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  1. Panneerselvam P, Morad N, Tan KA
    J Hazard Mater, 2011 Feb 15;186(1):160-8.
    PMID: 21146294 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.102
    The removal of Ni(II) from aqueous solution by magnetic nanoparticles prepared and impregnated onto tea waste (Fe(3)O(4)-TW) from agriculture biomass was investigated. Magnetic nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4)) were prepared by chemical precipitation of a Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) salts from aqueous solution by ammonia solution. These magnetic nanoparticles of the adsorbent Fe(3)O(4) were characterized by surface area (BET), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied. The kinetics followed is first order in nature, and the value of rate constant was found to be 1.90×10(-2) min(-1) at 100 mg L(-1) and 303 K. Removal efficiency decreases from 99 to 87% by increasing the concentration of Ni(II) in solution from 50 to 100 mg L(-1). It was found that the adsorption of Ni(II) increases by increasing temperature from 303 to 323 K and the process is endothermic in nature. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich equation, and the Langmuir adsorption capacity, Q°, was found to be (38.3)mgg(-1). The results also revealed that nanoparticle impregnated onto tea waste from agriculture biomass, can be an attractive option for metal removal from industrial effluent.
  2. Ho YC, Norli I, Alkarkhi AF, Morad N
    Water Sci Technol, 2009;60(3):771-81.
    PMID: 19657173 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.303
    The performance of pectin in turbidity reduction and the optimum condition were determined using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The effect of pH, cation's concentration, and pectin's dosage on flocculating activity and turbidity reduction was investigated at three levels and optimized by using Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Coagulation and flocculation process were assessed with a standard jar test procedure with rapid and slow mixing of a kaolin suspension (aluminium silicate), at 150 rpm and 30 rpm, respectively, in which a cation e.g. Al(3+), acts as coagulant, and pectin acts as the flocculant. In this research, all factors exhibited significant effect on flocculating activity and turbidity reduction. The experimental data and model predictions well agreed. From the 3D response surface graph, maximum flocculating activity and turbidity reduction are in the region of pH greater than 3, cation concentration greater than 0.5 mM, and pectin dosage greater than 20 mg/L, using synthetic turbid wastewater within the range. The flocculating activity for pectin and turbidity reduction in wastewater is at 99%.
  3. Ho YC, Norli I, Alkarkhi AF, Morad N
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Feb;101(4):1166-74.
    PMID: 19854044 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.09.064
    Polyacrylamide (PAM), a commonly used organic synthetic flocculant, is known to have high reduction in turbidity treatment. However, PAM is not readily degradable. In this paper, pectin as a biopolymeric flocculant is used. The objectives are (i) to determine the characteristics of both flocculants (ii) to optimize the treatment processes of both flocculants in synthetic turbid waste water. The results obtained indicated that pectin has a lower average molecular weight at 1.63 x 10(5) and PAM at 6.00 x 10(7). However, the thermal degradation results showed that the onset temperature for pectin is at 165.58 degrees C, while the highest onset temperature obtained for PAM is at 235.39 degrees C. The optimum treatment conditions for the biopolymeric flocculant for flocculating activity was at pH 3, cation concentration at 0.55 mM, and pectin concentration at 3 mg/L. In contrast, PAM was at pH 4, cation concentration >0.05 mM and PAM concentration between 13 and 30 mg/L.
  4. Ho YC, Norli I, Alkarkhi AF, Morad N
    J Water Health, 2015 Jun;13(2):489-99.
    PMID: 26042980 DOI: 10.2166/wh.2014.100
    In view of green developments in water treatment, plant-based flocculants have become the focus due to their safety, degradation and renewable properties. In addition, cost and energy-saving processes are preferable. In this study, malva nut gum (MNG), a new plant-based flocculant, and its composite with Fe in water treatment using single mode mixing are demonstrated. The result presents a simplified extraction of the MNG process. MNG has a high molecular weight of 2.3 × 10⁵ kDa and a high negative charge of -58.7 mV. From the results, it is a strong anionic flocculant. Moreover, it is observed to have a branch-like surface structure. Therefore, it conforms to the surface of particles well and exhibits good performance in water treatment. In water treatment, the Fe-MNG composite treats water at pH 3.01 and requires a low concentration of Fe and MNG of 0.08 and 0.06 mg/L, respectively, when added to the system. It is concluded that for a single-stage flocculation process, physico-chemical properties such as molecular weight, charge of polymer, surface morphology, pH, concentration of cation and concentration of biopolymeric flocculant affect the flocculating performance.
  5. Ravikumar A, Panneerselvam P, Morad N
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2018 Jun 20;10(24):20550-20558.
    PMID: 29792319 DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b05041
    In this paper, we propose a metal-polydopamine (MPDA) framework with a specific molecular probe which appears to be the most promising approach to a strong fluorescence quencher. The MPDA framework quenching ability toward various organic fluorophore such as aminoethylcoumarin acetate, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM), carboxyteramethylrhodamine, and Cy5 are used to establish a fluorescent biosensor that can selectively recognize Hg2+ and Ag+ ions. The fluorescent quenching efficiency was sufficient to achieve more than 96%. The MPDA framework also exhibits different affinities with ssDNA and dsDNA. In addition, the FAM-labeled ssDNA was adsorbed onto the MPDA framework, based on their interaction with the complex formed between MPDA frameworks/ssDNA taken as a sensing platform. By taking advantage of this sensor, highly sensitive and selective determination of Hg2+ and Ag+ ions is achieved through exonuclease III signal amplification activity. The detection limits of Hg2+ and Ag+ achieved to be 1.3 and 34 pM, respectively, were compared to co-existing metal ions and graphene oxide-based sensors. Furthermore, the potential applications of this study establish the highly sensitive fluorescence detection targets in environmental and biological fields.
  6. Hafshejani MK, Ogugbue CJ, Morad N
    3 Biotech, 2014 Dec;4(6):605-619.
    PMID: 28324306 DOI: 10.1007/s13205-013-0192-7
    The decolorization and degradation of Direct Blue 71 were investigated using a mono culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The bacterium was able to decolorize the dye medium to 70.43 % within 48 h under microaerophilic conditions. The medium was then aerated for 24 h to promote the biodegradation of the aromatic amines generated from azo bond cleavage. Reduction in total organic carbon in dye medium was 42.58 % in the microaerophilic stage and 78.39 % in the aerobic stage. The degradation metabolites formed were studied using UV-vis techniques, high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis. Data obtained provide evidence for the formation of aromatic amines and their subsequent oxidative biodegradation by a single strain of P. aeruginosa during successive microaerophilic/aerobic stages in the same flask. The influence of incubation temperature (20-45 °C), medium pH (5-10) and initial dye concentration (25-150 mg/L) on decolorization was evaluated to greatly influence decolorization extent. The optimal decolorization conditions were determined by response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design to obtain maximum decolorization and to determine the significance and interaction effect of the variables on decolorization. The optimal conditions of response were found to be 35.15 °C, pH 8.01 and 49.95 mg/L dye concentration giving an experimental decolorization value of 84.80 %. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R(2) = 0.9624) indicated a good evaluation of experimental data by polynomial regression model.
  7. Lim CL, Morad N, Teng TT, Ismail N
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Aug 30;168(1):383-9.
    PMID: 19303709 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.02.061
    The H(2)O(2)/pyridine/Cu(II) advanced oxidation system was used to assess the efficiency of the treatment of a 1 g L(-1) Terasil Red R dye solution. This system was found to be capable in reducing the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the dye solution up to 90%, and achieving 99% in decolorization at the optimal concentration of 5.5mM H(2)O(2), 38 mM pyridine and 1.68 mM Cu(II). The final concentration of COD was recorded at 117 mg L(-1) and color point at 320 PtCo. Full 2(4) factorial design and the response surface methodology using central composite design (CCD) were utilized in the screening and optimization of this study. Treatment efficiency was found to be pH independent. The amount of sludge generation was in the range of 100-175 mg L(-1) and the sludge produced at the optimal concentration was 170 mg L(-1).
  8. Ravikumar A, Panneerselvam P, Radhakrishnan K, Morad N, Anuradha CD, Sivanesan S
    J Fluoresc, 2017 Nov;27(6):2101-2109.
    PMID: 28819702 DOI: 10.1007/s10895-017-2149-4
    A label -free DNAzyme amplified biosensor is found to be highly selective and sensitive towards fluorescent detection of Pb2+ ions in aqueous media. The DNAzyme complex has designed by the hybridization of the enzyme and substrate strand. In the presence of Pb2+, the DNAzyme activated and cleaved the substrate strand of RNA site (rA) into two oligonucleotide fragments. Further, the free fragment was hybridized with a complementary strand on the surface of MBs. After magnetic separation, SYBER Green I was added and readily intercalate with the dsDNA to gives a bright fluorescence signal with intensity directly proportional to the concentration of Pb2+ions. A detection limit of 5 nM in Pb2+ the detection range 0 to 500 nM was obtained. This label- free fluorescent biosensor has been successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. Then results open up the possibility for real-time quantitative detection of Pb2+ with convenient potential applications in the biological and environmental field. Graphical Abstract.
  9. Lee LY, Morad N, Ismail N, Talebi A, Rafatullah M
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 18;21(18).
    PMID: 32962106 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21186860
    This study investigates the separation of two heavy metals, Cd(II) and Cu(II), from the mixed synthetic feed using a liquid-liquid extraction. The current study uses tri-octyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) as the extractant (with tributyl phosphate (TBP) as a phase modifier), diluted in toluene, in order to investigate the selective extraction of Cd(II) over Cu(II) ions. We investigate the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a masking agent for Cu(II), when added in aqueous feed, for the selective extraction of Cd(II). Five factors that influence the selective extraction of Cd(II) over Cu(II) (the equilibrium pH (pHeq), Aliquat 336 concentration (Aliquat 336), TBP concentration (TBP), EDTA concentration (EDTA), and organic to aqueous ratio (O:A)) were analyzed. Results from a 25-1 fractional factorial design show that Aliquat 336 significantly influenced Cd(II) extraction, whereas EDTA was statistically significant for the antagonistic effect on the E% of Cu(II) in the same system. Moreover, results from optimization experiment showed that the optimum conditions are Aliquat 336 concentration of 99.64 mM and EDTA concentration of 48.86 mM-where 95.89% of Cd(II) was extracted with the least extracted Cu(II) of 0.59%. A second-order model was fitted for optimization of Cd(II) extraction with a R2 value of 0.998, and ANOVA results revealed that the model adequately fitted the data at a 5% significance level. Interaction between Aliquat 336 and Cd(II) has been proven via FTIR qualitative analysis, whereas the addition of TBP does not affect the extraction mechanism.
  10. Su CX, Teng TT, Wong YS, Morad N, Rafatullah M
    Chemosphere, 2016 Mar;146:503-10.
    PMID: 26741557 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.048
    A thermal degradation pathway of the decolourisation of Reactive Cibacron Blue F3GA (RCB) in aqueous solution through catalytic thermolysis is established. Catalytic thermolysis is suitable for the removal of dyes from wastewater as it breaks down the complex dye molecules instead of only transferring them into another phase. RCB is a reactive dye that consists of three main groups, namely anthraquinone, benzene and triazine groups. Through catalytic thermolysis, the bonds that hold the three groups together were effectively broken and at the same time, the complex molecules degraded to form simple molecules of lower molecular weight. The degradation pathway and products were characterized and determined through UV-Vis, FT-IR and GCMS analysis. RCB dye molecule was successfully broken down into simpler molecules, namely, benzene derivatives, amines and triazine. The addition of copper sulphate, CuSO4, as a catalyst, hastens the thermal degradation of RCB by aiding in the breakdown of large, complex molecules. At pH 2 and catalyst mass loading of 5 g/L, an optimum colour removal of 66.14% was observed. The degradation rate of RCB is well explained by first order kinetics model.
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