METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.
RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.
CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five groups of rats were intravitreally administered with vehicle or Aβ(1-40) in doses of 1.0, 2.5, 5 and 10 nmol. Animals were sacrificed and eyes were enucleated at weeks 1, 2 and 4 post-injection. The retinae were subjected to morphometric analysis and TUNEL staining. Optic nerve sections were stained with toluidine blue and were graded for neurodegenerative effects. The estimation of BDNF and markers of oxidative stress in retina were done using ELISA technique.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that intravitreal Aβ(1-40) causes significant retinal and optic nerve damage up to day 14 post-injection and there was increasing damage with increase in dose. However, on day 30 post-injection both the retinal and optic nerve morphology showed a trend towards normalization. The observations made for retinal cell apoptosis, retinal glutathione, superoxide dismutase activity and BDNF were in accordance with those of morphological changes with deterioration till day 14 and recovery by day 30 post-injection. The findings of this study may provide a guide for selection of appropriate experimental conditions for future studies.