Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 171 in total

  1. Mohd Anis, H., Syed Mohamed, A., Ahmad Razid, S.
    A cross»sectional study using self administered questionnaires on sociodemographic and service factors influencing locum practice was undertaken among all Government medical officers in Negeri Sembilan and Malacca for 8 months from 2 7 April 1999 to 9. l January ZOOO. Universally chosen samples were made of 335 Government medical officers from both the 'Public Health Division' and ”Hospital Division' and from 154 who responded, only 147 samples were chosen and analysed in the study. Results revealed that locum were still being practised by 51 .9% of male Government medical officers, 41 .0% of Government medical ofhcers aged less than 30 years, 43.4% of Government medical officers who had served less than 5 years and 55.6% of Government medical officers who had earned nett income less than RM 1 000. Meanwhile, 80.9% of Government medical officers who had earned gross income more than RM 5 OOO did not practice locum during the study. Logistic Regression analysis then revealed that locum practice among Government medical ofhcers can positively be influenced by gender (male) , Malay ethnic, service duration of less than 5 years, practice in the 'Public Health Divisionl and nett income of less than RM 1 OOO (p
  2. Nor, N.A.M., Murat, N., Mohamed, A., Gamboa, A.
    Ann Dent, 2012;19(2):56-61.
    In Malaysia, training to enter dental
    nursing profession is only open to women. Ironically,
    there are no such gender restrictions on training for
    any other health related professions in Malaysia.
    Aim: Therefore this study aims to assess the
    perceptions of Malaysian Senior Dental Officers
    (SDOs) towards the employability of male workers in
    the dental nursing profession and to compare findings
    from male and female SDOs. Methods: This cross
    sectional study was carried out on all SDOs in
    Ministry of Health, Malaysia, using a self-administered
    questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and a chi square
    test were used to address the study objectives. Results:
    Of the 112 participants, 78 SDOs returned the
    questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 70%. The
    majority of SDOs had positive perceptions of the
    employment of male dental nurses. It was indicated that
    gender is an important indicator for workforce
    development, and that the employment of both male
    and female dental nurses would enhance productivity.
    Almost 70% of SDOs perceived that the productivity
    of oral health service would be enhanced by having
    male and female dental nurses but 84.6% disagreed
    that male dental nurses would be more productive than
    female. Two thirds of SDOs disagreed that male dental
    nurses would increase satisfaction among male
    patients. About 64% of male SDOs disagreed that
    dental nursing profession is associated with female
    traits. There was no significant difference between
    perceptions by male and female SDOs for any
    statements. Conclusion: The majority of Malaysian
    SDOs have positive perceptions towards the
    employability of male dental nurses, and perceived
    dental nursing as a suitable profession for both
    genders. Training for the dental nursing profession
    should therefore be made available for men.
  3. Shafie AA, Hassali MA
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Apr;8(2):116-21.
    PMID: 25132879
    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the value of the dispensing service of pharmacists from the general public's perspective using the contingent valuation technique in the State of Penang, Malaysia.
  4. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2015 06 15;13(2):506.
    PMID: 26131039
    BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, pharmacists are facing many challenges while they try to enhance the quality of services provided to patients approaching community pharmacies.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore perception of community pharmacists in Dubai regarding the obstacles to enhanced pharmacy services using a part of the results from a nation-wide quantitative survey.

    METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 281 full-time licensed community pharmacists in Dubai. The questionnaire had 5 inter-linked sections: demographic information, information about the pharmacy, interaction with physicians, pharmacists' current professional role, and barriers to enhanced pharmacy services.

    RESULTS: About half of the respondents (45.4%, n=90) agreed that pharmacy clients under-estimate them and 52.5% (n=104) felt the same by physicians. About 47.5% (n=94) of the respondents felt that they are legally unprotected against profession's malpractice. Moreover, 64.7% (n=128) stated that pharmacy practice in Dubai turned to be business-focused. In addition, 76.8% (n=252) found that one of the major barriers to enhanced pharmacy services is the high business running cost. Pharmacists screened tried to prove that they are not one of the barriers to optimized pharmacy services as 62.7% (n=124) disagreed that they lack appropriate knowledge needed to serve community and 67.7% (n=134) gave the same response when asked whether pharmacy staff lack confidence when treating consumers or not.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although being well established within the community, pharmacists in Dubai negatively perceived their own professional role. They stated that there are number of barriers which hinder optimized delivery of pharmacy services like under-estimation by pharmacy clients and other healthcare professionals, pressure to make sales, and high running cost.

  5. Khan TM, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2010 Mar;7(1):27-35.
    PMID: 22477920
    Background. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge and perception of depression among students of University Sains Malaysia (USM), in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia.
    Method. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a pre-validated 21-item questionnaire among students at USM.
    Results. A total of 500 respondents participated in the survey comprising 24.6% (n=123) males and 75.4% (n=377) females. Half (50.0%, n=250) were Malays, followed by Chinese (44.0%, n=220) and Indians (6.0%, n=30). Whilst exploring the respondents' knowledge of the symptoms of depression, it was found that Chinese females had a comparatively better knowledge (P=0.058) of the symptoms of depression in comparison with Malays and Indians. Overall, social issues were attributed as the possible cause of depression. A cursory knowledge level was observed regarding medication for depression. Female students were more inclined towards the use of alternative and traditional medicines. However, with regard to seeking professional help, consultation with a psychiatrist was preferred by the majority.
    Conclusion. Overall, a moderate level of knowledge about the symptoms of depression and a cursory knowledge of its therapy were observed. Those with personal experience of depression had better knowledge of the symptoms and therapy. Alternative treatments and traditional medicines were also favoured. There is a risk that this may affect the ability of Malaysian youths to seek evidence-based mental health care.
  6. Hassali MA, Khan TM, Shafie AA
    Inform Prim Care, 2010;18(3):213-6.
    PMID: 21396245
    This study aimed to identify the types of drug information resources used by community pharmacists in daily practice in Penang, Malaysia.
  7. Dawood OT, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2016 06 15;14(2):740.
    PMID: 27382428 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2016.02.740
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the pattern and practice of medicine use among the general public; and to explore the key factors influencing medicine use among medicine users.

    METHODS: A qualitative approach using focus group discussions was conducted to get in-depth information about medicines use pattern and practice from the general public. Adult people who reported using medicines at the time of study or in the previous month were approached. Two focus group discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analysed using thematic content analysis.

    RESULTS: This study found that there are some misunderstanding about the appropriate use of medicines. The majority of the participants reported that they were complying with their medication regimen. However, forgetting to take medicines was stated by 4 participants while 2 participants stopped taking medicines when they felt better. In addition, 10 participants reporting using medicines according to their own knowledge and past experience. Whereas 4 participants took medicines according to other informal resources such as family, friends or the media. Seven participants have experienced side effects with using medicines, 4 of them informed their doctor while 3 participants stopped taking medicines without informing their doctor.

    CONCLUSION: There was a misunderstanding about medicines use in terms of medication compliance, self-management of the illness and the resources of information about using medicines. Many efforts are still needed from health care professionals to provide sufficient information about medicines use in order to decrease the risk of inappropriate use of medicines and to achieve better therapeutic outcome.

  8. Nguyen TA, Hassali MAA, McLachlan A
    WHO South East Asia J Public Health, 2013 Jan-Mar;2(1):72-74.
    PMID: 28612828 DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.115849
    Generic medicines are a key strategy used by governments and third-party payers to contain medicines costs and improve the access to essential medicines. This strategy represents an important opportunity provided by the global intellectual property regimes to discover and develop copies of original products marketed by innovator companies once the patent protection term is over. While there is an extensive experience regarding generic medicines policies in developed countries, this evidence may not translate to developing countries. The generic medicines policies workshop at the Asia Pacific Conference on National Medicines Policies 2012 provided an important opportunity to discuss and document country-specific initiatives for improving access to and the rational of use of generic medicines in the Asia Pacific region. Based on the identified barriers and enablers to implementation of generic medicines policies in the region, a set of future action plans and recommendations has been made.
  9. Ong SW, Hassali MA, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2018 06 27;16(2):1166.
    PMID: 30023025 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2018.02.1166
    Objective: The current study was carried out to assess community pharmacists' perceptions towards online health information, to examine the type of information seek from Internet and to identify the barriers when they retrieved online health information.

    Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey whereby all (300) community pharmacists practicing in Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were targeted for data collection. A 35-itemed questionnaire was posted out along with a stamped addressed envelope, invitation letter and support letter. Responses were also accepted via online response. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 20.0.

    Results: A total of 67 responses were received with a response rate of 22.3%. The top three frequently health information searched by respondents were medicine information, general healthcare information and disease-related information. High number of respondents agreed that Internet had too much health information to scan through. Gender (p=0.018) showed significant association with visiting established health websites. Meanwhile, statistical significant was observed between age and searching medicine information (p=0.037), undertaking online continuing professional development (p=0.023), as well as searching clinical guidelines (p=0.047). Respondents' education level showed significant association with uncertainty about the reliability of online health information (p=0.023) and unsure about filtering the information (p=0.007).

    Conclusions: Majority of the respondents expressed positive perception with the use of Internet for health information. The findings of the current study showed the widely use of Internet for health information among community pharmacists. Hence, this study provides opportunity for future works to further examine community pharmacist's retrieval and appraisal skills for online health information, as well as application of this information into their daily pharmacy practice.

  10. Lee HS, Singh JK, Ismail MA
    Sci Rep, 2017 02 03;7:41935.
    PMID: 28157233 DOI: 10.1038/srep41935
    A new technique was accepted to fill the porosity of Al coating applied by arc thermal spray process to enhance corrosion resistance performance in artificial ocean water. The porosity is the inherent property of arc thermal spray coating process. In this study, applied coating was treated with different concentrations of ammonium phosphate mono basic (NH4H2PO4: AP) solution thereafter dried at room temperature and kept in humidity chamber for 7d to deposit uniform film. The corrosion resistance of Al coating and treated samples have been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic techniques with exposure periods in artificial ocean water. Electrochemical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) indicated that phosphate ion would have been retarding corrosion of Al coating effectively. The formation of AHP (Ammonium Aluminum Hydrogen Phosphate Hydrate: NH4)3Al5H6(PO4)8.18H2O) on Al coating surface after treatment with AP is nano sized, crystalline and uniformly deposited but after exposure them in artificial ocean water, they form AHPH (Aluminum hydroxide phosphate hydrate Al3(PO4)2(OH)3(H2O)5) that is very protective, adherent, uniform and plate like morphology of corrosion products. The AHPH is sparingly soluble and adherent to surface and imparted improved corrosion resistance.
  11. Mohamed A-A, Eleuch H, Ooi CHR
    Sci Rep, 2019 Dec 23;9(1):19632.
    PMID: 31873086 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-55548-2
    We analytically investigate two separated qubits inside an open cavity field. The cavity is initially prepared in a superposition coherent state. The non-locality correlations [including trace norm measurement induced non-locality, maximal Bell-correlation, and concurrence entanglement] of the two qubits are explored. It is shown that, the generated non-locality correlations crucially depend on the decay and the initial coherence intensity of the cavity field. The enhancement of the initial coherence intensity and its superposition leads to increasing the generated non-locality correlations. The phenomena of sudden birth and death entanglement are found.
  12. Khan TM, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Tahir H
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2011 Sep;8(3):205-8.
    PMID: 22942902
    Objectives To identify the aetiology and clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Psychiatry Clinic, Public Hospital, Pulau Penang, Malaysia. Retrospective evaluations of records were conducted between January 2002 and December 2007. The data were analysed using the statistical software, SPSS v. 131®.Results Ninety-six (56.8%) of the patients were Chinese, the mean (± SD) age of the patients was 45 ± 17.8 years, with a majority (72; 42.6%) aged over 50 years. The incidence of depression with comorbid hypertension and comorbid diabetes mellitus was significant among women aged over 50 (P < 0.001 (hypertension) P < 0.015 (diabetes mellitus)). Marital and relationship problems were found to significantly affect Chinese women aged 15-30 years (P = 0.019). In terms of the clinical presentation of depression among Malaysian women, suicidal ideation and somatic symptoms like reduced energy/being easily fatigued were more frequent among Chinese.Conclusion Symptoms of being short-tempered, crying, restless and doubtful/distracted should not be neglected in primary care because of the possibility of mental health disorders. The timely evaluation of diabetic and hypertensive patients is an ideal strategy to prevent mental health disorders.

    Study site: Psychiatry Clinic, Public Hospital, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  13. Alfadl AA, Hassali MA, Ibrahim MI
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2013 May-Jun;9(3):302-10.
    PMID: 22835708 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.05.002
    The counterfeit drug trade has become widespread and has developed into a substantial threat to both the public's health and the pharmaceutical industry.
  14. Dkhil MA, Delic D, El Enshasy HA, Abdel Moneim AE
    Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016;2016:7468524.
    PMID: 27148432 DOI: 10.1155/2016/7468524
  15. Sideek MA, Teia A, Kopecki Z, Cowin AJ, Gibson MA
    J. Mol. Histol., 2016 Feb;47(1):35-45.
    PMID: 26644005 DOI: 10.1007/s10735-015-9645-0
    We have recently shown that Latent transforming growth factor-beta-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) has a single high-affinity binding site for fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and that LTBP-2 blocks FGF-2 induced cell proliferation. Both proteins showed strong co-localisation within keloid skin from a single patient. In the current study, using confocal microscopy, we have investigated the distribution of the two proteins in normal and fibrotic skin samples including normal scar tissue, hypertrophic scars and keloids from multiple patients. Consistently, little staining for either protein was detected in normal adult skin and normal scar samples but extensive co-localisation of the two proteins was observed in multiple examples of hypertrophic scars and keloids. LTBP-2 and FGF-2 were co-localised to fine fibrous elements within the extracellular matrix identified as elastic fibres by immunostaining with anti-fibrillin-1 and anti-elastin antibodies. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of RNA samples from multiple patients confirmed dramatically increased expression of LTBP-2 and FGF-2, similar TGF-beta 1, in hypertrophic scar compared to normal skin and scar tissue. Overall the results suggest that elevated LTBP-2 may bind and sequester FGF-2 on elastic fibres in fibrotic tissues and modulate FGF-2's influence on the repair and healing processes.
  16. Khan TM, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Tahir H
    Ment Health Fam Med, 2009 Dec;6(4):219-27.
    PMID: 22477913
    This study aims to explore attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and the barriers that result in delays in seeking help among the various ethnic groups in Penang, Malaysia. In June 2007 a questionnaire-based survey was undertaken in Penang. Face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 1855 respondents were approached to participate in the study by adopting a cluster random sampling method. A 25-item questionnaire was used to explore public attitudes towards, complications of and preventive measures for depression and delays in seeking help. A total of 1149 (61.94%) showed willingness to participate in the survey. Ethnically, 490 (42.6%) of the respondents who participated in the survey were Malay, while 413 (35.9%) were Chinese, 149 (13%) Indian and 97 (8.4%) from other ethnic minorities. The mean age of the respondents was 30 years (SD ± 11.5). In evaluating public attitudes, the majority (n = 910, 79.2%) agreed with the statement that family and friends can enhance the depression recovery process by providing more care and attention to the patient and this was found to be statistically significant (P ≤0.001). More than one-third of the respondents (n = 437, 38.0%) perceived depression as a normal medical condition and believed that it subsides automatically. The majority (n = 830, 72.2%) stated that depression results in social problems, while some felt that it can lead to raised blood pressure (n = 518, 45.1%). In terms of prevention, most of the respondents indicated that one can prevent depression by maintaining a good social life. In evaluating the barriers to seeking professional help, the majority (n = 582, 50.7%) stated that they did not believe they were at risk, with the next largest group identifying a lack of awareness regarding the signs and symptoms. However, a positive attitude was observed towards the complications and prevention of depression. Initiatives to increase mental health literacy will prove fruitful in neutralising the negative public perceptions towards the treatment of depression and barriers to seeking professional help.
  17. Hadi MA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Awaisu A
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2010 Jan;8(1):29-34.
    PMID: 25152790
    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among women of all ethnic and age groups in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and methods of screening among female university students and their perception towards the disease treatment outcomes.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from February to March 2008 at Universiti Sains Malaysia. Two hundred participants from 10 randomly selected faculties were interviewed face to face by a trained pharmacist using a validated questionnaire. In addition to their demographic characteristics, participants were required to answer 22 questions concerning knowledge of breast cancer and five questions related to their perception of breast cancer management and treatment outcomes. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.

    RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 26.7 (SD=1.9) years. The results showed that the vast majority of the female university students had inadequate knowledge of breast cancer. The mean total knowledge score of the students was 60.7%. Indian students had significantly less knowledge of breast cancer compared to their Chinese and Malay counterparts (p<0.05). However, more than two third of the students were aware of breast self examination (BSE) and clinical breast examination (CBE) recommendations. Furthermore, the students had positive perceptions towards the treatment outcomes of breast cancer.

    CONCLUSION: This study has highlighted the need of a breast cancer awareness campaign, which should also stress the importance of early detection and reporting of breast cancer.
  18. Al-Gedadi NA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2008 Apr;6(2):93-7.
    PMID: 25157287
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the consumers' perceptions and knowledge towards issues surrounding generic medicines utilization in Penang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted with consumers who attended the annual University open day. Using convenience sampling, survey forms were distributed to the respective consumers via the help of a group of trained 1st year pharmacy students. For a period of 5 days, 400 respondents had participated in the survey. Analysis of the response from the collected forms yielded in 396 usable forms.

    RESULTS: Only 28.3% (n=112) of the respondents were familiar with the term "generic medicines". More than 70% of the respondents do not know that generic medicines can be marketed under different names. About 34% (n=38) of consumers stated that they had been given information regarding generics by their pharmacists. In terms of side effects, about 32% (n=127) of the respondents felt that generic medicines may cause more side effects than branded medicines. Majority of the consumers surveyed (64%) understand that generic cost less compared to their branded counterparts.

    CONCLUSION: This survey showed that there is a gap in consumers' knowledge and understanding about generic medicines. The findings also suggest that direct patient education by the healthcare providers on issues relating to safety and efficacy of generic medicines could further enhance their uptake.

  19. Dawood OT, Hassali MA, Saleem F, Ibrahim IR
    Pharmacol Res Perspect, 2018 04;6(2):e00387.
    PMID: 29511566 DOI: 10.1002/prp2.387
    This study was undertaken to assess the people's self-reported reading of medicine labels and its associated factors and to assess the sources of information about medicines among general public. A cross-sectional study was carried out among general public in the State of Penang, Malaysia. A total of 888 participants were conveniently selected and completed the survey. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the data from all the participants. Most of the participants (74.2%) reported that they have adequate information about medicines provided on their medicine labels. In addition, 86.9% of them reported that they read their medicine's label for the directions of usage and 84.3% for the dosage instruction. However, 42.1% of the participants do not read their medicine's label for the active ingredients, and 33% of them do not read their medicine's label for the safety information. In addition, 36.5% of the respondents did not read the label of medicine for the symptoms which can be used for. However, females, Malay respondents, and higher education level (college/university) were more likely to self-reported the reading medicine's label. Females were more likely to read the labels of medicines compared with males (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.20-2.13, P = .001). The reading of medicine labels was predicted by females, Malay respondents, and higher educated people. Health educational programs are needed to clarify label's information that can help in concept of patient safety.
  20. Tan CS, Hassali MA, Neoh CF, Saleem F
    Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017 12 18;15(4):1074.
    PMID: 29317924 DOI: 10.18549/PharmPract.2017.04.1074
    Objective: This study aimed to explore hypertensive patients' perspectives on quality use of medication and issues related to hypertension management at the community level in Malaysia.

    Methods: Focus groups discussion was employed in this qualitative study. A total of 17 hypertensive patients were purposively recruited. Three focus group discussions with semi-structured interview were carried out at Flat Desa Wawasan, Penang. All the conversations were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.

    Results: Three major themes were developed, including medication adherence among hypertensive patients, self-management of hypertension and patients' knowledge towards hypertension. Poor medication adherence was found and different strategies were taken to overcome the barriers towards adherence. Use of herbal and traditional therapies was perceived as alternative method in controlling blood pressure instead of taking antihypertensive medication. The participants were found to have poor knowledge on side effect and mechanism of action of hypertensive medication.

    Conclusions: The misconception about the side effect of antihypertensive medication has led to poor adherence among the participants. Lack of knowledge on targeted blood pressure level has led to poor blood pressure monitoring among the participants. Health awareness program and counselling from health care professional should be advocated among the hypertensive patients in addressing the above gaps.

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