OBJECTIVE: Our study objectives were (a) to investigate the heritability of age of menarche in twins, (b) to obtain the association between age of menarche and childhood factors, and reproductive events/behavior, (c) to examine whether or not having a male co-twin affects early/late menarche.
METHODOLOGY: A group of female-female identical (n = 108, 54 pairs), non-identical twins (n = 68, 34 pairs) and 17 females from opposite-sex twin sets were identified from twin registries of Malaysia and Iran. Genetic analysis was performed via two methods of Falconers' formula and maximum likelihood.
RESULTS: Heritability was found to be 66% using Falconers' formula and 15% using univariate twin analysis. Model analysis revealed that shared environmental factors have a major contribution in determining the age of menarche (82%) followed by non-shared environment (18%).
DISCUSSION: Result of this study is consistent with that of the literature. Timing of menarche could be under the influence of shared and non-shared environmental effects. Hirsutism was found to have a higher frequency among subjects with late menarche. There was no significant difference in age of menarche between females of opposite-sex twins and females of same-sex twins.
CONCLUSION: It is concluded that twin models provide a powerful means of examining the total genetic contribution to age of menarche. Longitudinal studies of twins may clarify the type of environmental effects that determine the age of menarche.
METHODS: Twenty-nine children in each group, matched for age, sex and ethnicity, were assessed using the Glasgow outcome Scale (GOS), Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III), Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC), Wide Range Assessment of Learning and Memory (WRAML) and a standardised neurological examination 6 months post-injury. Parental reporting of pre- and post-injury behaviour was documented using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL).
RESULTS: Seven (24.1%) children with sCHI and three (10.3%) orthopaedic controls had residual motor deficits. Three (10.3%) children with sCHI and none in the other groups faced problems with independent ambulation. Twenty-seven (93.1%) of those with sCHI and all children in the other groups had GOS scores of good recovery or moderate disability. Twenty-two (81.5%) sCHI, five (18.5%) mCHI and one (3.7%) orthopaedic control reported a deterioration in school performance. MANOVAS identified a significant injury group effect for performance skills (P = 0.007), verbal skills (P = 0.002), memory and learning (P = 0.001) and motor skills (P = 0.001). Repeated measures ANOVA for pre- and post-injury CBCL scores showed significant differences related to somatic complaints (P = 0.004), problems of socialising (P = 0.003), delinquency (P = 0.004), aggressiveness (P = 0.010), thought (P < 0.001) and attention (P < 0.001). Post-hoc univariate analysis showed the significant differences were between that of the sCHI children and the other two groups.
CONCLUSION: Although most sCHI children seemed to have made good physical recovery, there were cognitive, motor, memory and learning difficulties and behavioural problems concomitant with a deterioration in school performance compared with those with lesser or no head injury. This highlights the need for better integrated rehabilitation services to enable a gradual return into mainstream school.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the quality of life (QOL) scores among breast cancer patients at a Malaysian public hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study of breast cancer patients was conducted between March to June 2013. QOL scores were determined using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its breast cancer supplementary measure (QLQ-BR23). Both the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 assess items from functional and symptom scales. The QLQ-C30 in addition also measures the Global Health Status (GHS). Systematic random sampling was used to recruit patients.
RESULTS: 223 breast cancer patients were recruited with a response rate of 92.1%. The mean age of the patients was 52.4 years (95% CI = 51.0, 53.7, SD=10.3). Majority of respondents are Malays (60.5%), followed by Chinese (19.3%), Indians (18.4%), and others (1.8%). More than 50% of respondents are at stage III and stage IV of malignancy. The mean Global Health Status was 65.7 (SD = 21.4). From the QLQ-C30, the mean score in the functioning scale was highest for 'cognitive functioning' (84.1, SD=18.0), while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'financial difficulties' (40.1, SD=31.6). From the QLQ-BR23, the mean score for functioning scale was highest for 'body image' (80.0, SD=24.6) while the mean score in the symptom scale was highest for 'upset by hair loss' (36.2, SD=29.4). Two significant predictors for Global Health Status were age and employment. The predictors explained 10.6% of the variation of global health status (R2=0.106).
CONCLUSIONS: Age and employment were found to be significant predictors for Global Health Status (GHS). The Quality of Life among breast cancer patients reflected by the GHS improves as age and employment increases.
METHODS: An analytic cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling method was carried out in Hulu Langat District, Malaysia. Self-administered pretested questionnaires were used to collect the data. Hair and scalp examination was also carried out. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for potential confounding and determine the predictors.
RESULTS: The overall mean age of the 1,336 respondents was 9.3 years. Majority were males (52.8%), Malays (79.5%) and 81.3% of the fathers had secondary or tertiary education as compared to 77.3% for the mothers. The overall prevalence of pediculosis capitis was 15.3%. The prevalence of pediculosis was significantly higher among females (28.4%) than males (3.7%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age 10 years or more (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.34, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.673 to 3.272), female gender (OR = 10.26, 95% CI = 6.620 to 15.903), history of contact with an infested person (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.506 to 2.960), Indian compared to Chinese (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.282 to 9.860), Malay to Chinese (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = .994 to 6.774) were associated with pediculosis capitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among children aged 7 - 12 years in Hulu Langat District was high. There is a need for screening and treatment of pediculosis capitis in primary schools.