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  1. Sharif Nia H, Lehto RH, Pahlevan Sharif S, Mashrouteh M, Goudarzian AH, Rahmatpour P, et al.
    Omega (Westport), 2021 Sep;83(4):760-776.
    PMID: 31366310 DOI: 10.1177/0030222819865407
    Ensuring use of valid and reliable scales for evaluating death anxiety that are relevant to the cultural context where they are applied is essential. The purpose of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) across cultures. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, SID, and Magiran databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1970 and 2017 using Mesh terms. Two independent researchers used Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies and Checklist of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy to evaluate study quality. Included studies were conducted in Iran, United States, Italy, China, Egypt, Spain, and Australia. Overall study quality was acceptable in 15 evaluated articles. However, findings demonstrated that two (one study), three (seven studies), four (four studies), and five factors (three studies) were extracted across the respective studies. Confirmatory concurrent validity was assessed in two studies. While Templer's DAS has stood the test of time as a commonly used index of capturing the conscious experience of death anxiety, there are psychometric inconsistencies in identified factor solutions across cultures. Findings emphasize the need for continued evaluation of how the DAS is translated in specific countries with assessment in relation to other death construct tools.
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