Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

  1. Nimir, Amal R., Al-Dubai, Sami A. R., Alshagga, Mustafa A., Saliem, Ahmed M.
    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently encountered malignancies among young females in Malaysia, which accounts for 30.4% of newly diagnosed cancers. All women at or above the age of 20 are considered at risk of developing breast cancer. This is a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a private medical university in Malaysia during year 2012. Two hundred students were recruited in this study using universal sampling. Data collection was done using a selfadministration questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to assess the association between the practice of breast selfexamination and socio-demographic variables. Only 19.5% of the study sample has sufficient knowledge about BSE which is acquired mostly from local media. Having a family history of malignancy other than breast cancer seems to be the only significant variable associated with knowledge about BSE (P=0.002). Other variables such as demographic data, menstrual history and social history were also tested, but found to be not significant. Frequent community-based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to alert the women to any abnormal changes in the breasts so that they will be able to seek medical advice immediately.
  2. Tan BL, Mustafa AM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2004;16(1):54-63.
    PMID: 18839869
    Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
  3. Tan BL, Mustafa AM
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2003;15(2):118-23.
    PMID: 15038686
    Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical.
  4. Ramlah Zainudin, Mustafa A. Rahman, Badrul Munir M. Zain, Shukor MN, Norhayati A, Inger RF
    Recordings of frog calls from the genus Hylarana were conducted at seven study sites in Sarawak, Malaysia. The results showed that each species differs in terms of call characteristics, in which a high number of pulsed note belongs to H. baramica, while high repetition note belongs to the sibling species, H. glandulosa. Higher pitched and number of amplitude spectrum, however, belong to H. signata. Pulsed note and note repetition differed significantly among species, except for spectrum amplitude. Advertisement calls for each species were described in detail. This study provide a baseline data on advertisement call characteristics of frogs from the genus Hylarana for future studies of these frogs particularly and the Oriental frogs generally.
  5. Santhi VA, Hairin T, Mustafa AM
    Chemosphere, 2012 Mar;86(10):1066-71.
    PMID: 22197311 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.11.063
    A study to assess the level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and bisphenol A (BPA) in edible marine biota collected from coastal waters of Malaysia was conducted using GC-MS and SPE extraction. An analytical method was developed and validated to measure the level of 15 OCPs and BPA simultaneously from five selected marine species. It was observed that some samples had low levels of p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and p,p'- DDD ranging from 0.50 ng g(-1) to 22.49 ng g(-1) dry weight (d.w) but significantly elevated level of endosulfan I was detected in a stingray sample at 2880 ng g(-1) d.w. BPA was detected in 31 out of 57 samples with concentration ranging from below quantification level (LOQ: 3 ng g(-1)) to 729 ng g(-1) d.w. The presence of OCPs is most likely from past use although there is also indication of illegal use in recent times. The study also reveals that BPA is more widely distributed in coastal species caught off the coast of the most developed state. The potential health risk from dietary intakes of OCPs and BPA from the analysed fish species was negligible.
  6. Alshagga MA, Mohamed N, Nazrun Suhid A, Abdel Aziz Ibrahim I, Zulkifli Syed Zakaria S
    Arch Med Sci, 2011 Aug;7(4):572-8.
    PMID: 22291790 DOI: 10.5114/aoms.2011.24123
    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (XME), which may modify susceptibility in certain ethnic groups, showing ethnic dependent polymorphism. The aim of this study was to determine GSTM1, GSTM3 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms in a Malaysian population in Kuala Lumpur.
  7. Lim HC, Rahman MA, Lim SL, Moyle RG, Sheldon FH
    Evolution, 2011 Feb;65(2):321-34.
    PMID: 20796023 DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2010.01105.x
    Sundaland, a biogeographic region of Southeast Asia, is a major biodiversity hotspot. However, little is known about the relative importance of Pleistocene habitat barriers and rivers in structuring populations and promoting diversification here. We sampled 16 lowland rainforest bird species primarily from peninsular Malaysia and Borneo to test the long-standing hypothesis that animals on different Sundaic landmasses intermixed extensively when lower sea-levels during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exposed land-bridges. This hypothesis was rejected in all but five species through coalescent simulations. Furthermore, we detected a range of phylogeographic patterns; Bornean populations are often genetically distinct from each other, despite their current habitat connectivity. Environmental niche modeling showed that the presence of unsuitable habitats between western and eastern Sundaland during the LGM coincided with deeper interpopulation genetic divergences. The location of this habitat barrier had been hypothesized previously based on other evidence. Paleo-riverine barriers are unlikely to have produced such a pattern, but we cannot rule out that they acted with habitat changes to impede population exchanges across the Sunda shelf. The distinctiveness of northeastern Borneo populations may be underlied by a combination of factors such as rivers, LGM expansion of montane forests and other aspects of regional physiography.
  8. Gurmeet K, Rosnah I, Normadiah MK, Das S, Mustafa AM
    EXCLI J, 2014;13:151-60.
    PMID: 26417249
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in manufacturing industries. It is commonly detected in the environment and was reported to exert oestrogenic effects which may be harmful to the reproductive system. The present study was carried out to observe the effects of oral administration of BPA on the development of the reproductive organs and plasma sex hormone levels in prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Prepubertal male SD rats (n=8 in each group) were administered BPA in the doses of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/kg BW (body weight) via oral gavage for a period of 6 weeks. The control animals received the vehicle for BPA (Tween 80 in distilled water). Following 6 weeks of BPA exposure, the rats exhibited less evidence of spermatogenesis. There was seminiferous epithelial damage which included disruption of intercellular junctions and sloughing of germ cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen. Furthermore, the lumina of the seminiferous tubules and the epididymis of these animals were filled with immature germ cells and cellular debris. This damage may lead to the significant reduction in the seminiferous tubular diameter in BPA-treated animals. These findings were associated with the significant lower plasma testosterone and 17β-oestradiol levels. There was no significant difference between the body weight gain, the absolute as well as relative testis weight or epididymal weight of BPA-treated animals when compared to the control animals. The findings provided further evidence of the detrimental effects of BPA on the male reproductive system.
  9. Hasan MZ, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Baten MA
    PLoS One, 2012;7(5):e37047.
    PMID: 22629352 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037047
    The stock market is considered essential for economic growth and expected to contribute to improved productivity. An efficient pricing mechanism of the stock market can be a driving force for channeling savings into profitable investments and thus facilitating optimal allocation of capital. This study investigated the technical efficiency of selected groups of companies of Bangladesh Stock Market that is the Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE) market, using the stochastic frontier production function approach. For this, the authors considered the Cobb-Douglas Stochastic frontier in which the technical inefficiency effects are defined by a model with two distributional assumptions. Truncated normal and half-normal distributions were used in the model and both time-variant and time-invariant inefficiency effects were estimated. The results reveal that technical efficiency decreased gradually over the reference period and that truncated normal distribution is preferable to half-normal distribution for technical inefficiency effects. The value of technical efficiency was high for the investment group and low for the bank group, as compared with other groups in the DSE market for both distributions in time-varying environment whereas it was high for the investment group but low for the ceramic group as compared with other groups in the DSE market for both distributions in time-invariant situation.
  10. Santhi VA, Sakai N, Ahmad ED, Mustafa AM
    Sci Total Environ, 2012 Jun 15;427-428:332-8.
    PMID: 22578698 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.041
    This study investigated the level of bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water used as potable water, drinking water (tap and bottled mineral water) and human plasma in the Langat River basin, Malaysia. BPA was present in 93% of the surface water samples at levels ranging from below limit of quantification (LOQ; 1.3 ng/L) to 215 ng/L while six fold higher levels were detected in samples collected near industrial and municipal sewage treatment plant outlets. Low levels of BPA were detected in most of the drinking water samples. BPA in tap water ranged from 3.5 to 59.8 ng/L with the highest levels detected in samples collected from taps connected to PVC pipes and water filter devices. Bottled mineral water had lower levels of BPA (3.3±2.6 ng/L) although samples stored in poor storage condition had significantly higher levels (11.3±5.3 ng/L). Meanwhile, only 17% of the plasma samples had detectable levels of BPA ranging from 0.81 to 3.65 ng/mL. The study shows that BPA is a ubiquitous contaminant in surface, tap and bottled mineral water. However, exposure to BPA from drinking water is very low and is less than 0.01% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).
  11. Hossain MK, Kamil AA, Baten MA, Mustafa A
    PLoS One, 2012;7(10):e46081.
    PMID: 23077500 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046081
    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989-2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation.
  12. Hasan MZ, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Baten MA
    PLoS One, 2012;7(8):e42215.
    PMID: 22900009 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042215
    Banking system plays an important role in the economic development of any country. Domestic banks, which are the main components of the banking system, have to be efficient; otherwise, they may create obstacle in the process of development in any economy. This study examines the technical efficiency of the Malaysian domestic banks listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE) market over the period 2005-2010. A parametric approach, Stochastic Frontier Approach (SFA), is used in this analysis. The findings show that Malaysian domestic banks have exhibited an average overall efficiency of 94 percent, implying that sample banks have wasted an average of 6 percent of their inputs. Among the banks, RHBCAP is found to be highly efficient with a score of 0.986 and PBBANK is noted to have the lowest efficiency with a score of 0.918. The results also show that the level of efficiency has increased during the period of study, and that the technical efficiency effect has fluctuated considerably over time.
  13. Chik Z, Haron DE, Ahmad ED, Taha H, Mustafa AM
    PMID: 21607892 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2011.576401
    Migration of melamine has been determined for 41 types of retail melamine-ware products in Malaysia. This study was initiated by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, in the midst of public anxiety on the possibility of melamine leaching into foods that come into contact with the melamine-ware. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the level of melamine migration in melamine utensils available on the market. Samples of melamine tableware, including cups and plates, forks and spoons, tumblers, bowls, etc., were collected from various retail outlets. Following the test guidelines for melamine migration set by the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN 2004) with some modifications, the samples were exposed to two types of food simulants (3% acetic acid and distilled water) at three test conditions (25°C (room temperature), 70 and 100°C) for 30 min. Melamine analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS with a HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in water and ammonium acetate/formic acid (0.05%) in acetonitrile (95 : 5, v/v). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5 ng/ml. Melamine migration was detected from all samples. For the articles tested with distilled water, melamine migration were [median (interquartile range)] 22.2 (32.6), 49.3 (50.9), 84.9 (89.9) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. In 3% acetic acid, melamine migration was 31.5 (35.7), 81.5 (76.2), 122.0 (126.7) ng/ml at room temperature (25°C), 70 and 100°C, respectively. This study suggests that excessive heat and acidity may directly affect melamine migration from melamine-ware products. However the results showed that melamine migration in the tested items were well below the specific migration limit (SML) of 30 mg/kg (30,000 ng/ml) set out in European Commission Directive 2002/72/EC.
  14. Ajay M, Chai HJ, Mustafa AM, Gilani AH, Mustafa MR
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2007 Feb 12;109(3):388-93.
    PMID: 16973321
    Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS) in both humans and experimental animals. To explore the mechanisms of the anti-hypertensive effect of the HS, we examined the effects of a crude methanolic extract of the calyces of HS (HSE) on vascular reactivity in isolated aortas from spontaneously hypertensive rats. HSE relaxed, concentration-dependently, KCl (high K(+), 80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-pre-contracted aortic rings, with a greater potency against the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor agonist. The relaxant effect of HSE was partly dependent on the presence of a functional endothelium as the action was significantly reduced in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Pretreatment with atropine (1 microM), L-NAME (10 microM) or methylene blue (10 microM), but not indomethacin (10 microM), significantly blocked the relaxant effects of HSE. Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively, were significantly enhanced in aortic rings pretreated with HSE when compared to those observed in control aortic rings. The present results demonstrated that HSE has a vasodilator effect in the isolated aortic rings of hypertensive rats. These effects are probably mediated through the endothelium-derived nitric oxide-cGMP-relaxant pathway and inhibition of calcium (Ca(2+))-influx into vascular smooth muscle cells. The present data further supports previous in vivo findings and the traditional use of HS as an anti-hypertensive agent.
  15. Taha H, Looi CY, Arya A, Wong WF, Yap LF, Hasanpourghadi M, et al.
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0126126.
    PMID: 25946039 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126126
    Phytochemicals from Pseuduvaria species have been reported to display a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, a known benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol (1), and a new benzopyran derivative, (6E,10E) isopolycerasoidol methyl ester (2), were isolated from a methanol extract of Pseuduvaria monticola leaves. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, UV, and LCMS-QTOF, and by comparison with previously published data. The anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects of these compounds on human breast cancer cell-lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and a human normal breast epithelial cell line (MCF-10A) were investigated. MTT results revealed both (1) and (2) were efficient in reducing cell viability of breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that (1) and (2) induced cell death via apoptosis, as demonstrated by an increase in phosphotidylserine exposure. Both compounds elevated ROS production, leading to reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increased plasma membrane permeability in breast cancer cells. These effects occurred concomitantly with a dose-dependent activation of caspase 3/7 and 9, a down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 and the accumulation of p38 MAPK in the nucleus. Taken together, our data demonstrate that (1) and (2) induce intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, which provides the first pharmacological evidence for their future development as anticancer agents.
  16. Mustafa A, Lung CY, Mustafa NS, Mustafa BA, Kashmoola MA, Zwahlen RA, et al.
    Clin Oral Implants Res, 2016 Mar;27(3):303-9.
    PMID: 25393376 DOI: 10.1111/clr.12525
    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-coated Ti implants on osteoconduction in white New Zealand rabbit mandibles.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sandblasted and cleansed planar titanium specimens with a size of 5 × 5 × 1 mm were coated on one side with 0.25 vol% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The other side of the specimens was kept highly polished (the control side). These specimens were inserted in rabbit mandibles. Twelve rabbits were randomly assigned into three study groups (n = 4). The rabbits were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The harvested specimens with the implants were assessed for new bone formation on both sides of the implant using CBCT, conventional radiographs, and the biaxial pullout test. The results were statistically analyzed by a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Friedman's test as multiple comparisons and by Brunner-Langer nonparametric mixed model approach (R Software).

    RESULTS: A significant osteoconductive bone formation was found on the EPA-coated Ti implant surface (P < 0.05) at 8 weeks when compared to the polished surface (control). Biaxial pullout test results showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) after 8 and 12 weeks with a maximum force of 243.8 N, compared to 143.25 N after 4 week.

    CONCLUSION: EPA implant coating promoted osteoconduction on the Ti implant surfaces, enhancing the anchorage of the implant to the surrounding bone in white New Zealand rabbits.

  17. Rahman K, Ghani NA, Kamil AA, Mustafa A, Kabir Chowdhury MA
    PLoS One, 2013;8(5):e63503.
    PMID: 23691055 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063503
    Pedestrian movements are the consequence of several complex and stochastic facts. The modelling of pedestrian movements and the ability to predict the travel time are useful for evaluating the performance of a pedestrian facility. However, only a few studies can be found that incorporate the design of the facility, local pedestrian body dimensions, the delay experienced by the pedestrians, and level of service to the pedestrian movements. In this paper, a queuing based analytical model is developed as a function of relevant determinants and functional factors to predict the travel time on pedestrian facilities. The model can be used to assess the overall serving rate or performance of a facility layout and correlate it to the level of service that is possible to provide the pedestrians. It has also the ability to provide a clear suggestion on the designing and sizing of pedestrian facilities. The model is empirically validated and is found to be a robust tool to understand how well a particular walking facility makes possible comfort and convenient pedestrian movements. The sensitivity analysis is also performed to see the impact of some crucial parameters of the developed model on the performance of pedestrian facilities.
  18. Khalid R, Nawawi MK, Kawsar LA, Ghani NA, Kamil AA, Mustafa A
    PLoS One, 2013;8(4):e58402.
    PMID: 23560037 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058402
    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed.
  19. Mustafa AM, Malintan NT, Seelan S, Zhan Z, Mohamed Z, Hassan J, et al.
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 2007 Jul 1;222(1):25-32.
    PMID: 17490695
    This study is a result of an analysis of free and conjugated phytoestrogens daidzein, genistein, daidzin, genistin and coumesterol in human cord blood plasma using LCMS. Cord blood was collected from urban and rural populations of Malaysia (n=300) to establish a simple preliminary database on the levels of the analyzed compounds in the collected samples. The study also aimed to look at the levels of phytoestrogens in babies during birth as this may have a profound effect on the developmental process. The sample clean up was carried out by solid-phase extraction using C18 column and passed through DEAE sephadex gel before analysis by LCMS. The mean concentrations of total phytoestrogens were daidzein (1.4+/-2.9 ng/ml), genistein (3.7+/-2.8 ng/ml), daidzin (3.5+/-3.1 ng/ml), genistin (19.5+/-4.2 ng/ml) and coumesterol (3.3+/-3.3 ng/ml). Distribution of phytoestrogen was found to be higher in samples collected from rural areas compared to that of urban areas.
  20. Hossain KA, Mohd-Jaafar MN, Appalanidu KB, Mustafa A, Ani FN
    Environ Technol, 2005 Mar;26(3):251-9.
    PMID: 15881021
    Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) of nitric oxide has been studied experimentally by injecting aqueous urea solution with and without additive in a pilot-scale diesel fired tunnel furnace at 3.4% excess oxygen level and with low ppm of baseline NO(x) ranging from 65 to 75 ppm within the investigated temperature range. The tests have been carried out using commercial grade urea as NO(x) reducing agent and commercial grade sodium carbonate as additive. The furnace simulated the small-scale combustion systems, where the operating temperatures are usually in the range of about 973 to 1323 K and NO(x) emission level remains below 100 ppm. With 5% plain urea solution, at Normalized Stoichiometric Ratio (NSR) of 4 as much as 54% reduction was achieved at 1128 K, whilst in the additive case the NO(x) reduction was improved to as much as 69% at 1093 K. Apart from this improvement, in the additive case, the effective temperature window as well as peak temperature of NO(x) reduction shifted towards lower temperatures. The result is quite significant, especially for this investigated level of baseline NO(x). The ammonia slip measurements showed that in both cases the slip was below 16 ppm at NSR of 4 and optimum temperature of NO(x) reduction. Finally, the investigations demonstrated that urea based SNCR is quite applicable to small-scale combustion applications and commercial grade sodium carbonate is a potential additive.
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