisfactory description of prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia. Modifications to the basic model enable the effects of mass chemotherapy with various combinations of schizonticidal and gametocidal drugs to be simulated. In this way, the relative merits of different procedures of mass drug administration can be compared. The fitted model is also used to examine the relationship between the overall prevalence of infection and the vectorial capacity, and to predict the consequences of a reduction in the size of the vector population.
  3. Jahanfar S, Lye MS, Rampal L
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Feb;50(2):173-80.
    PMID: 19296033
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of university students regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    METHODS: A randomised controlled trial of 530 university students was done using peer-adult facilitators. Participants completed a questionnaire before and after the intervention, which was a four-hour group session. A prevention programme was developed by local experts, health educators and peer facilitators. The peer-adult-led programme was designed to provide a conceptual model of HIV risk reduction through information, motivational and behavioural skills, a harm reduction module and health promotion theme.
    RESULTS: The main outcome measured was the level of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour scores. The results suggest that relative to the control group, participants in the intervention group had higher levels of knowledge (30.37 vs. 25.40; p-value is 0.001) and a better attitude (12.27 vs. 10.84; p-value is 0.001). However, there was no difference in the behavioural score (9.47 vs. 9.41; p-value is 0.530). The correlation between the level of knowledge and age and the level of education was found in the intervention group, but not in the control group (p-value is 0.01). Attitude and gender were found to be correlated in the intervention group only (p-value is 0.01).
    CONCLUSION: Our programme was successful in increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards AIDS and HIV. However, it did not improve risk-taking behaviour. Peer-adult-led educational programmes for youth using various interactional activities, such as small group discussions, poster activity and empathy exercises, can be successful in changing the prevailing youth perceptions of AIDS and HIV.
  4. Boo NY, Lye MS
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 1992 12;38(6):284-9.
    PMID: 1844086 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/38.6.284
    A 2-month prospective study was carried out in a Kuala Lumpur maternity hospital to determine the antenatal and intrapartum factors associated with perinatal asphyxia in the Malaysian neonates. The incidence of perinatal asphyxia was 18.7 per 1000 livebirths. Of the 75 asphyxiated neonates born during this period, 70 (93.3 per cent) were of term or post-term gestation. The incidence of perinatal asphyxia was more common in the neonates with one of the following characteristics: low birth weight (< 2500 g), breech delivery, or delivery by instrumentation or lower segment Caesarean section (P < 0.001). Conditional logistic regression analysis of the asphyxiated and the control neonates in a nested case-control study (after controlling for sex, race, birth weight, modes of delivery, and maternal gravida) showed that there were two associated factors which were of statistical significance. These were: small-for-gestation neonates and the presence of intrapartum problems. Our study suggests that to reduce the incidence of perinatal asphyxia, the common causes of small-for-gestation neonates and the common types of intrapartum problems should be identified to enable appropriate preventive measures to be carried out.
  5. Abdollahi F, Etemadinezhad S, Lye MS
    Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 2016 Feb;55(1):76-80.
    PMID: 26927254 DOI: 10.1016/j.tjog.2015.12.008
    OBJECTIVES: Cultural practices have been found to positively impact the mothering experience. This study sought to identify the relationship between sociocultural practices and postpartum depression (PPD) in a cohort of Iranian women for the first time.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort design, 2279 pregnant women attending primary health centers of Mazandaran province in Iran were recruited using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and researchers developed validated cultural practices questionnaire at 3 months after delivery. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of PPD was 19% among 1910 women who were followed postdelivery in this study. Cultural practices were not associated with lower odds of PPD in multiple logistic regression model after adjustment for all sociodemographic factors. The results of this study do not also provide any evidence to support that sex of baby is associated with the greater risk of PPD.
    CONCLUSIONS: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
    KEYWORDS: culture; depression; postpartum; practices
  6. Jahanfar S, Lye MS, Krishnarajah IS
    Indian J Hum Genet, 2013 Apr;19(2):245-50.
    PMID: 24019629 DOI: 10.4103/0971-6866.116127
    INTRODUCTION: Menarche or first menstrual period is a landmark in reproductive life span and it is the most prominent change of puberty. The timing of menarche can be under the influence of genes as well as individual environmental factors interacting with genetic factors.

    OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche.

    METHODOLOGY: A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood.

    RESULTS: Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%).

    DISCUSSION: Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins.

    CONCLUSION: It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.

  7. Armstrong RW, Armstrong MJ, Lye MS
    Singapore Med J, 2000 Dec;41(12):582-7.
    PMID: 11296783
    With a five-year survival rate of 20% in 1970 and 40-45% in 1990, and highest incidence and mortality in early and middle adult years, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) may have a severe social impact on families and households. The aim of this study was to measure the social impact of NPC in the Chinese population of Selangor, Malaysia.
  8. Boo NY, Soon CC, Lye MS
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2000 Oct;46(5):272-7.
    PMID: 11077935
    An observational study was carried out in the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital to determine the risk factors associated with feed intolerance in very low birthweight (VLBW, <1501 g) infants given intermittent 3-hourly enteral feeds within 72h after birth. Feed intolerance developed in 85 (64.4 per cent) of 132 infants. Logistic regression analysis showed that the only significant risk factor associated with feed intolerance was the age when the first feed was commenced. For each hour delay in the age of the infants when the first feed was given, the adjusted odds ratios of feed intolerance was 1.03 (95 per cent confidence intervals: 1.01-1.05; p = 0.01). Other factors (modes of delivery, Apgar score at 1 min, sex, ethnicity, history of resuscitation at birth, birthweight, gestation, multiple pregnancy, perinatal asphyxia, types of milk, hypothermia before first feed, hypotension before first feed, respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, septicaemia, theophylline therapy, indomethacin therapy, ventilatory support, continuous positive airway pressure, umbilical catheterization, and surfactant therapy) were not significantly associated with feed intolerance. Our study suggests that to promote tolerance of enteral feeds in VLBW infants, intermittent orogastric feeds should be commenced as soon as possible during the first 72 h of life.
  9. Boo NY, Puah CH, Lye MS
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2000 Feb;46(1):15-20.
    PMID: 10730035
    A case-control study was carried out on 152 extremely low birthweight (ELBW, < 1000 g) infants born consecutively in a large Malaysian maternity hospital during a 21-month period to determine the significant predictors associated with survival at discharge. Forty-nine (32.2 per cent) of these infants survived and 103 (67.8 per cent) died. The survivors weighed significantly heavier (mean = 888 g, SD = 99) than infants who died (mean = 763 g, SD = 131; p < 0.0001). They were also of higher gestational age (mean = 28.7 weeks, SD = 2.2) than those who died (mean = 26.7 weeks, SD = 2.5; p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that, after controlling for various confounders, only three factors were significantly associated with the survival of these infants. These were: (1) increasing birthweight of the infants (with every gram increase in birthweight, adjusted odds ratio of survival was: 1.009; 95 per cent CI 1.004, 1.015; p = 0.0006); (2) given nasal continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (adjusted odds ratio of survival: 4.2; 95 per cent CI 1.2, 14.0; p = 0.02); and (3) given expressed breastmilk (adjusted odds ratio of survival: 57.5; 95 per cent CI: 7, 474; p = 0.0002). Maternal illness, intrapartum problems, ethnicity, gestational age, use of antenatal steroid, modes of delivery, Apgar scores, congenital anomalies, respiratory distress syndrome, persistent ductus arteriosus, septicemia, necrotising enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, oxygen therapy, intermittent positive pressure ventilation, surfactant therapy, and blood transfusion were not significant factors associated with increased survival.
  10. Hanjeet K, Lye MS, Sinniah M, Schnur A
    Bull. World Health Organ., 1996;74(4):391-7.
    PMID: 8823961
    An analysis was carried out on a total of 883 cold chain monitor (CCM) cards, which had been attached to batches of poliomyelitis, measles, DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and hepatitis B vaccines, during their transport and storage from the central store in Kuala Lumpur to Kelantan, a state in north-eastern Malaysia; 234 freeze watches attached to hepatitis B vaccines were also analysed. The monitor cards and freeze watches were observed at six levels between the central store and the periphery during distribution of the vaccines, and a colour change in any of the four windows (A, B, C, D) on the CCM cards or the freeze watches was recorded. In addition, 33 unopened vials of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), collected from refrigerators in 29 health facilities in Kelantan, were tested for potency using the tissue culture infective dose 50 (TCID50) method; 14 of them (42%) did not meet the WHO criteria for potent vaccines. The results showed that at the final destination 13.4% of all cards remained white while a colour change to blue was observed in 65% in window A, 16.6% in window B, and 4.4% in window C; none had turned blue in window D indicating that the vaccine had not been subjected to temperatures > or = 34 degrees C for 2 hours. All but 2 of the 234 freeze watches had turned purple, which indicates exposure of the hepatitis B vaccines to temperatures below 0 degree C. These results will assist health planners to correct the weaknesses identified in the cold chain system.
  11. Suleiman AB, Lye MS, Mathews A, Ravindran J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1995 May;50 Suppl A:S3-10.
    PMID: 10968005
  12. Ong LC, Afifah I, Sofiah A, Lye MS
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1998 Dec;18(4):301-7.
    PMID: 9924586 DOI: 10.1080/02724936.1998.11747964
    A hospital study was carried out to compare parenting stress among 87 Malaysian mothers of children with cerebral palsy and a control group (comprising 87 mothers of children without disability who attended the walk-in paediatric clinic), using the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine socio-demographic and medical factors associated with child-domain stress (CDS) and parent-domain stress (PDS). Mothers of children with cerebral palsy scored significantly higher than control subjects on all sub-scales of CDS and PDS (p < 0.01), except for the sub-scale of 'role restriction'. The presence of cerebral palsy (p < 0.001) and activities of daily living (ADL) scores (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with CDS. Factors predictive of PDS were ADL scores (p < 0.001), number of hospitalizations over the past year (p = 0.024), level of maternal education (p = 0.018) and Chinese mothers (p < 0.001). Although this study demonstrated that Malaysian mothers of children with cerebral palsy experienced higher levels of stress than controls, the impact of cerebral palsy per se on parenting stress was modified by other factors such as increased care-giving demands, low maternal education and ethnic background. Habilitation should be directed at easing the burden of daily care, minimizing hospital re-admissions and targeting appropriate psychosocial support at specific subgroups to change parental perception and expectations.
    Study site: neurology clinics or physiotherapy department or inpatients, Paediatric Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  13. Ong LC, Chandran V, Zasmani S, Lye MS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1998 Aug;34(4):363-8.
    PMID: 9727180
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the neurobehavioural outcome of children aged 6-12 years with severe closed head injury [sCHI] (coma > 24 h), mild-to-moderate head injury [mCHI] (coma < 6 h) and orthopaedic controls.

    METHODS: Twenty-nine children in each group, matched for age, sex and ethnicity, were assessed using the Glasgow outcome Scale (GOS), Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC), Wide Range Assessment of Learning and Memory (WRAML) and a standardised neurological examination 6 months post-injury. Parental reporting of pre- and post-injury behaviour was documented using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL).

    RESULTS: Seven (24.1%) children with sCHI and three (10.3%) orthopaedic controls had residual motor deficits. Three (10.3%) children with sCHI and none in the other groups faced problems with independent ambulation. Twenty-seven (93.1%) of those with sCHI and all children in the other groups had GOS scores of good recovery or moderate disability. Twenty-two (81.5%) sCHI, five (18.5%) mCHI and one (3.7%) orthopaedic control reported a deterioration in school performance. MANOVAS identified a significant injury group effect for performance skills (P = 0.007), verbal skills (P = 0.002), memory and learning (P = 0.001) and motor skills (P = 0.001). Repeated measures ANOVA for pre- and post-injury CBCL scores showed significant differences related to somatic complaints (P = 0.004), problems of socialising (P = 0.003), delinquency (P = 0.004), aggressiveness (P = 0.010), thought (P < 0.001) and attention (P < 0.001). Post-hoc univariate analysis showed the significant differences were between that of the sCHI children and the other two groups.

    CONCLUSION: Although most sCHI children seemed to have made good physical recovery, there were cognitive, motor, memory and learning difficulties and behavioural problems concomitant with a deterioration in school performance compared with those with lesser or no head injury. This highlights the need for better integrated rehabilitation services to enable a gradual return into mainstream school.

  14. Boo NY, Lye MS, Ong LC
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Apr;35(2):163-6.
    PMID: 7939812
    A cross-sectional study was carried out on 8,478 consecutive normal singleton Malaysian neonates born in the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The objectives were to compare the mean birth-weights, crown-heel lengths and head circumferences of Malay, Chinese and Indian infants at gestation age from 28 to 42 weeks, and to construct the Malaysian growth charts. Above the gestation age of 34 weeks, the birthweights were significantly influenced by maternal gravida status (p < 0.03), ethnic origin (p < 0.001) and/or sex of the neonates (p < 0.026). Above this gestation age, neonates of multigravida mothers were significantly heavier than those of primigravida mothers; Indians were significantly lighter than Malays and Chinese; and males were significantly heavier than females. The head circumferences and body lengths of neonates were significantly influenced by ethnic origin, sex and/or maternal gravida status at gestation above 35 and 36 weeks respectively (p < 0.05). It was most likely due to the small sample size which explained our inability to detect statistically significant difference in all measurements (birthweight, length and head circumference) by sex, ethnicity and maternal gravida status at gestation below 35 weeks. Based on the measurements obtained in this study, percentile charts for the Malaysian population were constructed and made available for the first time. These charts will be useful for the assessment of Malaysian neonates during the perinatal period.
  15. Boo NY, Oakes M, Lye MS, Said H
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 1994 Aug;40(4):194-7.
    PMID: 7932930
    A study of 128 jaundiced term neonates showed that 28 (22 per cent) had hearing loss based on brain stem-evoked response. There was no significant difference in the percentage of neonates with hearing loss between those with peak serum bilirubin levels of less than 340 mumol/l (16 per cent) and those with hyperbilirubinaemia > 339 mumol/l (33 per cent) (P = 0.11). Logistic regression analysis showed that severe jaundice which required exchange transfusion and earlier age of onset of hyperbilirubinaemia were statistically significant risk factors associated with hearing loss (P = 0.038 and P = 0.012, respectively).
  16. Simon GK, Lye MS, Ahmad N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1991 Mar;46(1):88-94.
    PMID: 1836044
    A retrospective study of 300 tuberculosis patients on short course chemotherapy registered in 1985 at the Chest Clinic, General Hospital Alor Setar, Kedah was carried out with the purpose of identifying patient characteristics, determining incidence of side-effects and modifying treatment regimens in order to minimise these side-effects. One hundred and sixteen (38.7%) patients developed side effects. Twenty seven (9%) had side effects severe enough to warrant a change in treatment regimen. Treatment modifications and ways to minimise or control side effects are discussed.
    Study site: Chest clinic, Hospital Alor Setar, Kedah, Malaysia
  17. Ganesh S, Lye MS, Lau FN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2016;17(4):1677-84.
    PMID: 27221837
    BACKGROUND: Among the factors reported to determine the quality of life of breast cancer patients are socio- demographic background, clinical stage, type of treatment received, and the duration since diagnosis.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the quality of life (QOL) scores among breast cancer patients at a Malaysian public hospital.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study of breast cancer patients was conducted between March to June 2013. QOL scores were determined using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23). Both the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 assess items from functional and symptom scales. The QLQ-C30 in addition also measures the Global Health Status (GHS). Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients.

    RESULTS: 223 breast cancer patients were recruited with a response rate of 92.1%. The mean age of the patients was 52.4 years (95% CI = 51.0, 53.7, SD=10.3). Majority of respondents are Malays (60.5%), followed by Chinese (19.3%), Indians (18.4%), and others (1.8%). More than 50% of respondents are at stage III and stage IV of malignancy. The mean Global Health Status was 65.7 (SD = 21.4). From the QLQ-C30, the mean score in the functioning scale was highest for 'cognitive functioning' (84.1, SD=18.0), while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'financial difficulties' (40.1, SD=31.6). From the QLQ-BR23, the mean score for functioning scale was highest for 'body image' (80.0, SD=24.6) while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'upset by hair loss' (36.2, SD=29.4). Two significant predictors for Global Health Status were age and employment. The predictors explained 10.6% of the variation of global health status (R2=0.106).

    CONCLUSIONS: Age and employment were found to be significant predictors for Global Health Status (GHS). The Quality of Life among breast cancer patients reflected by the GHS improves as age and employment increases.

  18. Abdollahi F, Lye MS, Zarghami M
    N Am J Med Sci, 2016 Jun;8(6):232-6.
    PMID: 27500126 DOI: 10.4103/1947-2714.185027
    Postpartum depression is the most prevalent emotional problem during a women's lifespan. Untreated postpartum depression may lead to several consequences such as child, infant, fetal, and maternal effects. The main purpose of this article is to briefly describe different theoretical perspectives of postpartum depression. A literature search was conducted in Psych Info, PubMed, and Science Direct between 1950 and 2015. Additional articles and book chapters were referenced from these sources. Different theories were suggested for developing postpartum depression. Three theories, namely, biological, psychosocial, and evolutionary were discussed. One theory or combinations of psychosocial, biological, and evolutionary theories were considered for postpartum depression. The most important factor that makes clinicians' choice of intervention is their theoretical perspectives. Healthcare providers and physicians should help women to make informed choices regarding their treatment based on related theories.
  19. Lye MS, Tohit NF, Rampal L
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2017 02;72(1):12-17.
    PMID: 28255134 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Pediculosis capitis infestation is endemic in both developing and developed countries leading to various physical, economical and psychological consequences. Our main objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of pediculosis capitis among primary school children in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia.

    METHODS: An analytic cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method was carried out in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia. Self-administered pretested questionnaires were used to collect the data. Hair and scalp examination was also carried out. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for potential confounding and determine the predictors.

    RESULTS: The overall mean age of the 1,336 respondents was 9.3 years. Majority were males (52.8%), Malays (79.5%) and 81.3% of the fathers had secondary or tertiary education as compared to 77.3% for the mothers. The overall prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 15.3%. The prevalence of pediculosis was significantly higher among females (28.4%) than males (3.7%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age 10 years or more (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.673 to 3.272), female gender (OR = 10.26, 95% CI = 6.620 to 15.903), history of contact with an infested person (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.506 to 2.960), Indian compared to Chinese (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.282 to 9.860), Malay to Chinese (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = .994 to 6.774) were associated with pediculosis capitis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among children aged 7 - 12 years in Hulu Langat District was high. There is a need for screening and treatment of pediculosis capitis in primary schools.

  20. Wong MM, Lye MS, Cheng HM, Sam CK
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 2005 Mar;23(1):65-7.
    PMID: 15997877
    The antibody levels to viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 164 nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients from Sarawak, East Malaysia were significantly higher than those in 147 sex, age and ethnically matched healthy controls. As diagnostic markers of NPC, IgG/VCA at reciprocal titers > or =160 was the most sensitive (89%, with 98% specificity), while IgA/EA at > or =5 was the most specific (100%) but the least sensitive (75%). The sensitivity and specificity of IgA/VCA at reciprocal titers > or =10 were 84% and 97%. IgA/VCA has an advantage over IgG/VCA despite the slightly lower sensitivity due to its consistently more distinct fluorescence reaction. The sensitivity and specificity can be marginally improved by a combination of two tests.
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