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  1. Martin AG, Singh MS, Idris B, Abdullah JM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2014 Jul;5(3):258-60.
    PMID: 25002765 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.133580
    Tuberous sclerosis is a known phakomatosis and the associated finding of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is common with this disorder. A case of tuberous sclerosis with a finding not previously reported, i.e. that of a pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, is presented here.
  2. Martin AG, Abdullah JY, Jaafar A, Ghani AR, Rajion ZA, Abdullah JM
    J Clin Neurosci, 2015 Apr;22(4):735-9.
    PMID: 25564264 DOI: 10.1016/j.jocn.2014.09.021
    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a surgical option in managing uncontrolled raised intracranial pressure refractory to medical therapy. The authors evaluate the addition of zygomatic arch (ZA) resection with standard DC and analyze the resulting increase in brain volume using three-dimensional volumetric CT scans. Measurements of brain expansion dimension morphometrics from CT images were also analyzed. Eighteen patients were selected and underwent DC with ZA resection. The pre- and post-operative CT images were analyzed for volume and dimensional changes. CT images of 29 patients previously operated on at the same center were retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and were similarly studied. The findings obtained from the two groups were compared and analyzed. Analysis from three-dimensional CT volumetric techniques revealed an significant increase of 27.97ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.98-180.36; p=0.048) when compared with standard DC. Brain expansion analysis of maximum hemicraniectomy diameter revealed a mean difference of 0.82cm (95% CI: 0.25-1.38; p=0.006). Analysis of the ratio of maximum hemicraniectomy diameter to maximum anteroposterior diameter gave a mean difference of 0.04 (95% CI: 0.05-0.07; p=0.026). The addition of ZA resection to standard DC may prove valuable in terms of absolute brain volume gain. This technique is comparable to other maneuvers used to provide maximum brain expansion in the immediate post-operative period.
  3. Balakrishnan B, Rus RM, Chan KH, Martin AG, Awang MS
    Asian J Neurosurg, 2019 4 3;14(1):201-205.
    PMID: 30937035 DOI: 10.4103/ajns.AJNS_49_18
    Context: Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) is a set of symptoms occurred after a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of PCS in a young adult population from a single Neurological Centre in Malaysia's East Coast and to evaluate the factors associated with PCS in MTBI patients.

    Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Neurological Centre at Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia, from January 2016 to December 2016.

    Subjects and Methods: A total of 209 patients; 133 males and 76 females, in the age range of 16-84 years, were randomly recruited for this study. All the selected patients were subjected to the checklist for diagnosis of PCS as per International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th edition classification at a 2-week interval.

    Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistic and Multivariable Logistic Regression Model were used for frequency and percentage analyses of categorical variables, using SPSS version 23.0.

    Results: Only 20 patients were identified with PCS. There were more female (70%) patients with PCS than the male (30%) patients. The prevalence of PCS for 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months since injuries were 9.6%, 8.1%, and 8.1% respectively. Majority (80%) of the patients were found to have PCS due to road traffic accidents, while the remaining were attributed to assault (15%), and falls (5%). Among the sample population, 25% were smokers, while 10% of them had either skull fracture or premorbidity.

    Conclusion: Less than 10% of patients with MTBI had PCS after 6 months' following trauma. None of the variables tested were significant factors for the development of PCS symptoms.

  4. Abdullah JY, Rajion ZA, Martin AG, Jaafar A, Ghani ARI, Abdullah JM
    Neurocirugia (Astur : Engl Ed), 2019 02 16;30(3):115-123.
    PMID: 30782505 DOI: 10.1016/j.neucir.2018.12.004
    INTRODUCTION: Intracranial volume (ICV) is an important tool in the management of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) surgery. The aim of this study was to validate ICV measurement applying the shape-based interpolation (SBI) method using open source software on computed tomography (CT) images.

    METHODS: The pre- and post-operative CT images of 55 patients undergoing DC surgery were analyzed. The ICV was measured by segmenting every slice of the CT images, and compared with estimated ICV calculated using the 1-in-10 sampling strategy and processed using the SBI method. An independent t test was conducted to compare the ICV measurements between the two different methods. The calculation using this method was repeated three times for reliability analysis using the intraclass correlations coefficient (ICC). The Bland-Altman plot was used to measure agreement between the methods for both pre- and post-operative ICV measurements.

    RESULTS: The mean ICV (±SD) were 1341.1±122.1ml (manual) and 1344.11±122.6ml (SBI) for the preoperative CT data. The mean ICV (±SD) were 1396.4±132.4ml (manual) and 1400.53±132.1ml (SBI) for the post-operative CT data. No significant difference was found in ICV measurements using the manual and the SBI methods (p=.983 for pre-op, and p=.960 for post-op). The intrarater ICC showed a significant correlation; ICC=1.00. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement between the manual and the SBI method.

    CONCLUSION: The shape-based interpolation method with 1-in-10 sampling strategy gave comparable results in estimating ICV compared to manual segmentation. Thus, this method could be used in clinical settings for rapid, reliable and repeatable ICV estimations.

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