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  1. Ng LC, Helen, Razak IA, Ghani WMN, Marhazlinda J, Rahman ZAA, Norlida A, et al.
    Ann Dent, 2015;22(1):2-5.
    MyJurnal
    This study aims to identify the relationship between dietary intakes of β-carotene with risk of oral cancer.
    Methods: A hospital-based, case-control study was conducted on 306 Malaysians who seek treatment at participating centres/hospitals. Subjects selected from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Data and Tissue Banking System (MOCDTBS) consisted of 153 cases and 153 controls that were matched for gender, age (±5 years) and ethnicity. Food consumption was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). NutrieMart Version 2.0.0 software was used to estimate daily nutrient of each subject from the FFQ. Logistic Regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio (OR) for intakes of β-carotene and oral cancer risk.
    Results: Intake of β-carotene was found to be not associated with risk of oral cancer (OR 0.83, 95%CI: 0.42-1.66, p>0.05).
    Conclusion: No significant association was found between dietary intakes of β-carotene with oral cancer risk in this study population.
  2. Karen-Ng, L.P., Hassan, S., Marhazlinda, J., Zain, R.B., Choon, Y.F.
    Ann Dent, 2012;19(2):62-65.
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to determine the
    DNA yield and quality from different non-invasive
    sampling methods and to identify the method which
    gave the highest DNA yield. Method: Thirty-eight
    volunteers had been recruited in this study where
    blood, buccal cells and saliva were collected using
    various collection techniques. Buccal cells were
    collected by 1) cytobrush and 2) saline mouth rinsing
    or “swish”. Meanwhile saliva was collected by passive
    drooling method. Upon processing the white blood
    cell (WBC), buccal cells and saliva samples, DNA
    extraction was performed according to the
    manufacturer’s protocol. Quantification and quality
    (DNA ratio at A260/A280) of the extracted DNA were
    determined using NanoDropND-1000®. T-test was
    performed to compare means between DNA obtained
    from various collection methods. Results: DNA yields
    from buccal cells collected with cytobrush, “swish”,
    saliva and WBC (mean ± SD) were (8.2 ± 5.9)ng/μl,
    (28.2 ± 14.9)ng/μl, (5.9 ± 9.5)ng/μl and (105.3 ±
    75.0)ng/μl respectively. Meanwhile the mean DNA
    ratio at A260/A280 for cytobrush, “swish”, saliva and
    WBC were 2.3, 2.0, 1.7 and 1.8 respectively. Post hoc
    test with Bonferroni correction suggested that DNA
    yield from “swish” technique exhibited the least mean
    different as compared to the DNA extracted from WBC
    (p
  3. Yusof, Z.Y.M., Marhazlinda, J., Nambiar, P., Chai, W.L., Shim, C.N., Lee, M.Y.
    Ann Dent, 2012;19(2):51-55.
    MyJurnal
    Background: In an academic setting due to financial constrain, it is not uncommon during non-surgical procedures dental students and clinical supervisors wash their gloved hands with disinfectants in between patients or when touching on non-contaminated objects. Whether this practice could cause any deterioration of the glove and expose clinicians and patients to infectious micro-organisms was a concern.
    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of multiple washes of gloved hands with a disinfectant on the integrity of the gloves. Methods: Three brands of commonly used gloves in a dental school were tested for leaks after multiple washes with a disinfectant. Thirty pairs of each type of gloves were subjected to 0, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 washes with a disinfectant solution at a 5-minute interval between each wash. After each washing cycle, the gloves were filled with 1L of water and hanged for 2 minutes to observe any signs of water leaks.
    Results: The results showed that the type of gloves and number of washes were significantly associated with the leakage rates (p<0.001). Washing of gloves for more than 5 times were at least 6 times higher to suffer from leakage (OR=6.23, 95% CI=2.14–18.08). Powdered gloves were almost 13 times higher to leak in all washes (OR=12.78, 95% CI= 4.40–37.14) and were almost 25 times more likely to leak when washed for more than 5 times (OR = 24.92, 95% CI = 5.79 – 107.21) when compared to the non-powdered gloves.
    Conclusion: The practice of washing gloved hands with a disinfectant deteriorates the integrity of the gloves.
    Key words: Cross infection, disinfectant, glove, leakage, micropores
  4. Ballo L, Arheiam A, Marhazlinda J
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 06 25;21(1):320.
    PMID: 34172041 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01681-2
    OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to assess the caries experience and associated factors and its impact on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among 6-year-old Libyan children.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey including 706 six-year-old children was conducted in 2017 in Benghazi, Libya. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire assessing socioeconomic status and oral health behaviours, and the Arabic version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (A-ECOHIS) to assess the OHRQoL. Clinical examination assessed caries experience at tooth level (dmft) and the number of decayed, missing due to caries and filled teeth (dt, mt and ft). Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine the association between dmft scores and the independent predictors. Linear regression analysis was conducted for ECOHIS scores with the children's gender, SES and OHB. The statistical significance was set to ≤  0.05.

    RESULTS: Data were available for 706 children. Caries prevalence (dt) and dmft of ≥ 1 were 69.1% and 71% respectively. The mean ± SD dmft score was 3.23 ± 3.32. There was a significant and direct association between dmft scores and daily consumption of sugary snacks (B = 1.27, P = 0.011) and a significant inverse association with teethbrushing twice daily (B = 0.80, P = 0.041). There was a significant and direct association between A-ECOHIS and dmft (B = 1.14, P ≤ 0.001) and a significant and inverse association between A- ECOHIS and high and intermediate family income compared to low income (B = -3.82, P = 0.0001 and B = -2.06, P = 0.028).

    CONCLUSIONS: 6-year-old Libyan children had a relatively high caries experience an untreated decay with impact on OHRQoL. Social disparities, sugar consumption patterns and oral hygiene practices were associated with high caries experience.

  5. Mamikutty R, Aly AS, Marhazlinda J
    Children (Basel), 2021 Jun 30;8(7).
    PMID: 34209268 DOI: 10.3390/children8070565
    A comprehensive search for primary studies using a sufficient number and relevant databases is critical to minimise bias and increase the validity of a systematic review. We examined the frequency and choices of databases commonly used to provide an efficient search of primary studies for a systematic review of anthropometric measurements and dental caries among children in Asia. Twelve previous systematic reviews on a similar topic were retrieved from six databases. The frequency and choice of databases used by reviewers were determined from the methods sections. We also identified the lists of other databases usually searched in other reviews. Eligibility criteria for final databases selection were the database's scope, the topic of interest, design of the study, type of article, and the accessibility of the databases. Of the 77 databases identified, previous reviews on this topic used 21 databases, ranging from 2 to 12 databases in each review. Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PubMed were employed most frequently. Twenty-six databases were eligible and selected for the present review. Twelve were regional databases to provide comprehensive coverage of primary studies. A systematic approach in selecting appropriate databases for searching primary studies is paramount to reduce errors, ensure coverage, and increase the validity of systematic reviews' conclusions.
  6. Mamikutty R, Aly AS, Marhazlinda J
    PMID: 34444374 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18168623
    In conducting a systematic review, assessing the risk of bias of the included studies is a vital step; thus, choosing the most pertinent risk of bias (ROB) tools is crucial. This paper determined the most appropriate ROB tools for assessing observational studies in a systematic review assessing the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries among children. First, we determined the ROB tools used in previous reviews on a similar topic. Subsequently, we reviewed articles on ROB tools to identify the most recommended ROB tools for observational studies. Of the twelve ROB tools identified from the previous steps, three ROB tools that best fit the eight criteria of a good ROB tool were the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for cohort and case-control studies, and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) for a cross-sectional study. We further assessed the inter-rater reliability for all three tools by analysing the percentage agreement, inter-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and kappa score. The overall percentage agreements and reliability scores of these tools ranged from good to excellent. Two ROB tools for the cross-sectional study were further evaluated qualitatively against nine of a tool's advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the AHRQ and NOS were selected as the most appropriate ROB tool to assess cross-sectional and cohort studies in the present review.
  7. Hamzah AM, Saub R, Marhazlinda J
    Healthcare (Basel), 2021 Dec 02;9(12).
    PMID: 34946395 DOI: 10.3390/healthcare9121669
    The WHO recommended pictorial health warnings (PHWs) on cigarette packs in 2003 to educate and warn the public of smoking effects. Malaysia too has implemented this policy since 2009. This study explored the public's understanding of the gazetted PHWs depicted on cigarette packs available in Malaysia. A qualitative study using four focus group discussions (FGDs) was conducted among smokers and non-smokers aged 18-40 in Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. Thematic analyses were performed using the Atlas Ti version 8.0 software. Six themes have emerged reflecting the public's understanding of the existing PHWs in Malaysia, namely, (i) awareness and exposures, (ii) recall and attention, (iii) perceived goals, (iv) perceived target groups, (v) attitude in understanding, and (vi) knowledge and meaning of PHWs. All participants were aware of the PHWs depicted on legal cigarettes but not seen on most illicit cigarettes. PHWs were perceived to give awareness and warning about the smoking effects targeting smokers and non-smokers. Participants understood the lung and oral health-related images easily than other body parts such as gangrene foot, miscarriages, etc. Besides enforcement on illicit cigarettes without PHWs, policymakers or relevant authorities should emphasize creating relevant and clear pictorial messages in educating the public to avoid confusion affecting the public's understanding of the PHWs.
  8. Ab Mumin N, Yusof ZYM, Marhazlinda J, Obaidellah U
    BMC Oral Health, 2021 08 11;21(1):394.
    PMID: 34380484 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-021-01741-7
    BACKGROUND: The Malaysian School Dental Service (SDS) was introduced to provide systematic and comprehensive dental care to school students. The service encompasses promotive, preventive, and, curative dental care. This study aimed to undertake a process evaluation of the SDS based on the perspectives of government secondary school students in Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: The study adopted a qualitative approach to explore the opinions of secondary school students on the SDS implementation in their schools. Data from focus group discussions involving Form Two (14-year-olds) and Form Four (16-year-olds) students from the selected schools were transcribed verbatim and coded using the NVivo software before framework method analysis was conducted.

    RESULTS: Among the strengths of the SDS were the convenience for students to undergo annual oral examination and dental treatment without having to visit dental clinics outside the school. The SDS also reduced possible financial burdens resulting from dental treatment costs, especially among students from low-income families. Furthermore, SDS helped to improve oral health awareness. However, the oral health education provided by the SDS personnel was deemed infrequent while the content and method of delivery were perceived to be less interesting. The poor attitude of the SDS personnel was also reported by the students.

    CONCLUSION: The SDS provides effective and affordable dental care to secondary school students. However, the oral health promotion and education activities need to be improved to keep up with the evolving needs of the target audience.

  9. Ab Mumin N, Yusof ZYM, Marhazlinda J, Obaidellah U
    Int J Dent Hyg, 2021 Oct 10.
    PMID: 34628709 DOI: 10.1111/idh.12556
    OBJECTIVE: Having good oral hygiene self-care, especially a regular toothbrushing habit will promote lifelong oral health. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence an adolescent's oral hygiene behaviour is important in developing effective oral health programmes for this age group. This study aimed to explore the motivators and barriers to adolescents' oral hygiene self-care by exploring the perspectives of secondary school students from three government schools in the state of Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with Form 2 (14-years-old) and Form 4 (16-years-old) students from selected secondary schools in Selangor using a semi-structured topic guide until data saturation was reached. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using framework method analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 10 FGDs were conducted involving 77 adolescents. The motivators for good oral hygiene self-care were appearance, fear of oral disease, consequences of oral disease and past toothache experience. The barriers for oral hygiene self-care were poor attitude towards oral care, lack of confidence in toothbrushing skills, snacking habit and the taste of toothpaste.

    CONCLUSION: Understanding the motivators and barriers to adolescents' oral hygiene self-care is the first step in designing effective oral health education messages. The findings from this study can be used as a guide for oral health education programmes and development of materials that fulfil the needs of the adolescent population.

  10. Karen-Ng LP, Marhazlinda J, Rahman ZA, Yang YH, Jalil N, Cheong SC, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(5):1161-6.
    PMID: 21875259
    Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs) found in cruciferous vegetables (Brassica spp.) has been reported to reduce cancer risk by inducing phase II conjugating enzymes, in particular glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). This case-control study was aimed at determining associations between dietary ITCs, GSTs polymorphisms and risk habits (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel-quid chewing) with oral cancer in 115 cases and 116 controls. Information on dietary ITC intake from cruciferous vegetables was collected via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were obtained for genotyping of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 using PCR multiplex and PCR-RFLP. Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to determine the association of ITC and GSTs polymorphism and risk of oral cancer. When dietary ITC was categorized into high (greater than/equal to median) and low (less than median) intake, there was no significant difference between cases and control group. Logistic regression yielding odd ratios resulted in no significant association between dietary ITC intake, GSTM1, GSTT1 or GSTP1 genotypes with oral cancer risk overall. However, GSTP1 wild-type genotype was associated with later disease onset in women above 55 years of age (p= 0.017). Among the men above 45 years of age, there was clinical significant difference of 17 years in the age of onset of oral cancer between GSTP1 wild-type + low ITC intake and GSTP1 polymorphism + high ITC intake (p= 0.001). Similar conditions were also seen among men above 45 years of age with risk habits like drinking and chewing as the earlier disease onset associated with GSTP1 polymorphism and high ITC intake (p< 0.001). This study suggests that combination effects between dietary ITCs, GSTP1 polymorphism and risk habits may be associated with the risk of oral cancer and modulate the age of disease onset.
  11. Madfa AA, Kadir MR, Kashani J, Saidin S, Sulaiman E, Marhazlinda J, et al.
    Med Eng Phys, 2014 Jul;36(7):962-7.
    PMID: 24834856 DOI: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2014.03.018
    Different dental post designs and materials affect the stability of restoration of a tooth. This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two shapes of dental posts (parallel-sided and tapered) made of five different materials (titanium, zirconia, carbon fibre and glass fibre) by investigating their stress transfer through the finite element (FE) method. Ten three-dimensional (3D) FE models of a maxillary central incisor restored with two different designs and five different materials were constructed. An oblique loading of 100 N was applied to each 3D model. Analyses along the centre of the post, the crown-cement/core and the post-cement/dentine interfaces were computed, and the means were calculated. One-way ANOVAs followed by post hoc tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the post materials and designs (p=0.05). For post designs, the tapered posts introduced significantly higher stress compared with the parallel-sided post (p<0.05), especially along the centre of the post. Of the materials, the highest level of stress was found for stainless steel, followed by zirconia, titanium, glass fibre and carbon fibre posts (p<0.05). The carbon and glass fibre posts reduced the stress distribution at the middle and apical part of the posts compared with the stainless steel, zirconia and titanium posts. The opposite results were observed at the crown-cement/core interface.
  12. Helen-Ng LC, Razak IA, Ghani WM, Marhazlinda J, Norain AT, Raja Jallaludin RL, et al.
    Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 2012 Dec;40(6):560-6.
    PMID: 22679921 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2012.00704.x
    The role of diet in cancer risk has mainly been investigated based on intake of individual food items. However, food consumption is made up of a combination of various food items. This study aims to determine the association of dietary patterns with oral cancer risk.
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