Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 106 in total

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  1. Lodi S, Phillips A, Logan R, Olson A, Costagliola D, Abgrall S, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2015 Aug;2(8):e335-43.
    PMID: 26423376 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00108-3
    BACKGROUND: Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation, initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL.

    METHODS: We used data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration of cohort studies in Europe and the USA. We included 55,826 individuals aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between January, 2000, and September, 2013, had not started ART, did not have AIDS, and had CD4 count and HIV-RNA viral load measurements within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. We estimated relative risks of death and of death or AIDS-defining illness, mean survival time, the proportion of individuals in need of ART, and the proportion of individuals with HIV-RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL, as would have been recorded under each ART initiation strategy after 7 years of HIV diagnosis. We used the parametric g-formula to adjust for baseline and time-varying confounders.

    FINDINGS: Median CD4 count at diagnosis of HIV infection was 376 cells per μL (IQR 222-551). Compared with immediate initiation, the estimated relative risk of death was 1·02 (95% CI 1·01-1·02) when ART was started at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and 1·06 (1·04-1·08) with initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL. Corresponding estimates for death or AIDS-defining illness were 1·06 (1·06-1·07) and 1·20 (1·17-1·23), respectively. Compared with immediate initiation, the mean survival time at 7 years with a strategy of initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL was 2 days shorter (95% CI 1-2) and at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL was 5 days shorter (4-6). 7 years after diagnosis of HIV, 100%, 98·7% (95% CI 98·6-98·7), and 92·6% (92·2-92·9) of individuals would have been in need of ART with immediate initiation, initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL, respectively. Corresponding proportions of individuals with HIV-RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL at 7 years were 87·3% (87·3-88·6), 87·4% (87·4-88·6), and 83·8% (83·6-84·9).

    INTERPRETATION: The benefits of immediate initiation of ART, such as prolonged survival and AIDS-free survival and increased virological suppression, were small in this high-income setting with relatively low CD4 count at HIV diagnosis. The estimated beneficial effect on AIDS is less than in recently reported randomised trials. Increasing rates of HIV testing might be as important as a policy of early initiation of ART.

    FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.

  2. del Amo J, Moreno S, Bucher HC, Furrer H, Logan R, Sterne J, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2012 May;54(9):1364-72.
    PMID: 22460971 DOI: 10.1093/cid/cis203
    BACKGROUND: The lower tuberculosis incidence reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is difficult to interpret causally. Furthermore, the role of unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is unclear. We aim to estimate the effect of cART on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries.

    METHODS: The HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration consisted of 12 cohorts from the United States and Europe of HIV-positive, ART-naive, AIDS-free individuals aged ≥18 years with baseline CD4 cell count and HIV RNA levels followed up from 1996 through 2007. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for cART versus no cART, adjusted for time-varying CD4 cell count and HIV RNA level via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: Of 65 121 individuals, 712 developed tuberculosis over 28 months of median follow-up (incidence, 3.0 cases per 1000 person-years). The HR for tuberculosis for cART versus no cART was 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44-0.72) overall, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.64-1.68) for individuals aged >50 years, and 1.46 (95% CI, 0.70-3.04) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL. Compared with people who had not started cART, HRs differed by time since cART initiation: 1.36 (95% CI, 0.98-1.89) for initiation <3 months ago and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.34-0.58) for initiation ≥3 months ago. Compared with people who had not initiated cART, HRs <3 months after cART initiation were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.38-1.18), 1.51 (95% CI, 0.98-2.31), and 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60) for people <35, 35-50, and >50 years old, respectively, and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.03-5.14) for people with a CD4 cell count of <50 cells/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tuberculosis incidence decreased after cART initiation but not among people >50 years old or with CD4 cell counts of <50 cells/μL. Despite an overall decrease in tuberculosis incidence, the increased rate during 3 months of ART suggests unmasking IRIS.

  3. Cain LE, Phillips A, Lodi S, Sabin C, Bansi L, Justice A, et al.
    AIDS, 2012 Aug 24;26(13):1691-705.
    PMID: 22546987
    OBJECTIVE: To compare regimens consisting of either efavirenz or nevirapine and two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) among HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive, and AIDS-free individuals with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes.

    DESIGN: Prospective studies of HIV-infected individuals in Europe and the US included in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration.

    METHODS: Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started an NRTI, efavirenz or nevirapine, classified as following one or both types of regimens at baseline, and censored when they started an ineligible drug or at 6 months if their regimen was not yet complete. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens on clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes. Our models included baseline covariates and adjusted for potential bias introduced by censoring via inverse probability weighting.

    RESULTS: A total of 15 336 individuals initiated an efavirenz regimen (274 deaths, 774 AIDS-defining illnesses) and 8129 individuals initiated a nevirapine regimen (203 deaths, 441 AIDS-defining illnesses). The intention-to-treat hazard ratios [95% confidence interval (CI)] for nevirapine versus efavirenz regimens were 1.59 (1.27, 1.98) for death and 1.28 (1.09, 1.50) for AIDS-defining illness. Individuals on nevirapine regimens experienced a smaller 12-month increase in CD4 cell count by 11.49 cells/μl and were 52% more likely to have virologic failure at 12 months as those on efavirenz regimens.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our intention-to-treat estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a larger 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for efavirenz compared with nevirapine.

  4. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Ray M, Logan R, Sterne JA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM, et al.
    AIDS, 2010 Jan 02;24(1):123-37.
    PMID: 19770621 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

    DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

    RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

  5. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

  6. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Logan R, Robins JM, Sterne JA, Sabin C, et al.
    Ann. Intern. Med., 2011 Apr 19;154(8):509-15.
    PMID: 21502648 DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-154-8-201104190-00001
    BACKGROUND: Most clinical guidelines recommend that AIDS-free, HIV-infected persons with CD4 cell counts below 0.350 × 10(9) cells/L initiate combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated remains a matter of debate.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal CD4 cell count at which cART should be initiated.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration and dynamic marginal structural models were used to compare cART initiation strategies for CD4 thresholds between 0.200 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

    SETTING: HIV clinics in Europe and the Veterans Health Administration system in the United States.

    PATIENTS: 20, 971 HIV-infected, therapy-naive persons with baseline CD4 cell counts at or above 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L and no previous AIDS-defining illnesses, of whom 8392 had a CD4 cell count that decreased into the range of 0.200 to 0.499 × 10(9) cells/L and were included in the analysis.

    MEASUREMENTS: Hazard ratios and survival proportions for all-cause mortality and a combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    RESULTS: Compared with initiating cART at the CD4 cell count threshold of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L, the mortality hazard ratio was 1.01 (95% CI, 0.84 to 1.22) for the 0.350 threshold and 1.20 (CI, 0.97 to 1.48) for the 0.200 threshold. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.38 (CI, 1.23 to 1.56) and 1.90 (CI, 1.67 to 2.15), respectively, for the combined end point of AIDS-defining illness or death.

    LIMITATIONS: CD4 cell count at cART initiation was not randomized. Residual confounding may exist.

    CONCLUSION: Initiation of cART at a threshold CD4 count of 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L increases AIDS-free survival. However, mortality did not vary substantially with the use of CD4 thresholds between 0.300 and 0.500 × 10(9) cells/L.

  7. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(3):269.
    PMID: 30971865 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6752-1
    Measurements are presented of associated production of a
    W
    boson and a charm quark (

    W
    +
    c

    ) in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13



    Te



    . The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.7



    fb

    -
    1



    collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC. The
    W
    bosons are identified by their decay into a muon and a neutrino. The charm quarks are tagged via the full reconstruction of



    D








    (
    2010
    )

    ±


    mesons that decay via




    D








    (
    2010
    )

    ±





    D

    0

    +

    π
    ±




    K



    +

    π
    ±

    +

    π
    ±


    . A cross section is measured in the fiducial region defined by the muon transverse momentum


    p

    T

    μ

    >
    26


    Ge



    , muon pseudorapidity


    |


    η
    μ


    |
    <
    2.4


    , and charm quark transverse momentum


    p

    T

    c

    >
    5


    Ge



    . The inclusive cross section for this kinematic range is

    σ

    (
    W
    +
    c
    )

    =
    1026
    ±
    31

    (stat)





    +
    76







    -
    72






    (syst) pb

    . The cross section is also measured differentially as a function of the pseudorapidity of the muon from the
    W
    boson decay. These measurements are compared with theoretical predictions and are used to probe the strange quark content of the proton.
  8. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Mar 29;122(12):121803.
    PMID: 30978057 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.121803
    This Letter describes a search for Higgs boson pair production using the combined results from four final states: bbγγ, bbττ, bbbb, and bbVV, where V represents a W or Z boson. The search is performed using data collected in 2016 by the CMS experiment from LHC proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1}. Limits are set on the Higgs boson pair production cross section. A 95% confidence level observed (expected) upper limit on the nonresonant production cross section is set at 22.2 (12.8) times the standard model value. A search for narrow resonances decaying to Higgs boson pairs is also performed in the mass range 250-3000 GeV. No evidence for a signal is observed, and upper limits are set on the resonance production cross section.
  9. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2018;78(9):789.
    PMID: 30956565 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6242-x
    A search is presented for physics beyond the standard model, based on measurements of dijet angular distributions in proton-proton collisions at


    s

    =
    13
    TeV

    . The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . The observed distributions, corrected to particle level, are found to be in agreement with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics that include electroweak corrections. Constraints are placed on models containing quark contact interactions, extra spatial dimensions, quantum black holes, or dark matter, using the detector-level distributions. In a benchmark model where only left-handed quarks participate, contact interactions are excluded at the 95% confidence level up to a scale of 12.8 or 17.5TeV, for destructive or constructive interference, respectively. The most stringent lower limits to date are set on the ultraviolet cutoff in the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model of extra dimensions. In the Giudice-Rattazzi-Wells convention, the cutoff scale is excluded up to 10.1TeV. The production of quantum black holes is excluded for masses below 5.9 and 8.2TeV, depending on the model. For the first time, lower limits between 2.0 and 4.6TeVare set on the mass of a dark matter mediator for (axial-)vector mediators, for the universal quark coupling


    g
    q

    =
    1.0

    .
  10. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(3):280.
    PMID: 31007587 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6730-7
    A search for dark matter produced in association with a Higgs boson decaying to a pair of bottom quarks is performed in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13



    Te



    collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The analyzed data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . The signal is characterized by a large missing transverse momentum recoiling against a bottom quark-antiquark system that has a large Lorentz boost. The number of events observed in the data is consistent with the standard model background prediction. Results are interpreted in terms of limits both on parameters of the type-2 two-Higgs doublet model extended by an additional light pseudoscalar boson
    a
    (2HDM+
    a
    ) and on parameters of a baryonic


    Z

    '

    simplified model. The 2HDM+
    a
    model is tested experimentally for the first time. For the baryonic


    Z

    '

    model, the presented results constitute the most stringent constraints to date.
  11. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2018;78(4):291.
    PMID: 31007582 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5740-1
    A search for new physics in events with a Z boson produced in association with large missing transverse momentum at the LHC is presented. The search is based on the 2016 data sample of proton-proton collisions recorded with the CMS experiment at


    s

    =
    13

    TeV

    , corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . The results of this search are interpreted in terms of a simplified model of dark matter production via spin-0 or spin-1 mediators, a scenario with a standard-model-like Higgs boson produced in association with the Z boson and decaying invisibly, a model of unparticle production, and a model with large extra spatial dimensions. No significant deviations from the background expectations are found, and limits are set on relevant model parameters, significantly extending the results previously achieved in this channel.
  12. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2018;78(4):287.
    PMID: 31007580 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-5752-x
    A study of the associated production of a
    Z
    boson and a charm quark jet (

    Z
    +
    c

    ), and a comparison to production with a
    b
    quark jet (

    Z
    +
    b

    ), in

    p
    p

    collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8


    TeV

    are presented. The analysis uses a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7



    fb

    -
    1



    , collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The
    Z
    boson candidates are identified through their decays into pairs of electrons or muons. Jets originating from heavy flavour quarks are identified using semileptonic decays of
    c
    or
    b
    flavoured hadrons and hadronic decays of charm hadrons. The measurements are performed in the kinematic region with two leptons with


    p

    T



    >
    20

    GeV

    ,



    |


    η



    |


    <
    2.1

    ,

    71
    <

    m





    <
    111

    GeV

    , and heavy flavour jets with


    p

    T

    jet

    >
    25

    GeV

    and



    |


    η
    jet


    |


    <
    2.5

    . The

    Z
    +
    c

    production cross section is measured to be

    σ

    (
    p
    p

    Z
    +
    c
    +
    X
    )

    B

    (
    Z



    +



    -

    )

    =
    8.8
    ±
    0.5

    (stat)
    ±
    0.6

    (syst)

    pb

    . The ratio of the

    Z
    +
    c

    and

    Z
    +
    b

    production cross sections is measured to be

    σ
    (
    p
    p

    Z
    +
    c
    +
    X
    )
    /
    σ
    (
    p
    p

    Z
    +
    b
    +
    X
    )
    =
    2.0
    ±
    0.2

    (stat)
    ±
    0.2

    (syst)

    . The

    Z
    +
    c

    production cross section and the cross section ratio are also measured as a function of the transverse momentum of the
    Z
    boson and of the heavy flavour jet. The measurements are compared with theoretical predictions.
  13. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Apr 19;122(15):152001.
    PMID: 31050516 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.152001
    The modification of jet shapes in Pb-Pb collisions, relative to those in pp collisions, is studied for jets associated with an isolated photon. The data were collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. Jet shapes are constructed from charged particles with track transverse momenta (p_{T}) above 1  GeV/c in annuli around the axes of jets with p_{T}^{jet}>30  GeV/c associated with an isolated photon with p_{T}^{γ}>60  GeV/c. The jet shape distributions are consistent between peripheral Pb-Pb and pp collisions, but are modified for more central Pb-Pb collisions. In these central Pb-Pb events, a larger fraction of the jet momentum is observed at larger distances from the jet axis compared to pp, reflecting the interaction between the partonic medium created in heavy ion collisions and the traversing partons.
  14. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Apr 19;122(15):151802.
    PMID: 31050519 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.151802
    For the first time, a search for the rare decay of the W boson to three charged pions has been performed. Proton-proton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 77.3  fb^{-1}, have been analyzed. No significant excess is observed above the background expectation. An upper limit of 1.01×10^{-6} is set at 95% confidence level on the branching fraction of the W boson to three charged pions. This provides a strong motivation for theoretical calculations of this branching fraction.
  15. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(4):305.
    PMID: 31007588 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6800-x
    A search is presented for resonant production of second-generation sleptons (


    μ
    ~

    L

    ,


    ν
    ~

    μ

    ) via the R-parity-violating coupling

    λ
    211
    '

    to quarks, in events with two same-sign muons and at least two jets in the final state. The smuon (muon sneutrino) is expected to decay into a muon and a neutralino (chargino), which will then decay into a second muon and at least two jets. The analysis is based on the 2016 data set of proton-proton collisions at


    s

    =
    13

    TeV

    recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9



    fb

    -
    1



    . No significant deviation is observed with respect to standard model expectations. Upper limits on cross sections, ranging from 0.24 to 730


    fb

    , are derived in the context of two simplified models representing the dominant signal contributions leading to a same-sign muon pair. The cross section limits are translated into coupling limits for a modified constrained minimal supersymmetric model with

    λ
    211
    '

    as the only nonzero R-parity violating coupling. The results significantly extend restrictions of the parameter space compared with previous searches for similar models.
  16. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Bergauer T, Brandstetter J, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Apr 05;122(13):132001.
    PMID: 31012626 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.132001
    Signals consistent with the B_{c}^{+}(2S) and B_{c}^{*+}(2S) states are observed in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV, in an event sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 143  fb^{-1}, collected by the CMS experiment during the 2015-2018 LHC running periods. These excited b[over ¯]c states are observed in the B_{c}^{+}π^{+}π^{-} invariant mass spectrum, with the ground state B_{c}^{+} reconstructed through its decay to J/ψπ^{+}. The two states are reconstructed as two well-resolved peaks, separated in mass by 29.1±1.5(stat)±0.7(syst)  MeV. The observation of two peaks, rather than one, is established with a significance exceeding five standard deviations. The mass of the B_{c}^{+}(2S) meson is measured to be 6871.0±1.2(stat)±0.8(syst)±0.8(B_{c}^{+})  MeV, where the last term corresponds to the uncertainty in the world-average B_{c}^{+} mass.
  17. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Apr 05;122(13):132003.
    PMID: 31012605 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.132003
    The observation of single top quark production in association with a Z boson and a quark (tZq) is reported. Events from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV containing three charged leptons (either electrons or muons) and at least two jets are analyzed. The data were collected with the CMS detector in 2016 and 2017 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 77.4fb^{-1}. The increased integrated luminosity, a multivariate lepton identification, and a redesigned analysis strategy improve significantly the sensitivity of the analysis compared to previous searches for tZq production. The tZq signal is observed with a significance well over 5 standard deviations. The measured tZq production cross section is σ(pp→tZq→tℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}q)=111±13(stat)_{-9}^{+11}(syst)  fb, for dilepton invariant masses above 30 GeV, in agreement with the standard model expectation.
  18. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Jan 11;122(1):011803.
    PMID: 31012697 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.011803
    A search is performed for dark matter particles produced in association with a top quark pair in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 35.9  fb^{-1} recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC. No significant excess over the standard model expectation is observed. The results are interpreted using simplified models of dark matter production via spin-0 mediators that couple to dark matter particles and to standard model quarks, providing constraints on the coupling strength between the mediator and the quarks. These are the most stringent collider limits to date for scalar mediators, and the most stringent for pseudoscalar mediators at low masses.
  19. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2019;79(4):313.
    PMID: 31031568 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-019-6788-2
    A top quark mass measurement is performed using

    35.9



    fb

    -
    1




    of LHC proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at


    s

    =
    13

    TeV

    . The measurement uses the

    t

    t
    ¯


    all-jets final state. A kinematic fit is performed to reconstruct the decay of the

    t

    t
    ¯


     system and suppress the multijet background. Using the ideogram method, the top quark mass (

    m
    t

    ) is determined, simultaneously constraining an additional jet energy scale factor (
    JSF
    ). The resulting value of


    m
    t

    =
    172.34
    ±
    0.20

    (stat+JSF)
    ±
    0.70

    (syst)

    GeV

    is in good agreement with previous measurements. In addition, a combined measurement that uses the

    t

    t
    ¯


    lepton+jets and all-jets final states is presented, using the same mass extraction method, and provides an

    m
    t

    measurement of

    172.26
    ±
    0.07

    (stat+JSF)
    ±
    0.61

    (syst)

    GeV

    . This is the first combined

    m
    t

    extraction from the lepton+jets and all-jets channels through a single likelihood function.
  20. Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Ambrogi F, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2019 Jul 12;123(2):022001.
    PMID: 31386524 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.022001
    The transverse momentum spectra of D^{0} mesons from b hadron decays are measured at midrapidity (|y|<1) in pp and Pb-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The D^{0} mesons from b hadron decays are distinguished from prompt D^{0} mesons by their decay topologies. In Pb-Pb collisions, the B→D^{0} yield is found to be suppressed in the measured p_{T} range from 2 to 100  GeV/c as compared to pp collisions. The suppression is weaker than that of prompt D^{0} mesons and charged hadrons for p_{T} around 10  GeV/c. While theoretical calculations incorporating partonic energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma can successfully describe the measured B→D^{0} suppression at higher p_{T}, the data show an indication of larger suppression than the model predictions in the range of 2
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