Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have contributed to advances in Occupational Health and Safety, improving the security of workers. The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) based on ICTs reduces the risk of accidents in the workplace, thanks to the capacity of the equipment to make decisions on the basis of environmental factors. Paradigms such as the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) make it possible to generate PPE models feasibly and create devices with more advanced characteristics such as monitoring, sensing the environment and risk detection between others. The working environment is monitored continuously by these models and they notify the employees and their supervisors of any anomalies and threats. This paper presents a smart helmet prototype that monitors the conditions in the workers' environment and performs a near real-time evaluation of risks. The data collected by sensors is sent to an AI-driven platform for analysis. The training dataset consisted of 11,755 samples and 12 different scenarios. As part of this research, a comparative study of the state-of-the-art models of supervised learning is carried out. Moreover, the use of a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (ConvNet/CNN) is proposed for the detection of possible occupational risks. The data are processed to make them suitable for the CNN and the results are compared against a Static Neural Network (NN), Naive Bayes Classifier (NB) and Support Vector Machine (SVM), where the CNN had an accuracy of 92.05% in cross-validation.
Wearable technologies are becoming a profitable means of monitoring a person's health state, such as heart rate and physical activity. The use of the smartwatch is becoming consolidated, not only as a novelty but also as a very useful tool for daily use. In addition, other devices, such as helmets or belts, are beneficial for monitoring workers and the early detection of any anomaly. They can provide valuable information, especially in work environments, where they help reduce the rate of accidents and occupational diseases, which makes them powerful Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). The constant monitoring of the worker's health can be done in real-time, through temperature, falls, noise, impacts, or heart rate meters, activating an audible and vibrating alarm when an anomaly is detected. The gathered information is transmitted to a server in charge of collecting and processing it. In the first place, this paper provides an exhaustive review of the state of the art on works related to electronics for human activity behavior. After that, a smart multisensory bracelet, combined with other devices, developed a control platform that can improve operators' security in the working environment. Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things (AIoT) bring together the information to improve safety on construction sites, power stations, power lines, etc. Real-time and historic data is used to monitor operators' health and a hybrid system between Gaussian Mixture Model and Human Activity Classification. That is, our contribution is also founded on the use of two machine learning models, one based on unsupervised learning and the other one supervised. Where the GMM gave us a performance of 80%, 85%, 70%, and 80% for the 4 classes classified in real time, the LSTM obtained a result under the confusion matrix of 0.769, 0.892, and 0.921 for the carrying-displacing, falls, and walking-standing activities, respectively. This information was sent in real time through the platform that has been used to analyze and process the data in an alarm system.
It is estimated that we spend one-third of our lives at work. It is therefore vital to adapt traditional equipment and systems used in the working environment to the new technological paradigm so that the industry is connected and, at the same time, workers are as safe and protected as possible. Thanks to Smart Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and wearable technologies, information about the workers and their environment can be extracted to reduce the rate of accidents and occupational illness, leading to a significant improvement. This article proposes an architecture that employs three pieces of PPE: a helmet, a bracelet and a belt, which process the collected information using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques through edge computing. The proposed system guarantees the workers' safety and integrity through the early prediction and notification of anomalies detected in their environment. Models such as convolutional neural networks, long short-term memory, Gaussian Models were joined by interpreting the information with a graph, where different heuristics were used to weight the outputs as a whole, where finally a support vector machine weighted the votes of the models with an area under the curve of 0.81.