Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Manaf RA, Shamsuddin K
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2008;20(3):204-13.
    PMID: 19124314 DOI: 10.1177/1010539508316973
    This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to determine the individual, family, and environmental factors associated with smoking among young urban women. A cross-sectional study through self-administered questionnaire was conducted on female students enrolled in private higher learning institutions in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, Malaysia, between July and October 2005. Analysis on 408 respondents showed that current smoker prevalence rate was 18.6%. Adjusted analyses showed significant association between smoking and individual factors, which are the importance of slim image, average monthly allowance, and car ownership. For family factors, analyses showed significant association between smoking and parental marital status and smoking status of male siblings. Strong associations were seen between female smoking and environmental factors, such as having more smoker friends, having smokers as best friends, keeping cigarette-brand items, being offered free cigarette, and perceiving female smoking as normal. The identified risk factors could be used to develop more effective prevention programs to overcome smoking among young urban women.
  2. Manaf RA, Ismail IZ, Latiff LA
    Glob J Health Sci, 2012 Sep;4(5):91-9.
    PMID: 22980381 DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n5p91
    INTRODUCTION: Women with chronic medical conditions are at higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, which may be minimized through optimal preconception care and appropriate contraceptive use. This study aimed to describe contraceptive use among women with chronic medical conditions and factors associated with its non-use.
    METHODS: This study used cross-sectional data from a family planning survey among women with chronic medical conditions conducted in three health facilities in a southern state of Malaysia. A total of 450 married women in reproductive age (18-50 year) with intact uterus, and do not plan to conceive were analysed for contraceptive use. Both univariate and multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with contraceptive non-use among the study participants.
    RESULTS: A total of 312 (69.3%) of the study participants did not use contraceptive. Contraceptive non-use was highest among the diabetics (71.2%), connective tissue disease patients (68.6%) and hypertensive patients (65.3%). Only 26.3% of women with heart disease did not use contraceptive. In the multivariate analysis, contraceptive non-use was significantly more common among women who received their medical treatment in the health clinics as compared to those who received treatment in the hospital (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 2.79), being in older age group of 41-50 year (adjusted OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.48), having children (adjusted OR=4.57, 95% CI: 1.66, 12.57) and having lower education (adjusted OR=2.87, 95% CI: 1.43, 5.77).
    CONCLUSION: About two-third of women with chronic medical conditions who needed contraceptive did not use them despite the higher risk of pregnancy related complications. The high unmet need warrant an effective health promotion programme to encourage the uptake of contraceptives especially targeting women of older age group, low education and those who received their medical treatment at health clinics.
    Study site: Outpatient clinic, three hospitals; 8 health clinics, Malaysia
  3. Ismail S, Manaf RA, Mahmud A
    East Mediterr Health J, 2019 Jun 04;25(4):239-245.
    PMID: 31210344 DOI: 10.26719/emhj.19.011
    Background: Research on the health benefits of fasting is growing; this includes time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting.

    Aims: This article aims to review and highlight the similarities and differences between time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting during Ramadan.

    Methods: A scoping review was undertaken to identify relevant articles that answered the research question: what are the similarities and differences in characteristics of time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting? MEDLINE/PubMed was searched using the terms: time-restricted feeding, and weight. Inclusion criteria were: original research and review articles; written in English; and published between the years 2000 and 2017.

    Results: A total of 25 articles that answered the research question were included in the review: 15 original research papers and 10 reviews. The findings suggest that Ramadan fasting is a form of time-restricted feeding in the contemporary context because of the period when eating is not allowed. The fasting duration reported in time-restricted feeding ranged from 4 to 24 hours, which is longer than that of Islamic fasting which is between 8 and 20 hours. Both time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting have been found to have positive health effects, including weight reduction.

    Conclusion: Time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting have many similar characteristics and reported positive health effects.

  4. Nwabichie CC, Manaf RA, Ismail SB
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2018 Mar 27;19(3):825-831.
    PMID: 29582641
    Introduction: Cervical cancer is a health concern among women worldwide, presently ranking as the second to fourth common cancer type among women in different parts of the world. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are the main causative agents of cervical cancer. However, prevention is possible with early and regular cervical cancer screening.
    Objective: This study aimed to identify the cervical cancer screening practices and factors affecting the screening status of African immigrant women attending selected church services in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    Methodology: A cross-sectional study among 320 randomly selected respondents between ages 18-69 was conducted in three different churches with high numbers of African participants. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among the respondents. To ensure a good understanding, the questionnaire was written and self-explained in English language, because English is the general spoken language among the study population. Three levels of analysis were conducted using SPSS 21, involving descriptive analysis, chi square and multiple logistic regression.
    Results: The response rate was 98.2%, the majority (68.1%) of the respondents being aged 31-50 years and married. The prevalence of screening among the respondents over the past 3 years was 27.2%. Using a p-value of 0.05 as the significance level, the final model showed that marital status (p=0.004), knowledge (p=0.035), perceived barriers (p=0.003), and having a regular health care provider (p<0.001) were the only significant predicting factors of uptake of cervical screening among African immigrant women in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    Conclusion: The findings revealed that the uptake of cervical cancer screening among the African women was very low. Marital status, knowledge, perceived barriers and having a regular health care provider were the predictive factors. Specific awareness programs to increase uptake should be designed and implemented by the relevant authorities.
  5. Ganasegeran K, Renganathan P, Manaf RA, Al-Dubai SA
    BMJ Open, 2014;4(4):e004794.
    PMID: 24760351 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004794
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia.
    DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes.
    SETTING: Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital.
    PARTICIPANTS: All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records.
    RESULTS: Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression.
    CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.
    Study site: Endocrinology Clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Selangor, Malaysia
  6. Oluchi SE, Manaf RA, Ismail S, Udeani TK
    PMID: 31590340 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193752
    Fever is one of the most common symptoms of pediatric illnesses; it is an important early symptom of malaria. Fever had served as the entry point for presumptive treatment of malaria among children in Nigerian. Appropriate HSB is important when seeking treatment for fever among under-five children; this will help for better prognosis because treatment will be initiated early. This study attempted to identify caregiver's HSB for under-five children with fever. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Imo-State, Nigeria. Appropriate HSB was operationally defined as seeking treatment from health facility within 24 h of fever. Data were obtained using pretested self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22. Simple and multiple logistic regression were used to determine predictors of appropriate HSB. A total of 559 eligible respondents were recruited; 103 (18.6%) caregivers had appropriate HSB. The predictors of HSB are being male child (aOR = 2.760; 95% CI:1.536-4.958), the age of child younger than 27 months (aOR = 2.804; 95% CI:1.485-5.295), employed caregivers (aOR = 1.882; 95% CI:1.014-3.493), number of household members (aOR = 2.504; 95% CI:1.464-4.283), and caregivers who decided to seek treatment at early stage (aOR = 7.060; 95% CI:1.616-30.852). Only 18.6% caregivers practiced appropriate HSB for fever cases among under-five children. It is essential to educate caregivers and emphasise on early treatment of fever and appropriate use of health facilities for fever. The findings will be used to improve intervention at the community level and will be compared with follow-up data to evaluate their effectiveness.
  7. Manaf RA, Mahmud A, Ntr A, Saad SR
    BMC Public Health, 2021 05 06;21(1):876.
    PMID: 33957870 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10917-3
    BACKGROUND: The challenges faced by healthcare personnel in relation to dengue prevention and control are perennial but noticeably unexplored. It is often difficult to translate policies and decision making by the elite into astute management in consonance with the needs of rank-and-file personnel. In this study, we assess the impact of governance on dengue prevention and control activities in Malaysia as narrated by the elite.

    METHODS: A qualitative study using a case-study approach was conducted between January 2019 and November 2019 in the districts of Gombak and Klang, where the relevant key informants were located. Nineteen interviews were conducted among elite healthcare personnel from different divisions: management, vector, laboratory, inspectorate, health promotion and entomology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. The sample size was determined through saturation point criteria. Purposive sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. The interviews were audio recorded, and the transcribed text was analysed with deductive thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Data analysis led to the development of 5 themes and 13 categories. The major principles of governance were embodied in a milieu of predicament, linked to constraints but also opportunities. The constraints resulted from inherent determinants of dengue outbreaks, the serviceability of governing policies and the macro-economics of budget allocation. The opportunities to sustain governance at the local operating level stem from a prevalent supportive internal management system, collaborative efforts among corresponding external government agencies and willingness to innovate and embrace novel technology.

    CONCLUSION: Elites are influential, often well-informed personnel tasked with making decisions that can reverberate across an organisation, impacting future plans and strategic policies. Political arrangements at higher levels will reflect in advance the tone of how governance in dengue prevention and control is operationalised by entities and individuals at lower levels of the health system. The prevailing centralised structure in the Malaysian health system will continue to entrench the position of the elite and intertwine it with governance and its predicaments.

  8. Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Manaf RA, Jadoo SA, Al-Dubai SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:714754.
    PMID: 25654133 DOI: 10.1155/2015/714754
    This study aimed to explore factors associated with patient satisfaction of outpatient medical care in Malaysia. A cross-sectional exit survey was conducted among 340 outpatients aged between 13 and 80 years after successful clinical consultations and treatment acquirements using convenience sampling at the outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Malaysia, being the country's busiest medical outpatient facility. A survey that consisted of sociodemography, socioeconomic, and health characteristics and the validated Short-Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) scale were used. Patient satisfaction was the highest in terms of service factors or tangible priorities, particularly "technical quality" and "accessibility and convenience," but satisfaction was low in terms of service orientation of doctors, particularly the "time spent with doctor," "interpersonal manners," and "communication" during consultations. Gender, income level, and purpose of visit to the clinic were important correlates of patient satisfaction. Effort to improve service orientation among doctors through periodical professional development programs at hospital and national level is essential to boost the country's health service satisfaction.

    Study site: outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR
  9. Oluchi SE, Manaf RA, Ismail S, Kadir Shahar H, Mahmud A, Udeani TK
    PMID: 34501838 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18179245
    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an essential measure that is used to assess the effect of chronic disease management on the health status of an individual. Previous studies have identified various instruments used in the measuring of diabetes-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the various instruments used for the diabetes-specific measure of HRQOL, and place emphasis on its content and measurement properties. Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was used. A systematic search strategy was used to identify publications reporting diabetes HRQOL measures. The search terms used were: "diabetes quality of life", "measurements", and "instruments". The database that was searched includes PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, and Medline. Articles written in the English language and published from January 1990 to December 2020 were included. Those articles that did not measure HRQOL for diabetic patients were excluded. Results: A total of seventeen instruments met the inclusion criteria and included in the review. The appraisal of diabetes scale (ADS), Audit of Diabetes-Dependent QOL measure (ADDQOL), Diabetes Health Profile (DHP), and Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) are more suitable for single-scale questionnaires when investigating one or more specific aspects of diabetes-specific quality of life (QOL). The ADDQOL, ADS, Diabetes Impact Measurement Scales (DIMS), Diabetes Quality of Life Clinical Trial Questionnaire (DQLCTQ-R), Malay Version of Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL), Iranian Diabetes Quality of Life (IRDQOL), Brief Clinical Inventory, and PAID are relevant measures of HRQOL for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. The Asian Diabetes Quality of Life AsianDQOL, The Chinese Short Version of DQOL, Elderly Diabetes Burden Scale (EDBS), Malay Version of Diabetes Quality of Life (DQOL), are relevant measures of HRQOL for NIDDM patients. Only two instruments assess for responsiveness, namely PAID and DQLCTQ-R. In PAID, the effect sizes ranged from 0.32 to 0.65 for interventions. The DQLCTQ-R four domains were responsive to clinical change in metabolic control. Based on this review ADDQOL, DSQOLS, and EDBS psychometric properties are sufficient. Conclusion: Most studies did not check for responsiveness, and future studies should prioritize responsiveness to change, which was not included in the psychometric finding of the reviewed instruments.
  10. Mohd Tariq MN, Shahar HK, Baharudin MR, Ismail SNS, Manaf RA, Salmiah MS, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 09 24;21(1):1735.
    PMID: 34560858 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-11719-3
    BACKGROUND: Flood disaster preparedness among the community seldom received attention. Necessary intervention must be taken to prevent the problem. Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI) was developed following the Health Belief Model, particularly in improving flood disaster preparedness among the community. The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of HEBI on improving flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor. This study aims to develop, implement, and evaluate the impact of health education-based intervention (HEBI) based on knowledge, skills, and preparedness to improve flood disaster preparedness among the community in Selangor.

    METHOD: A single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial will conduct at six districts in Selangor. Randomly selected respondents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria will be invited to participate in the study. Health education module based on Health Believed Theory will be delivered via health talks and videos coordinated by liaison officers. Data at three-time points at baseline, immediate, and 3 months post-intervention will be collected. A validated questionnaire will assess participants' background characteristics, knowledge, skill, and preparedness on disaster preparedness and perception towards disaster. Descriptive and inferential statistics will be applied for data analysis using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 25. Longitudinal correlated data on knowledge, skills, preparedness, and perception score at baseline, immediate post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention will be analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    DISCUSSION: It is expected that knowledge, skills, preparedness, and flood disaster perception score are more significant in the intervention group than the control group, indicating the Health Education Based Intervention (HEBI).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thai Clinical Trial TCTR20200202002 .

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