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  1. Mousa MA
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2020 Jun 01;21(6):678-682.
    PMID: 33025938
    AIMS: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of hot and dry weather on the hardness and surface roughness of four different maxillofacial silicone elastomeric materials (MFSEM) including two room-temperature vulcanized (RTV) and two high-temperature vulcanized (HTV) materials.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty test specimens were fabricated according to the manufacturer's instructions into rectangular test specimens. The hardness and surface roughness were tested, after 6 months of exposure to natural hot and dry weather. The hardness was measured through the International Rubber Hardness Degree (IRHD) scale using an automated hardness tester. The surface roughness was measured using a novel 3D optical noncontact technique using a combination of a light sectioning microscope and a computer vision system. Statistical Package for Social Sciences software SPSS/version 24 was used for analysis and a comparison between two independent variables was done using an independent t test, while more than two variables were analyzed, F test (ANOVA) to be used followed by a post hoc test to determine the level of significance between every two groups.

    RESULTS: The hot and dry weather statistically influenced the hardness and surface roughness of MFSEM. Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hardness in test groups while A-2000 showed the hardest material (p < 0.05). A-2000 showed significant changes from rough in case of nonweathered to become smoother in weather followed by A-2186 (p < 0.05). Cosmesil M-511 showed the roughest material.

    CONCLUSION: Cosmesil M-511 showed the least hard MFSEM after outdoor weathering while A-2000, the highest and least material showed hardness and surface roughness, respectively.

    CLINICAL IMPLICATION: A-2000 had a high IRHD scale hardness. This makes this material more suitable for the replacement of ear and nose defects. Cosmesil M-511 is soft and easily adaptable material that makes the material more appropriate for the replacement of small facial defect with undercut area to be easily inserted and removed. Whilst A-2000 is smoother and finer in test specimens after weathering, Cosmesil M-511 became rougher after weathering.

  2. Mousa MA, Abdullah JY, Jamayet NB, El-Anwar MI, Ganji KK, Alam MK, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:5699962.
    PMID: 34485518 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5699962
    The present study was aimed at reviewing the studies that used finite element analysis (FEA) to estimate the biomechanical stress arising in removable partial dentures (RPDs) and how to optimize it. A literature survey was conducted for the English full-text articles, which used only FEA to estimate the stress developed in RPDs from Jan 2000 to May 2021. In RPDs, the retaining and supporting structures are subjected to dynamic loads during insertion and removal of the prosthesis as well as during function. The majority of stresses in free-end saddle (FES) RPDs are concentrated in the shoulder of the clasp, the horizontal curvature of the gingival approaching clasp, and the part of the major connector next to terminal abutments. Clasps fabricated from flexible materials were beneficial to eliminate the stress in the abutment, while rigid materials were preferred for major connectors to eliminate the displacement of the prosthesis. In implant-assisted RPD, the implant receive the majority of the load, thereby reducing the stress on the abutment and reducing the displacement of the prosthesis. The amount of stress in the implant decreases with zero or minimal angulation, using long and wide implants, and when the implants are placed in the first molar area.
  3. Mousa MA, Abdullah JY, Jamayet NB, Alam MK, Husein A
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6419774.
    PMID: 34447852 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6419774
    Aim: This systematic review is aimed at investigating the biomechanical stress that develops in the maxillofacial prostheses (MFP) and supporting structures and methods to optimize it. Design and Methods. A literature survey was conducted for full-text English articles which used FEA to examine the stress developed in conventional and implant-assisted MFPs from January 2010 to December 2020.

    Results: 87 articles were screened to get an update on the desired information. 74 were excluded based on a complete screening, and finally, 13 articles were recruited for complete reviewing. Discussion. The MFP is subjected to stress, which is reflected in the form of compressive and tensile strengths. The stress is mainly concentrated the resection line and around the apices of roots of teeth next to the defect. Diversity of designs and techniques were introduced to optimize the stress distribution, such as modification of the clasp design, using materials with different mechanical properties for dentures base and retainer, use of dental (DI) and/or zygomatic implants (ZI), and free flap reconstruction before prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Conclusion: Using ZI in the defective side of the dentulous maxillary defect and defective and nondefective side of the edentulous maxillary defect was found more advantageous, in terms of compression and tensile stress and retention, when compared with DI and free flap reconstruction.

  4. Srivastava KC, Shrivastava D, Nagarajappa AK, Khan ZA, Alzoubi IA, Mousa MA, et al.
    PMID: 33322604 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17249293
    The detection of pulp stone in a patient suffering from undiagnosed systemic diseases can be an early diagnostic indicator. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of pulp stones in the Saudi Arabian population with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. In a retrospective study, we included cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 73 patients with cardiovascular disease and 76 patients with diabetes mellitus as group I and II, respectively. Group III comprised of CBCT scan of 80 healthy controls. From a total of 229 scans, 4807 teeth were screened for pulp stones throughout the arches. A chi-square test was used for comparing the prevalence of pulp stones among the groups. Univariable and multivariable analysis was done to evaluate the independent risk indicators for pulp stones. The tooth-wise prevalence of pulp stones in group I, II, and III was found to be 16.65%, 9.01%, and 3.86%, respectively. Patient-wise (p < 0.01) and tooth-wise (p < 0.01) prevalence was recorded significantly highest in the cardiovascular group followed by the diabetic group. The control group had the least prevalence. Significantly (p < 0.01) higher number of pulp stones were found in cardiovascular patients with age > 50 years compared to other groups. Similarly, a significantly increased number of pulp stones were seen in the 1st molar (p < 0.05) and the maxillary jaw (p < 0.05) of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Subjects with cardiovascular disease and diabetes were found to have 2.94 times (p < 0.001; CI 1.54-3.10) and 1.81 times (p < 0.01; CI 0.48-2.06) higher risk of having pulp stones in comparison to healthy subjects. The first molar has 2.20 times (p < 0.001; CI 0.84-2.45) increased the risk of having pulp stones compared to other tooth types. Systemic disease such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus poses a higher risk for the development of pulp stones. Among the systemic disease group, patients in the cardiovascular group showed a higher risk for pulp stones and also reported the maximum number of pulp stones compared to the diabetic and healthy subjects.
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