Displaying all 20 publications

  1. Mastura I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(2):113-6.
    PMID: 25606133 MyJurnal
    The Australian government had funded the National Primary Care Collaborative (NPCC) program with funding of $14.6 million over three years. One of the pilots project was the Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Quality Improvement Program (AMQuIP).The study aims to optimize general practitioners (GPs) management of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and knee by identifying gaps between their current practice and best practice. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative methodology with several Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles was employed. Participants comprises of 12 GPs/practices from two Victorian Divisions of general Practice (one rural, one metropolitan) with 10 patients per GP/practice. GPs/practices attended an orientation and three learning workshops and a videoconference. GPs/practices completed PDSA cycles between workshop and reported results at workshops. GPs/practices reported use of guidelines, change in patient management and change in practice management/systems. All recruited patients completed the SF-12v2 Health Survey and WOMAC OA Index Questionnaire twice. Follow up activities including focus groups and face-to-face interviews were held six months after the final workshop. All GPs/practices used the guidelines/key messages, introduced "new" management strategies to patients, and made positive changes to their practice management/systems. Patient reported positive changes and outcomes. By using a structured methodology and evidence-based guidelines/key messages; GPs can introduce new patient management strategies, and by identifying gaps in practice management systems, positive changes can be achieved.
  2. Mastura I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(1):52-4.
    PMID: 25606114
    Leadership in a huge and complex organisation like the Ministry of Health is important. The importance of leadership lies in the role it plays in defining the character, values and direction of an organization; and it's relation to organizational performance. Leadership is a quality that must be embedded within an organization for the organization to be successful and meet its objectives. Good leaders can be developed through a continuous process of self-study, education, training and experience. This concept of leadership also highlights the importance of seeking people with leadership talent, developing their potential and providing opportunities for them to lead.
  3. Mastura I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(3):168-9.
    PMID: 25606148
    This article described the author's reflection on conducting research in primary care. Certainly hand-on experience will give a better learning experience for a person to explore further in research and research training will help too. Conducting a collaborative research with other institutions also help in better research outcome. Research capacity building is important as most patients are seen in primary care.
  4. Mastura I
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(1):53-56.
    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) represent among the most common and debilitating conditions seen in primary care. Patients’ care will often involves multiple providers and follow-up requires persistence by patients and clinicians alike, therefore ideal outcomes are often difficult to achieve. The need for better disease management policies and practice is growing. This is due to the changing demographic profile of the population, the increasing cost of managing people in acute care hospitals and the availability of new technologies and services. All these changes enable a different care paradigm which is more cost effective and provides people with chronic conditions an improved quality of life. Management of the NCDs therefore offers an excellent opportunity to practice chronic disease management - a systems approach designed to ensure excellent care.
    The NCD team has developed a comprehensive approach to chronic disease care. We would like to describe the NCD Program in Ampangan Health Clinic which represents many typical government health clinics in Malaysia and the processes by which it was developed. Included are specific examples of the tools and how they can be used by individual clinicians in caring for patients. The integration of Chronic Disease Management Services into health care systems is the direction being undertaken to tackle the burden of chronic disease. Disease management supports the shift in healthcare from an emphasis on managing the acute episode to managing the entire disease course, highlighting both prevention and maintenance of wellbeing for patients with chronic diseases. Disease management promotes better integration and coordination of care across all aspects of the health sector.
  5. Mastura I, Teng CL
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):315-8.
    PMID: 19385492
    The quality of physician prescribing is suboptimal. Patients are at risk of potentially adverse reaction because of inappropriate or writing error in the drug prescriptions. We assess the effect of "group academic detailing" to reduce writing drug name using brand name and short form in the drug prescriptions in a controlled study at two primary health care clinics in Negeri Sembilan. Five medical officers in Ampangan Health Clinic received an educational intervention consisting of group academic detailing from the resident Family Medicine Specialist, as well as a drug summary list using generic names. The academic detailing focused on appropriate prescribing habit and emphasized on using the full generic drug name when writing the drug prescription. Analyses were based on 3371 prescriptions that were taken from two clinics. The other health clinic was for comparison. The prescribing rates were assessed by reviewing the prescriptions (two months each for pre- and post-intervention phase). Statistically significant reduction in writing prescription using brand name and using short form were observed after the educational intervention. Writing prescription using brand name for pre- and postintervention phase were 33.9% and 19.0% (postintervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.66) in the intervention clinic. Prescription writing using any short form for pre- and post-intervention phase were 49.2% and 29.2% (post-intervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.67). This low cost educational intervention focusing on prescribing habit produced an important reduction in writing prescription using brand name and short form. Group detailing appears to be feasible in the public health care system in Malaysia and possibly can be used for other prescribing issues in primary care.
  6. Mastura I, Mimi O, Piterman L, Teng CL, Wijesinha S
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):147-51.
    PMID: 18705449 MyJurnal
    The aims of this study were (i) to determine the prevalence of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) among Type 2 diabetes patients attending government health clinics and (ii) to ascertain the factors influencing SMBG. Five hundred and fifty-six Type 2 diabetes patients from two government health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The total subjects of the study were 556 patients. Eighty-five patients (15.3%) of patients; performed SMBG. However, 170 subjects were included in the statistical analysis, 85 patients who were not self-monitoring were randomly selected and was compared with 85 patients who were self-monitoring. Among those who performed SMBG, the majority (83.5%) monitored less than once per day and only 16.5% monitored at least once a day. One-third of patients adjusted their medications based on their SMBG results. The higher patient's level of education (p= 0.024, CI 1.29 - 35.3); the higher total family income (p= 0.041, CI 1.26 - 4.79); the longer duration of diabetes (p<0.01, CI 2.22 - 7.29); and treatment regime which includes insulin (p< 0.001, CI 2.05 -9.24) were significant predictors of SMBG practice. Although SMBG is recognised to be useful and effective in achieving diabetes control, this study has found that only a minority of patients with diabetes performed SMBG. Hence healthcare personnel must increase awareness on the importance of SMBG and strongly promote the practice among diabetic patients.
  7. Chew BH, Mastura I, Bujang MA
    Malays Fam Physician, 2013;8(3):11-8.
    PMID: 25893052 MyJurnal
    AIM: We examined disease profiles of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) at four different public health facilities in Malaysia to determine which site would be the most suitable for early and intensive diabetes care against diabetes-related complications.
    METHODS: This study analysed 57,780 T2D patients in the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry database in the year 2009. The four public health facilities were hospital with specialists (HS), hospital without specialists (HNS), health clinics with family medicine specialists (CS) and health clinic without doctors (CND). Descriptive analyses were used to examine age, duration of diseases, intervals from the onset of diabetes to co-morbidities (hypertension and dyslipidaemia) and complication of T2D patients at the four public health facilities.
    RESULTS: Patients were significantly older in HS. Patients with T2D at HS had significantly longer duration of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Health clinics, both the CS and the CND, were seeing T2D patients with shorter duration of macrovascular and microvascular complications.
    CONCLUSION: Public health clinics in this country managed T2D patients who were younger and at the early stage of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and complications. Thus, primary care physicians are best positioned to provide early and intensive diabetes care for this group of T2D patients to prevent the development of diabetes-related complications.
    diabetes complications; disease management; health facilities; primary health care; type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Study name: Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) 2009
  8. Mastura I, Zanariah H, Fatanah I, Feisul Idzwan M, Wan Shaariah MY, Jamaiyah H, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:76-7.
    PMID: 19227679
    Diabetes is a chronic condition that is one of the major causes of illness, disability, and death in Malaysia. Cost in managing diabetes plus indirect cost of lost work, pain, and suffering have all increased. The optimal management of patients with diabetes require the tracking of patients over time to monitor the progression of the disease, compliance with treatment, and preventive care. Diabetes care can be improved by standardizing access to, and improving the use of, clinical information. Access to timely, accurate and well-organized electronic data will improve the quality of care for patients with diabetes. Clinical Research Center convened an expert workshop to forecast how physicians, hospitals and clinics will employ clinical information technology (IT) applications to diabetes care over the next year. Workshop participants included experts from research organizations, government, and the IT vendor. This is a summary of the workshop organised for the purpose of the Audit of Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) project. We hope to identify the gaps, if any, that exists in delivering diabetes care and to improve the quality of care. In future, we hope to develop an expansion of this project for the Adult Diabetes Registry that will be implemented for the whole country.
  9. Chew BH, Mastura I, Cheong AT, Syed Alwi SAR
    Malays Fam Physician, 2010;5(3):134-138.
    PMID: 25606205 MyJurnal
    Hypertension is a common co-morbidity in diabetes mellitus (DM) that may lead to serious complications if not adequately controlled. This is a descriptive study based on data from the Audit of Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM) registry. This audit assessed the treatment and standard of control of hypertension in diabetic patients aged 18 years and above. Data were analysed using STATA version 9.From a total of 20 646 cases, about two third of them, 13 417 (65%) were reported to have hypertension. 19 484 (94.4%) had their blood pressure (BP) recorded and out of these, 11 414 (58.5%) were found to have BP >130/80 mmHg. 13 601 cases (65.9%) of the total sample were on antihypertensive drugs. 64.1% of those on antihypertensive drugs were prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blockers. 14.2% were on more than two types of antihypertensive drugs. Older patients and those with longer duration of DM were less likely to achieve the target BP of ≤130/80. In general, about 40% of diabetic cases registered in the ADCM project had their hypertension well controlled.
  10. Chew BH, Mastura I, Lee PY, Wahyu TS, Cheong AT, Zaiton A
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Aug;66(3):244-8.
    PMID: 22111449 MyJurnal
    Ethnicity is an important factor in diabetes care. The understanding of its effect in this country may help to improve diabetes care, glycaemic control and diabetic complication rates. This study was to determine the diabetes control profile in relation to complication rates between the three main ethnics group in Malaysia.
  11. Chew BH, Lee PY, Mastura I, Cheong AT, Sri Wahyu T, Zaiton A
    An audit of Diabetes Control and Management-Diabetes Registry Malaysia (ADCM-DRM) was started to monitor the provision of diabetes care in the country. A total of 20,646 patients were registered in the registry until 31st December 2008. This report set out to determine the Type 2 diabetes controls and treatment profiles of these cohorts of patients. This was a registry-based observational study conducted from May to December, 2008. An online standard case record form was available for site data providers to register their diabetic patients aged 18 years old and above annually. Demographic data, diabetes duration, treatment modalities, as well as various risk factors and diabetes complications were reported. Data were analyzed using Data Analysis and Statistical Software (Stata) version 9. A total of 81 centres, 6 of which were hospitals, participated in this registry until 31st December 2008, contributing a total of 20646 patients. A majority of them (99.2%) had Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mean HbA1c was 8.0% (SD 2.10), with 30.1% and 17.9% of the patients who attained HbA1c < 7% and HbA1c < 6.5%, respectively. Metformin was prescribed more than sulfonylurea while only 11% had insulin. A review of the diabetic care policy and strategies in the primary health care clinics is needed to implement a more effective treatment of diabetes in this country.
  12. Chew BH, Shariff-Ghazali S, Lee PY, Cheong AT, Mastura I, Haniff J, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Oct;68(5):397-404.
    PMID: 24632869 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes care at different healthcare facilities varied from significantly better at one setting to no difference amongst them. We examined type 2 diabetes patient profiles, disease control and complication rates at four public health facilities in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed data from diabetes registry database, the Adult Diabetes Control and Management (ADCM). The four public health facilities were hospital with specialist (HS), hospital without specialist (HNS), health clinics with family physicians (CS) and health clinic without doctor (CND). Independent risk factors were identified using multivariate regression analyses.
    RESULTS: The means age and duration of diabetes in years were significantly older and longer in HS (ANOVA, p< 0.0001). There were significantly more patients on insulin (31.2%), anti-hypertensives (80.1%), statins (68.1%) and antiplatelets (51.2%) in HS. Patients at HS had significantly lower means BMI, HbA1c, LDL-C and higher mean HDL-C. A significant larger proportion of type 2 diabetes patients at HS had diabetes-related complications (2-5 times). Compared to the HS, the CS was more likely to achieve HbA1c ≤ 6.5% (adjusted OR 1.2) and BP target < 130/80 mmHg (adjusted OR 1.4), the HNS was 3.4 times more likely not achieving LDL-C target < 2.6 mmol/L.
    CONCLUSION: Public hospitals with specialists in Malaysia were treating older male Chinese type 2 diabetes patients with more complications, and prescribed more medications. Patients attending these hospitals achieved better LDL-C target but poorer in attaining BP and lower HbA1c targets as compared to public health clinics with doctors and family physicians.
  13. Sazlina SG, Mastura I, Cheong AT, Bujang Mohamad A, Jamaiyah H, Lee PY, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2015 May;56(5):284-90.
    PMID: 25814074 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015055
    Introduction: We assessed the predictors of poor glycaemic control among older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Malaysia.
    Methods: This cross-sectional study used the data of 21,336 patients aged ≥ 60 years with T2DM from the Adult Diabetes Control and Management Registry 2008-2009.
    Results: Predictors of poor glycaemic control were: age groups 60-69 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66-2.33) and 70-79 years (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.71); Malay (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.41-1.66) and Indian (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19-1.46) ethnicities; T2DM durations of 5-10 years (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.35-1.58) and > 10 years (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.59-1.91); the use of oral antidiabetic agents only (OR 5.86, 95% CI 3.32-10.34), insulin only (OR 17.93, 95% CI 9.91-32.43), and oral antidiabetic agents and insulin (OR 29.42, 95% CI 16.47-52.53); and elevated blood pressure (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.20), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.38-1.59) and triglycerides (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.51-1.73). Hypertension (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.64-0.80), hypertension and dyslipidaemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.75), pre-obesity (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.98) and obesity (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.84) were less likely to be associated with poor glycaemic control.
    Conclusion: Young-old and middle-old age groups (i.e. < 80 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities, longer T2DM duration, the use of pharmacological agents, and elevated blood pressure and lipid levels were associated with poor glycaemic control. The presence of comorbidities, pre-obesity and obesity were less likely to be associated with poor glycaemic control.
    Keywords: Malaysia; diabetes mellitus; glycaemic control; older patients; registry.
  14. Cheong AT, Lee PY, Sazlina SG, Mohamad Adam B, Chew BH, Mastura I, et al.
    BMC Fam Pract, 2013;14:188.
    PMID: 24325794 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-14-188
    BACKGROUND: Women of reproductive age are a group of particular concern as diabetes may affect their pregnancy outcome as well as long-term morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to compare the clinical profiles and glycemic control of reproductive and non-reproductive age women with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in primary care settings, and to determine the associated factors of poor glycemic control in the reproductive age group women.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using cases reported by public primary care clinics to the Adult Diabetes Control and Management registry from 1st January to 31st December 2009. All Malaysian women aged 18 years old and above and diagnosed with T2D for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The target for glycemic control (HbA1c < 6.5%) is in accordance to the recommended national guidelines. Both univariate and multivariate approaches of logistic regression were applied to determine whether reproductive age women have an association with poor glycemic control.
    RESULTS: Data from a total of 30,427 women were analyzed and 21.8% (6,622) were of reproductive age. There were 12.5% of reproductive age women and 18.0% of non-reproductive age women that achieved glycemic control. Reproductive age group women were associated with poorer glycemic control (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.8). The risk factors associated with poor glycemic control in the reproductive age women were being of Malay and Indian race, longer duration of diabetes, patients on anti-diabetic agents, and those who had not achieved the target total cholesterol and triglycerides.
    CONCLUSION: Women with T2D have poor glycemic control, but being of reproductive age was associated with even poorer control. Health care providers need to pay more attention to this group of patients especially for those with risk factors. More aggressive therapeutic strategies to improve their cardiometabolic control and pregnancy outcome are warranted.
  15. Sazlina SG, Mastura I, Ahmad Z, Cheong AT, Adam BM, Jamaiyah H, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2014 Jan;14(1):130-7.
    PMID: 23581598 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12070
    The aims of the present study were to assess the control of glycemia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the association between age and these controls among older adults with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
  16. Chew BH, Mastura I, Shariff-Ghazali S, Lee PY, Cheong AT, Ahmad Z, et al.
    Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2012;11:54.
    PMID: 22607105 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-54
    BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) is a significant contributor of morbidity and even mortality in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. This study was done to determine the significant determinants of uncontrolled blood pressure in T2D patients in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Between 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2009, data from 70 889 patients with Type 2 diabetes was obtained from the Adult Diabetes Control and Management Registry for analysis; 303 centers participated in the study. Their demographic characteristics, the nature of their diabetes, their state of hypertension, treatment modalities, risk factors, and complications are described. Based on their most recent BP values, subjects were divided into controlled BP and uncontrolled BP and their clinical determinants compared. Independent determinants were identified using multivariate logistic regression.
    RESULTS: The mean age of patients at diagnosis of diabetes was 52.3 +/- 11.1 years old. Most were women (59.0 %) and of Malay ethnicity (61.9 %). The mean duration of diabetes was 5.9 +/- 5.6 years. A total of 57.4 % were hypertensive. Of the 56 503 blood pressure (BP) measured, 13 280 (23.5 %) patients had BP <130/80 mmHg. Eighteen percent was on > two anti-hypertensive agents. Health clinics without doctor, older age (>/= 50 years old), shorter duration of diabetes (< 5 years), Malay, overweight were determinants for uncontrolled blood pressure (BP >/=130/80 mmHg). Patients who were on anti-hypertensive agent/s were 2.7 times more likely to have BP >/=130/80 mmHg. Type 2 diabetes patients who had ischaemic heart disease or nephropathy were about 20 % and 15 % more likely to have their blood pressure treated to target respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Major independent determinants of uncontrolled BP in our group of T2D patients were Malay ethnicity, older age, recent diagnosis of diabetes, overweight and follow-up at health clinics without a doctor and possibly the improper use of anti hypertensive agent. More effort, education and resources, especially in the primary health care centres are needed to improve hypertensive care among our patients with diabetes.
  17. Lee PY, Cheong AT, Zaiton A, Mastura I, Chew BH, Sazlina SG, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2013 Jul;25(4):316-25.
    PMID: 22186400 DOI: 10.1177/1010539511430521
    This study aimed to examine the control of cardiovascular risk factors among the ethnic groups with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia. The authors analyzed the data of 70 092 adults from the Malaysian diabetes registry database. Malays had the worst achievement of target for most of the risk factors. Indians had poor achievement of control for waist circumference (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-0.7) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.5). As compared with the Malays, the Chinese had a better achievement of target control for the risk factors, including the following: body mass index (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.4), blood pressure (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.3-1.4), total cholesterol (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.6-1.8), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.6-1.8), glycated hemoglobin A1c (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.3-1.4) and fasting blood glucose (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.3-1.5). Ethnicity, sociocultural factors, and psychobehavioral factors should be addressed in designing and management strategies for the control of cardiovascular risk factors among type 2 diabetes patients.
  18. Teng CL, Achike FI, Phua KL, Nurjahan MI, Mastura I, Asiah HN, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Aug;61(3):323-31.
    PMID: 17240584
    We assessed the effectiveness of an educational intervention in reducing antibiotic prescribing in public primary care clinics in Malaysia. Twenty-nine medical officers in nine clinics received an educational intervention consisting of academic detailing from the resident Family Medicine Specialist, as well as an information leaflet. The antibiotic prescribing rates were assessed for six months - three months before and three months after the intervention. A total of 28,562 prescriptions were analyzed. Among participating doctors, general antibiotic prescribing rates for pre- and post-intervention phases were 14.3% and 11.0% (post-intervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.83). The URTI-specific antibiotic prescribing rates for pre- and post-intervention phases were 27.7% and 16.6%, respectively (post-intervention vs pre-intervention RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.66). No significant change in antibiotic prescribing rates was observed among primary care practitioners who did not participate in the study. This low cost educational intervention using both active and passive strategies focusing on URTI produced a statistically significant (and clinically important) reduction in antibiotic prescribing.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  19. Leong KC, Chen WS, Leong KW, Mastura I, Mimi O, Sheikh MA, et al.
    Fam Pract, 2006 Dec;23(6):699-705.
    PMID: 16916871
    BACKGROUND: Non-attendance is common in primary care and previous studies have reported that reminders were useful in reducing broken appointments.
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of a text messaging reminder in improving attendance in primary care.
    Multicentre three-arm randomized controlled trial.
    SETTING: Seven primary care clinics in Malaysia. Participants. Patients (or their caregivers) who required follow-up at the clinics between 48 hours and 3 months from the recruitment date. Interventions. Two intervention arms consisted of text messaging and mobile phone reminders 24-48 hours prior to scheduled appointments. Control group did not receive any intervention. Outcome measures. Attendance rates and costs of interventions.
    RESULTS: A total of 993 participants were eligible for analysis. Attendance rates of control, text messaging and mobile phone reminder groups were 48.1, 59.0 and 59.6%, respectively. The attendance rate of the text messaging reminder group was significantly higher compared with that of the control group (odds ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.17, P = 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in attendance rates between text messaging and mobile phone reminder groups. The cost of text messaging reminder (RM 0.45 per attendance) was lower than mobile phone reminder (RM 0.82 per attendance).
    CONCLUSIONS: Text messaging reminder system was effective in improving attendance rate in primary care. It was more cost-effective compared with the mobile phone reminder.
  20. Nurain MN, Marmuji LZ, Mastura I, Michael FH, Barakatun-Nisak MY, Yusof M, et al.
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):55-59.
    PMID: 32175041
    Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with risks to the woman and her developing fetus. Management of the condition at the primary care level includes pre-conception care, screening, diagnosis, as well as antenatal and postpartum care. A multidisciplinary approach is essential in ensuring its holistic management.
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