Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathological syndrome strongly associated with
hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and obesity. The objective of this study is to evaluate the
potential health benefits of Baccaurea angulata fruit in preventing liver damage due to hypercholesterolemia.
Twenty-five healthy adult New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to five groups for 90 days diet and
intervention plan. While four groups (atherogenic groups) were fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL
of B. angulata juice kg/per day, the fifth group (negative control) was fed with commercial rabbit pellet only.
After overnight fasting and sacrifice, the thoracic cavity was opened and the liver was carefully removed,
specifically observing for any presence of a gross lesion and then immediately fixing in 4% paraformaldehyde for
at least 48 hours for histopathological analysis. The hepatoprotective effect of B. angulata fruit juice was evident
in the histological examination of liver tissues. The results indicate the potential health benefits of the antioxidantrich
B. angulata fruit juice as a functional food with a therapeutic effect against hypercholesterolemia-induced
Anthropogenically disturbed soils have unique properties. In most of the ecosystems, especially under disturbed soil conditions, the soil properties are controlled by the accumulated materials. However, the equilibrium between the already present soil mass and the accumulated soil mass is very fragile and is affected by many factors. There are diversity of views about their identification and interpretations. This paper reports on the physico-chemical properties of the investigated
sites under different texture soil accumulate. Three sites namely Chung-nam university field (Site-I), Chung-buk Geosan (Site-II) and Yong-in (Site-III) were investigated for diversity in physico-chemical properties. In situ and ex situ physical and chemical properties were determined and comparisons were made for soil profiles examined at three sites. The classification of disturbed soils largely depends upon the system followed for classification. The objectives of this paper
were to compare the properties of the disturbed soils and to classify for further research investigations of such soils. Abrupt change in electrical conductivity at Site-III was recorded ranged between 10.7 dS m–1 and 1.1 dS m–1 below 20 cm depth. Sudden and abrupt changes in infiltration rates at all sites were also calculated. The data suggested that the soil texture of the accumulated soil had also affected the properties of the underlying soil. Apparently, the difference in the properties seems to be the result of overlying soil accumulates with different texture. The disturbed soils need to be studied in detail and groupings be made on the basis of genesis and similarities.
Introduction: Abdominal obesity and inflammation are two independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, the inter-relationship between these two factors among Malay population is fragmented. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between waist circumference as a measure of abdominal obesity and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as an indicator of inflammation status among Malay obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three apparently healthy obese adults (BMI between 27.5 and 39.9 kg/m2 ) aged between 20 to 62 years old were recruited in this study (68% men and 32% women). Circumference tape was used to measure the waist circumference and fasting venous blood was obtained to determine the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Results: On average, the waist circumference of obese men and women was 103 cm (SD = 8.7) and 94 cm (SD = 7.0), respectively. The median (IQR) of the hs-CRP level of the study participant was 3.80 mg/L (1.5, 10.1). The Kendall’s Tau correlation reveals that there is a significant positive linear correlation between waist circumference and hs -CRP level in obese men (r (30) = 0.355, p = 0.006) and women (r (63) = 0.177, p = 0.043). Conclusion: There is a significant inter-relationship between waist circumference and hs-CRP level among apparently healthy obese adults in Kuantan, Pahang. This study suggests that assessment of hs-CRP level is beneficial to predict the risk for future cardiovascular disease event and facilitate the management of obesity in this population. A prospective clinical study is recommended to confirm the findings.
Previously, researchers had initiated investigation to find an alternative drug that can treat diabetes mellitus without dragging patients into more complicated health problems. After many studies, they found a new and high potential plant-based drug named stevia that is able to reduce diabetic patients’ blood glucose. This study aimed to determine the effect of stevia on blood glucose of healthy subjects. The study was carried out by comparing the glycemic response between sucrose and stevia (500 and 1000 mg) among 32 subjects aged between 18 and 23 years old. Subjects were required to fast 8 to 10 h prior to each test which was done on different days. Finger prick test were done on 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min to construct a blood sugar response curve for 2 h period. There is a significant difference between the glycemic response of sucrose and stevia 500 mg. Sucrose significantly increased the post prandial blood glucose while stevia 500 mg reduced blood glucose after 30 min of consumption. Sucrose also produced higher glycemic response at min-30 when compared with stevia 1000 mg. There is no significant difference between the glycemic response of stevia of different dose, 500 and 1000 mg. No dose-dependent effect was observed in this study. In conclusion, stevia does not raise blood glucose significantly when consumed in short period. Stevia is effective to be used by healthy people to maintain blood glucose even when consumed in short length of time.
Baccaurea angulata or locally known as ‘belimbing dayak’ or ‘belimbing hutan’ is an underutilized fruit indigenous to Borneo with its proximate analysis and antioxidant values are yet to be explored. Proximate analysis and antioxidative properties of oven-dried B. angulata fruits of three fractions; whole fruit, skins and berries were evaluated. From the analysis conducted, whole fruit, berries and skins fraction of B. angulata contained 2.83%, 5.15% and 0.28% of total fat; 3.11%, 3.43% and 3.89% of protein; 16.66%, 19.09% and 11.37% of moisture; 4.57%, 3.68% and 7.28% of total ash and water activity (Aw) of 0.41, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox/ABTS equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the skins fraction exhibits highest antioxidant activities (p<0.05) followed by whole fruit and berries fractions. The antioxidant activities were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with total phenolic and total flavonoid content but not to anthocyanins. Considering the nutritional values it contained, B. angulata is another good source of natural antioxidants with significant health benefits and high value for commercialization.
Introduction: Nutritional requirements increase during lactation. However, maternal dietary intakes of Malaysian
mothers are subjected to restrictions commonly included in traditional postpartum practices. This study aimed to
assess the maternal dietary intake status during the recommended six month exclusive breastfeeding (part of which
included the traditional confinement) period. Methods: Thirty-two Malay mothers aged 18-35 years, who had delivered full-term (at ≥37 weeks) singleton babies and were exclusively breastfeeding, were included in the study.
Maternal dietary intake was assessed using multiple-pass diet recall on Days 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180,
postpartum. The average total energy and macronutrient intakes were compared against recommended values. Results: The findings of this study demonstrated that maternal intakes of total energy ranged from 1,500-2,000kcal/day,
carbohydrate 189-272g/day, protein 58-72g/day, and total fat 32-70g/day. Total calorie intake was the lowest during
confinement period (Days 10 and 30) compared to the rest of the exclusive breastfeeding period. This is similar with
total fat consumption. On the other hand, protein intake was the highest during confinement period whereas carbohydrate intake was consistent throughout the six-month period. Despite the increased requirements, intakes of total
calories, protein, total fat, dietary fibre, and water, did not meet the recommended values throughout the exclusive
breastfeeding period. Conclusion: Mothers’ inability to fulfil their nutritional requirements during exclusive breastfeeding period may be associated with traditional postpartum dietary practices. Dietary advice with consideration
for cultural food taboos practiced by local mothers during confinement may help to improve maternal nutritional
intakes during this crucial time.
Introduction: This study aimed to determine the relationship of maternal dietary
intake with human milk nutritional composition, among Malay mothers during the
postpartum period of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods: Human milk samples (20-
30ml) were collected from mothers (n=32) at least once monthly for six months
postpartum. Macronutrients and fatty acids contents were determined using
proximate analysis and gas chromatography methods, respectively. Maternal
dietary intakes were recorded using the multiple-pass diet recall method prior
to each milk sampling and were analysed using the Nutritionist ProTM software.
Associations between the milk composition and maternal diet were tested using
Spearman correlation. Results: The energy content ranged between 49.6-59.2
kcal/100ml, protein 1.3-1.4 g/100ml, carbohydrate 6.5-9.7 g/100ml and total
fat 6.5-9.7 g/100ml. The polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and saturated fatty
acids concentrations were 10.5-19.1 %, 40.6-43.5 %, and 38.0-49.7 %, respectively.
During confinement (first month postpartum), total energy and total fat content of
human milk were the highest whereas total carbohydrate was the lowest, compared
to the rest of the exclusive breastfeeding period. In contrast, intakes of total calorie
and total fat were the lowest, whereas protein was the highest during this period.
However, no associations were detected between human milk nutritional contents
and maternal dietary intake. Conclusion: In our study population, the composition
of maternal diet and nutritional content of human milk differed between confinement
and post-confinement periods. However, the association between maternal diet and
human milk composition itself warrants further investigation.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) strongly advocate exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months after birth as the optimal way of feeding infants. Nutritional inadequacy during breastfeeding period may lead to breastfeeding problems such as inadequate milk production which is a common reason to early breastfeeding termination.
Galactagogue is one of the solutions seek by breastfeeding mothers to overcome this problem. Within the topic of prophetic medicine, scholars discussed the foods consumed by Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) and their health benefits. Among the plants mentioned in Islamic literature are F.carica (figs), O.europea (olive), P.granatum (pomegranate) and N.sativa (habbatussauda). Studies on prophetic foods consumption among lactating mothers is limited in the literature. Thus, the aims of this study to explore on prophetic food consumption, among Malay mothers during
exclusive breastfeeding period. Ten subjects are interviewed by in-depth semistructured interview guide. Inclusion criteria include Malay mothers aged 18 to 40 years, deliver full term babies and were exclusively breastfeeding. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim in Malay and translated into English. Translated transcripts were then analysed thematically with the help of NVivo software. Thematic analysis revealed three themes that represents participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice on prophetic foods consumption. The themes were 1) prophetic diet is related to Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H)’s practice on foods and eating manners, 2) perceived benefits and effectiveness of prophetic foods consumption, and 3) Practice of prophetic foods consumption during exclusive breastfeeding period. This study provides an insight to the understanding and
perception on prophetic foods consumption during exclusive breastfeeding period among breastfeeding mothers. It is acknowledged that prophetic foods, particularly dates may have lactogenic function. Further studies should be carried out to investigate the relationship between prophetic foods consumption and lactogenic activity.