MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influx of immune cells, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequent accumulation of synovial fluid (swelling) and pain manifest into the disease. The present study used CFA induced Balb/c mice model and treated them intraperitoneally with andrographolide and dexamethasone (used as a positive control) on alternate days for six days. After 6 days, blood and peritoneal macrophages were collected to evaluate the expression of various arthritic markers and paw edema was measured on all days.
RESULTS: The in vitro and ex vivo experiments showed that andrographolide treated animal group had reduced paw edema, cell cytotoxicity and nitric oxide production than dexamethasone treated animal group. Further, the study revealed the mechanistic role of andrographolide in treatment of arthritis by suppressing battery of molecules like COX-2, NF-κB, p-p38, CD40, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 involved in arthritis.
CONCLUSION: The study showed the potent anti-arthritic effects of andrographolide and warrants further investigations on andrographolide for the development of safe and effective anti-arthritic drug.