Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Leong YH, Azmi NI, Majid MIA, Wen S
    PMID: 34014804 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2021.1922758
    An average 50 ml breast milk samples were collected from 21 lactating primiparous mothers (range 25 to 45 years, mean 33 years), 4-8 weeks after delivery in Penang Island, Malaysia. The geometric mean concentration of the most toxic congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was 0.14 pg WHO2005-TEQ g-1 zlipid. The most abundant congeners of PCDD/Fs were octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) (5.9-75.4%), followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD) (1.1-30.7%). The geometric mean level of total dioxins and dl-PCBs was 2.2 pg WHO2005-TEQ g-1 lipid, significantly lower than those in developed countries or highly contaminated areas. The total dioxins and dl-PCBs in pg WHO2005-TEQ levels in breast milk were significantly correlated with years of residence at potential contaminated site. The average daily intake of 11.8 pg WHO2005-TEQ kg-1 body weight was estimated for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age. This demonstrates the exposure risk to infants, especially from Penang region, to these pollutants from human milk intake are potentially high during the lactation period.
  2. Faisalina AF, Sonvico F, Colombo P, Amirul AA, Wahab HA, Majid MIA
    Nanomaterials (Basel), 2020 Oct 26;10(11).
    PMID: 33114572 DOI: 10.3390/nano10112123
    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) copolymers show a relatively higher in vivo degradation rate compared to other PHAs, thus, they receive a great deal of attention for a wide range of medical applications. Nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with poorly water-soluble anticancer drug docetaxel (DCX) were produced using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB-co-4HB), copolymers biosynthesised from Cupriavidus malaysiensis USMAA1020 isolated from the Malaysian environment. Three copolymers with different molar proportions of 4-hydroxybutirate (4HB) were used: 16% (PHB16), 30% (PHB30) and 70% (PHB70) 4HB-containing P(3HB-co-4HB). Blank and DCX-loaded nanoparticles were then characterized for their size and size distribution, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency and drug release. Preformulation studies showed that an optimised formulation could be achieved through the emulsification/solvent evaporation method using PHB70 with the addition of 1.0% PVA, as stabilizer and 0.03% VitE-TPGS, as surfactant. DCX-loaded PHB70 nanoparticles (DCX-PHB70) gave the desired particle size distribution in terms of average particle size around 150 nm and narrow particle size distribution (polydispersity index (PDI) below 0.100). The encapsulation efficiency result showed that at 30% w/w drug-to-polymer ratio: DCX- PHB16 NPs were able to encapsulate up to 42% of DCX; DCX-PHB30 NPs encapsulated up to 46% of DCX and DCX-PHB70 NPs encapsulated up to 50% of DCX within the nanoparticle system. Approximately 60% of DCX was released from the DCX-PHB70 NPs within 7 days for 5%, 10% and 20% of drug-to-polymer ratio while for the 30% and 40% drug-to-polymer ratios, an almost complete drug release (98%) after 7 days of incubation was observed.
  3. Iskandar YHP, Subramaniam G, Majid MIA, Ariff AM, Rao GKL
    Health Inf Sci Syst, 2020 Dec;8(1):6.
    PMID: 31949893 DOI: 10.1007/s13755-019-0094-0
    Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the predicting factors that influence the intention to use Poison Information System (PIS) among healthcare professionals.

    Methods: A quantitative approach was applied, using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, adapted from previous studies. Data were collected from 167 healthcare professionals working for Malaysian Public Hospitals in Penang. Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) version 3.2.7 were used to analyse the proposed relationships.

    Results: The results indicated that attitude and computer anxiety had a significant positive relation to the intention to use PIS among healthcare professionals wherein computer knowledge was found to have had a significant relationship with attitude and computer habit. Apart from that, technical support and training had a positive relationship with perceived ease of use. Surprisingly, computer habit, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility and facilitating condition did not significantly influence intention to use PIS.

    Conclusion: The results of this study provided useful insights for healthcare agencies to understand the underlying elements that could improve the poison information management. The results proved that attitude and computer anxiety were critical factors among healthcare professionals managing poisoning cases in a highly stressful and unpredictable work environment. These factors must, therefore, be considered before implementing PIS in managing poisoning cases. The study also provided an understanding of how to improve system development by utilising the end user's expectation on the implementation of the system.

  4. Ramachandran H, Shafie NAH, Sudesh K, Azizan MN, Majid MIA, Amirul AA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2018 Mar;111(3):361-372.
    PMID: 29022146 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0958-8
    Bacterial classification on the basis of a polyphasic approach was conducted on three poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] accumulating bacterial strains that were isolated from samples collected from Malaysian environments; Kulim Lake, Sg. Pinang river and Sg. Manik paddy field. The Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile, non-sporulating and non-fermenting bacteria were shown to belong to the genus Cupriavidus of the Betaproteobacteria on the basis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The sequence similarity value with their near phylogenetic neighbour, Cupriavidus pauculus LMG3413T, was 98.5%. However, the DNA-DNA hybridization values (8-58%) and ribotyping analysis both enabled these strains to be differentiated from related Cupriavidus species with validly published names. The RiboPrint patterns of the three strains also revealed that the strains were genetically related even though they displayed a clonal diversity. The major cellular fatty acids detected in these strains included C15:0 ISO 2OH/C16:1 ω7c, hexadecanoic (16:0) and cis-11-octadecenoic (C18:1 ω7c). Their G+C contents ranged from 68.0  to 68.6 mol%, and their major isoprenoid quinone was Ubiquinone Q-8. Of these three strains, only strain USMAHM13 (= DSM 25816 = KCTC 32390) was discovered to exhibit yellow pigmentation that is characteristic of the carotenoid family. Their assembled genomes also showed that the three strains were not identical in terms of their genome sizes that were 7.82, 7.95 and 8.70 Mb for strains USMAHM13, USMAA1020 and USMAA2-4, respectively, which are slightly larger than that of Cupriavidus necator H16 (7.42 Mb). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) results indicated that the strains were genetically related and the genome pairs belong to the same species. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, the three strains are considered to represent a novel species for which the name Cupriavidus malaysiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the species is USMAA1020T (= DSM 19416T = KCTC 32390T).
  5. Ramachandran H, Shafie NAH, Sudesh K, Azizan MN, Majid MIA, Amirul AA
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 2018 04;111(4):637.
    PMID: 29285661 DOI: 10.1007/s10482-017-0998-0
    In the original publication of the article, it was noted that Fig. 1 present an image of Cupriavidus malaysiensis strain USMAHM13 and not of strain USMAA1020, as indicated in the figure legend. The image in the original version is thus noted to serve as a record of strain USMAHM13 and the corrected version of Fig. 1 is reprinted below.
  6. Leong YH, Ariff AM, Khan HRM, Rani NAA, Majid MIA
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2018 May;56:16-20.
    PMID: 29525581 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2018.03.007
    This study analyses the incidences and patterns of paraquat poisoning from calls received at the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) since 2004 following the ban of the herbicide (2004-2006) and subsequent restriction up to year 2015. Related reported cases to the centre over twelve years (2004-2015) were retrieved and studied in respect to socio-demographic characteristics, mode and type of poisonings, exposure routes and location of incident. Ages of poisoned victims range from 10 months old to 98 years with males being intoxicated more frequently than females (ratio male to female = 2.7). The age group mainly involved in the poisoning was 20-39 years. The most common mode was intentional (62.8%) followed by unintentional (36.9%). Among the 1232 reported cases, suicidal poisoning was the highest (57.2%); accidental poisoning (30.8%) and occupational poisoning (3.3%). The findings showed an upward trend of suicidal poisoning over the years, clearly emphasizing the need for more stringent and effective enforcement to ensure the safe use of paraquat.
  7. Tangiisuran B, Jiva M, Ariff AM, Abdul Rani NA, Misnan A, Rashid SM, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 12 31;8(12):e024162.
    PMID: 30598487 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024162
    OBJECTIVE: Accidental or intentional poisoning is a public health concern requiring intervention. The current study designs to evaluate the types of poisoning exposure calls received by the Malaysia National Poison Centre (NPC) over a 10-year period.

    SETTINGS AND DATA SOURCES: The poisoning enquiries database (2006-2015) from the Malaysia NPC was used for the analysis.

    PARTICIPANTS: The NPC records all telephone calls that it manages using a validated and standardised form. Demographics and types of the poisoning exposure calls were extracted and descriptive analysis was applied.

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome of this study is to evaluate NPC data for trends in the poisoning exposure calls based on the types and modes of poisoning over a 10-year period. The secondary outcome is to evaluate the characteristics of human exposure cases based on the calls received by the NPC.

    RESULTS: There was a notable increase in the number of poisoning exposure calls noticed during the 10-year period but dropped significantly in 2012. The highest number of poisoning exposure calls came from Selangor (21.0%), Perak (18.0%) and Negeri Sembilan (9.8%). More than half of the exposure was intentional (53.8%) involving more women (50.3%) as compared with men (41.9%), and in the 20-29 years age group category (33.5%). Exposure mostly occurred at home (96%) through the ingestion route (94.1%). Pharmaceutical products (40.5%), pesticides (31.7%) and household products (20.1%) were the common agents implicated for intentional exposure.

    CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing trend in enquiries on poisoning exposure calls made to the NPC. Most of the intentional poisoning exposures occurred among younger women and involved pharmaceuticals, pesticides or household products. Poisoning safety education and other interventions are needed to curb poisoning incidents.

  8. Leong YH, Isa ASM, Mohamed Mahmood M, Moey CEJ, Utar Z, Soon YI, et al.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol, 2018 Jun;95:280-288.
    PMID: 29567329 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.011
    This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of Poly [3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate], P(3HB-co-4HB) in the form of nanoparticles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Acute oral administration of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was performed as a single dose up to 2000 mg/kg in six female rats for 14 days. Subacute toxicity study via oral administration for 28 days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg in rats (10 rats in each group, female:male = 1:1) was conducted. The estimated lethal dose (LD50) of P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles was >2000 mg/kg. No mortality, unusual changes in behaviour, adverse clinical signs, abnormal changes in body weights or food consumption were observed on all animals treated with P(3HB-co-4HB) nanoparticles during 14 days of the acute toxicity study. In the subacute test, there was no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, clinical biochemistry, urinalysis, macroscopic findings, organ weights as well as histopathological examination were observed.
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