Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 49 in total

  1. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Murad S
    PMID: 23082569
    IgE-mediated allergic reaction to squid is one of the most frequent molluscan shellfish allergies. Previously, we have detected a 36 kDa protein as the major allergen of Loligo edulis (white squid) by immunoblotting using sera from patients with squid allergy. The aim of this present study was to further identify this major allergen using a proteomics approach. The major allergen was identified by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. The 2-DE gel fractionated the cooked white squid proteins to more than 50 different protein spots between 10 to 38 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 3.0 to 10.0. A highly reactive protein spot of a molecular mass of 36 kDa and pI of 4.55 was observed in all of the patients' serum samples tested. Mass spectrometry analysis led to identification of this allergen as tropomyosin. This finding can contribute to advancement in component-based diagnosis, management of squid allergic patients, to the development of immunotherapy and to the standardization of allergenic test products as tools in molecular allergology.
  2. Nordin N, Jalil J, Jantan I, Murad S
    Pharm Biol, 2012 Mar;50(3):284-90.
    PMID: 22103812 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2011.602416
    Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden (Annonaceae) is a coniferous tree that is confined to mountain forests. The chemical constituents of this species have been studied previously; however, its biological activity has never been investigated before and is reported here for the first time.
  3. Gendeh BS, Mujahid SH, Murad S, Rizal M
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Oct;59(4):522-9.
    PMID: 15779586 MyJurnal
    Atopy is defined as the genetic propensity to develop immunoglobulin E antibodies in response to exposure to allergens and assessed by skin prick test (SPT) responses to common allergens, which may contribute to the development of the clinical disorders (phenotype). Although it is generally agreed that atopy is an important risk factor for allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, the extent to which atopy accounts for these diseases is controversial. One hundred forty one children (up to 12 years) were skin prick tested to evaluate 16 foods common to the Malaysian diet and 4 common aeroallergens. Eighty-five percent of patients had positive SPT reactivity. The most commonly implicated aeroallergen and food allergen was house dust mite (HDM) and Prawn. Seventy percent had positive SPT reactivity results to HDM and 24.8% to prawns. Fifty five percent were positive to more than one allergen and 17.7% positive to single aeroallergen. The prevalence of atopy in children with history of eczema was 90%. The incidence of HDM and food allergy especially crabs and prawns, is significantly greater in Malaysian Children with rhinitis symptoms.
  4. Ho TM, Murad S, Kesavapillai R, Singaram SP
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 1995 Jun;13(1):11-6.
    PMID: 7488338
    This study was conducted to determine the seasonal prevalence of allergies to house dust, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, cat fur, dog hair, mixed moulds, mixed grass pollens and American cockroach. A total of 314 patients with clinically suspected allergic rhinitis was examined by prick test using commercial preparations of the above allergens. Total serum IgE of the patients was determined by a Sandwich ELISA. Ninety-six percent of the patients tested positive to more than one allergen. Most were positive to a combination of 4 allergens. More than 70% of the patients were positive to house dust, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat fur. Analysis indicates that for an individual who tests positive for house dust, there is a very high risk of the person being allergic to the dust mites and cat fur too. Most of the allergens had 2 peak period of high positive PT rates; mixed moulds and mixed grass pollens had 3 peaks. There was significant positive correlation between the monthly positive PT rates against mixed moulds and mixed grass pollens with maximum daily mean temperature and mean temperature at 14.00 hours.
  5. Sultan S, Ahmed SI, Murad S, Irfan SM
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 10;71(5):269-274.
    PMID: 28064294
    BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a hemorrhagic diathesis, characterized by platelets destruction alongside impaired production. Patients from Asian regions often exhibit distinctive characteristics in comparison to the western patients. We accomplished this study to evaluate the prevalence of primary versus secondary ITP along with the comparative analysis between them. The secondary objective was to determine the etiological spectrum of secondary ITP.

    METHODS: We illustrate the results of a large cohort of newly diagnosed adults ITP from southern Pakistan. The study extended from January 2009-December 2013. Complete blood counts, HbsAg, Anti-HCV, ANA, stool for Helicobacterpylori were done on all. HIV, TSH, anti-dsDNA, RA factor, APLA and direct coombs test were evaluated in cases where indicated.

    RESULTS: A total of 417 patients were included with a mean age of 40.95±14.82 years. Primarily disease was observed in the 3rd decade of life. Male to female ratio was 1:1.5. Mean platelets count was 46.21±27.45x109/l. At diagnosis 43.16% (n=180) patients had hemorrhagic manifestations whilst 56.8% (n=237) were asymptomatic. None of the patient presented with visceral, retropharyngeal or intracranial bleed. The prevalence of secondary ITP was substantially higher (64.8%) as compared to primary ITP (35.2%). Secondary ITP was predominantly seen in HCV reactive patients (24.4%) followed by helicobacter-pylori infection (11%). Nevertheless 16.4% patients had underlying autoimmune disorders. Providentially no study subject was found to be HIV reactive.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed predominance of secondary ITP. However bleeding manifestations and degree of thrombocytopenia were high in primary-ITP. Infectious etiology followed by autoimmune disorders is mainly implicated for secondary ITP in our setting.

  6. Subramaniam TS, Lee HL, Ahmad NW, Murad S
    Biotechnol J, 2012 Nov;7(11):1323-7.
    PMID: 23125042 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201200282
    On December 21, 2010, 6000 genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes were released in an uninhabited forest in Malaysia. The purpose of the deliberate release was a limited “marked release and recapture” (MRR) experiment, a standard ecological method in entomology, to evaluate under field conditions, the flight distance and longevity of the sterile male Aedes aegypti strain OX513A(My1), a GM strain. As with any other GM technologies, the release was received with mixed responses. As the scientific community debate over the public engagement strategies for similar GM releases, dengue incidence continues to rise with a heavy toll on morbidity, mortality and healthcare budgets. Meanwhile the wild female Aedes aegypti continues to breed offspring, surviving and evading conventional interventions for vector control.
  7. Jalil J, Jantan I, Ghani AA, Murad S
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 10;17(9):10893-901.
    PMID: 22964504 DOI: 10.3390/molecules170910893
    The methanol extract of the leaves of Garcinia nervosa var. pubescens King, which showed strong inhibitory effects on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation to obtain a new biflavonoid, II-3,I-5, II-5,II-7,I-4',II-4'-hexahydroxy-(I-3,II-8)-flavonylflavanonol together with two known flavonoids, 6-methyl-4'-methoxyflavone and acacetin. The structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit PAF receptor binding to rabbit platelets using ³H-PAF as a ligand. The biflavonoid and acacetin showed strong inhibition with IC₅₀ values of 28.0 and 20.4 µM, respectively. The results suggest that these compounds could be responsible for the strong PAF antagonistic activity of the plant.
  8. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Arip M, Murad S
    PMID: 21710860
    The aim of this study was to identify the major allergens of wildflower honey in local patients with atopic disease. SDS-PAGE revealed ten protein bands of 25 to 110 kDa, with a heavy cluster in region of 40-75 kDa. Immunoblotting demonstrated seven IgE-binding bands of 39 to 110 kDa. The 60 kDa protein had the highest frequency of IgE-binding (100%) followed by 54 kDa protein (95%), thus identified as the major allergens of wildflowerhoney. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of honey allergy contains both the 54 kDa and 60 kDa proteins.
  9. Chang CC, Too CL, Murad S, Hussein SH
    Int J Dermatol, 2011 Feb;50(2):221-4.
    PMID: 21244392 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2010.04745.x
    BACKGROUND: Carbamazepine (CBZ), a frequently used anticonvulsant drug, is one of the most common causes of life-threatening cutaneous adverse drug reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Recent studies have revealed a strong association between HLA-B*1502 and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the Taiwan Han Chinese population.
    OBJECTIVES: This study is aimed to investigate the association between human leucocyte antigens (HLA) and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population.
    METHODS: A sample of 21 unrelated patients with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS and 300 race-matched, healthy controls were genotyped for HLA-A, -B and -DR using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Allele frequencies were compared.
    RESULTS: HLA-B*1502 was present in 75.0% (12/16) of Malay patients with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS but in only 15.7% (47/300) of normal controls (odds ratio 16.15, 95% confidence interval 4.57-62.4; corrected P-value  = 7.87 × 10(-6) ), which suggests a strong association between HLA and CBZ-induced TEN/SJS. Additionally, HLA-B*1502 was found in all three Chinese and two Indian patients. Existing data show that frequencies of the HLA-B*1502 allele are generally much higher in Asian populations than in White European populations, which explains the higher incidences of SJS and TEN in Asian countries.
    CONCLUSIONS: HLA-B*1502 is strongly associated with CBZ-induced TEN/SJS in the Malay population in Malaysia, as has been seen in Han Chinese in Taiwan. This indicates that the genetic association apparent in the incidence of CBZ-induced TEN/SJS is linked with the presence of HLA-B*1502, irrespective of racial origin. Screening of patients for this genetic marker can help to prevent the occurrence of TEN/SJS.
  10. Jantan I, Raweh SM, Yasin YH, Murad S
    Phytother Res, 2006 Jun;20(6):493-6.
    PMID: 16619347
    Six aporphine and one phenanthrenoid alkaloids isolated from Aromadendron elegans Blume were investigated for their ability to inhibit arachidonic acid (AA), collagen and ADP induced platelet aggregation in human whole blood. The antiplatelet activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by the Chrono Log whole blood aggregometer using an electrical impedance method. Of the compounds tested, (-)-N-acetylnornuciferine, (-)-N-acetylanonaine and 1-(N-acetyl-N-methylamino)ethyl-3,4,6-trimethoxy-7-hydroxyphenanthrene showed strong inhibition on platelet aggregation caused by all three inducers. (-)-N-acetylanonaine was the most effective antiplatelet compound as it inhibited both arachidonic acid, collagen and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 66.1, 95.1 and 80.6 microm, respectively.
  11. Misnan R, Murad S, Yadzir ZH, Abdullah N
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2012 Dec;30(4):285-93.
    PMID: 23393908
    Tropomyosin and arginine kinase have been identified as the major allergens in multiple species of crab. Charybdis feriatus is an important commercial crab in this country.
  12. Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    PMID: 26504467 DOI: 10.1186/s13223-015-0099-4
    Many types of shellfish including oysters are sometime cooked before ingestion and it has been demonstrated that cooking may affect the allergenicity of food. Therefore, the aim of our present study is to identify major and minor allergens of tropical oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) and to investigate the effect of different cooking processing on the allergenicity of this oyster.
  13. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Bakhtiar F, Abdullah N, Murad S
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:254152.
    PMID: 26413512 DOI: 10.1155/2015/254152
    To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins.
  14. Dhaliwal JS, Too CL, Lisut M, Lee YY, Murad S
    Tissue Antigens, 2003 Oct;62(4):330-2.
    PMID: 12974801
    The frequency of HLA-B27 and its subtypes was determined in 878 Malay subjects. Thirty-five of the subjects typed for HLA-A, -B and -DR were found to be positive for HLA-B27. The frequency of this allele in the Malay population was found to be 3.99%. The subtypes observed and their frequencies are: HLA-B*2704 (19.4%), HLA-B*2705 (5.6%), HLA-B*2706 (72.2%) and HLA-B*2707 (2.8%).
  15. Kong NC, Nasruruddin BA, Murad S, Ong KJ, Sukumaran KD
    Lupus, 1994 Oct;3(5):393-5.
    PMID: 7841992 DOI: 10.1177/096120339400300505
    Many studies have shown an association between human leucocyte antigens (HLA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in the various study populations. Although SLE is not an uncommon disease in the Malaysian Archipelago, and appears to affect all three major racial groups equally (i.e. Southern Chinese, Malays and Southern Indians), very little information is available on the HLA profiles in the two latter groups. In phase I of our study of the HLA profiles in Malaysian SLE patients, the HLA phenotypes (class I: A, B, C; Class II: DR, DQ) of Malay patients with confirmed SLE and 91 normal Malay controls were determined using the microcytotoxicity assay. The strong association between DR (RR 3.28, P = 0.008) concurs with that reported among Chinese and Japanese populations. Moderate to strong associations with HLA-B 7 (RR 4.99, P = 0.02) and Cw 7 (RR 2.94, P = 0.003) were also found. We believe this is the first report of the association of HLA and SLE in the Malay population.
  16. Kamel AG, Maning N, Arulmainathan S, Murad S, Nasuruddin A, Lai KP
    PMID: 7667707
    A study conducted at the Tampin Drug Rehabilitation Center in Malaysia established a high prevalence (23%) of asymptomatic carriers of Cryptosporidium among exposed HIV positive intravenous drug users (IVDUs). A majority of them were young adults and among the ethnic groups, the Malay HIV positive inmates had the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection.
  17. Too CL, Muhamad NA, Ilar A, Padyukov L, Alfredsson L, Klareskog L, et al.
    Ann. Rheum. Dis., 2016 06;75(6):997-1002.
    PMID: 26681695 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208278
    OBJECTIVES: Lung exposures including cigarette smoking and silica exposure are associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the association between textile dust exposure and the risk of RA in the Malaysian population, with a focus on women who rarely smoke.

    METHODS: Data from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis population-based case-control study involving 910 female early RA cases and 910 female age-matched controls were analysed. Self-reported information on ever/never occupationally exposed to textile dust was used to estimate the risk of developing anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Interaction between textile dust and the human leucocyte antigen DR β-1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope (SE) was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), with 95% CI.

    RESULTS: Occupational exposure to textile dust was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RA in the Malaysian female population (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.2). The association between occupational exposure to textile dust and risk of RA was uniformly observed for the ACPA-positive RA (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8) and ACPA-negative RA (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0) subsets, respectively. We observed a significant interaction between exposure to occupational textile dust and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles regarding the risk of ACPA-positive RA (OR for double exposed: 39.1, 95% CI 5.1 to 297.5; AP: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that textile dust exposure is associated with an increased risk for RA. In addition, a gene-environment interaction between HLA-DRB1 SE and textile dust exposure provides a high risk for ACPA-positive RA.
  18. Mohamad Yadzir ZH, Misnan R, Abdullah N, Bakhtiar F, Leecyous B, Murad S
    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol, 2014 Aug;13(4):240-6.
    PMID: 24659159
    Component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) using microarray technology has recently been introduced with the aim to improve diagnosis of allergy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of this allergen microarray to those of an established extract-based skin prick testing (SPT).45 patients with allergic rhinitis were studied (16 children and 29 adults). SPT to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts and allergen microarray ImmunoCAP ISAC were carried out for all patients. Forty out of 45 patients demonstrated positive SPT to all mite extracts tested. These 40 patients were considered to be mite-allergic based on the positive SPT results. The remaining 5 patients with negative SPT to any mite extracts were classified as non-mite allergic. Comparatively, based on the microarray results, only 34 mite-allergic patients had detectable serum IgE to at least one of the mite allergen components tested whereas 6 patients with positive SPT to mite extracts showed no detectable IgE reactivity to any of the components tested. One non-mite allergic patient had a positive test- Blo t 5. Der p 10-positive patients also reacted to other cross-reactive tropomyosin from anisakis (Ani s 3) (25%), cockroach (Bla g 7) (50%) and shrimp (Pen m 1) (75%). CRD is a reliable tool for the diagnosis of allergy to mites. Der p 10 might be a useful indicator to identify a subset of mite-allergic patient that have additional sensitization due to cross-reactivity and thus allows selection of patients for immunotherapy.
  19. Lee HL, Vasan S, Ahmad NW, Idris I, Hanum N, Selvi S, et al.
    Transgenic Res., 2013 Feb;22(1):47-57.
    PMID: 22700207 DOI: 10.1007/s11248-012-9625-z
    We conducted the world's first experiments under semi-field conditions (ACL-2 field house) to assess the mating competitiveness of genetically sterile RIDL male mosquitoes (513A strain). The field house is a state-of-the-art, fully-contained trial facility, simulating the living space for a household of 2-4 people in Peninsular Malaysia. Ten genetically sterile RIDL male A. aegypti mosquitoes competed with ten wild type males inside this field house to mate with ten wild type females. Hatched larvae from mated females were screened under a fluorescent microscope for genetic markers to determine if they were fathered by RIDL male or wild type male, and all results were cross-checked by PCR. Two such experiments were conducted, each repeated sufficient number of times. All strains were on a Malaysian lab strain background for the first experiment, while the RIDL males alone were on a recently-colonised Mexican strain background for the second experiment. A total of 52 % of the matings were with RIDL males in the first experiment, while 45 % of the matings were with RIDL (Mexican) males in the second experiment. Statistically, this is not significantly different from 50 % of the matings expected to take place with RIDL males if the latter were as competitive as that of the wild type males. This shows that A. aegypti RIDL-513A has excellent mating competitiveness under semi-field conditions, verifying earlier trends obtained in small lab cages. We also observed high mating compatibility between recently-colonised Mexican RIDL males and lab-reared Malaysian wild type females.
  20. Dhaliwal JS, Wong L, Kamaluddin MA, Yin LY, Murad S
    Hum Immunol, 2011 Oct;72(10):889-92.
    PMID: 21762745 DOI: 10.1016/j.humimm.2011.06.013
    The incidence of aplastic anemia is reported to be higher in Asia than elsewhere. We studied the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1 alleles in aplastic anemia patients from 2 genetically similar aboriginal groups, the Kadazan and the Dusun, and compared them with genetically matched community and hospital controls. HLA-DRB1*15 was significantly higher in the patients compared with controls (p = 0.005), confirming similar findings in Japanese and Caucasian studies. Further testing indicated a significantly higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*1501 in patients compared with controls (p = 0.0004) but no significant difference in the frequency of HLA-DRB1*1502. The high frequency of HLA-DRB1*15 in the Kadazan and Dusun population combined with the wide variety of environmental factors associated with aplastic anemia could be the reason for the elevated incidence of aplastic anemia in the Kadazan and Dusun in Sabah.
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