Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 64 in total

  1. Mustafa M, Subramanian N
    Int Orthop, 1996;20(6):383-4.
    PMID: 9049770
    We describe a patient with acute compression of the spinal cord by a spontaneous extra-dural haematoma. This rare condition is often misdiagnosed. We believe that an urgent MRI scan is indicated in patients presenting with progressive neurological deficit following spinal trauma. This allows the diagnosis of extra-dural haematoma to be made rapidly and for prompt decompression of the cord.
  2. Yaacob I, Mustafa M
    Singapore Med J, 1994 Oct;35(5):512-4.
    PMID: 7701374
    Fifty-eight patients were ventilated for acute respiratory failure complicating respiratory diseases between 1985 to 1990. There were 19 cases of chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), 17 cases of asthma, 16 cases of pneumonia and 6 cases with other diagnoses. Overall, 40% of patients survived and were discharged from the ward. Patients with pneumonia had the lowest survival rate (25%) whilst the survival rates for asthma and COAD were 47% and 42% respectively. Increasing age had an inverse relationship to survival rate (r = 0.96, p < 0.05) but the duration of ventilation did not correlate with survival. Patients who were electively ventilated before respiratory arrest had a better chance of survival (57%) compared with only 18% survival rate in patients who were ventilated as an emergency (x2 = 4.47, p < 0.05). Patients who developed other organ failure had higher mortality (71%) than those who did not (22%; x2 = 2.14, p < 0.05). We conclude that patients younger than 50 years of age, who were electively ventilated and without other organ failure had a better immediate survival after assisted ventilation.
  3. Mustafa MR
    Toxicon, 1993 Jan;31(1):67-74.
    PMID: 8446965
    The effect of the total glysosidic extract of the plant Sarcolobus globosus was investigated on the contractions of the smooth muscle of the guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle and taenia coli. In the ileal longitudinal muscle, addition of the extract inhibited the electrical field-stimulated twitches. Similarly to verapamil, it also reduced the contractions of the muscle to acetylcholine, histamine and KCl. However, only the tonic contraction to KCl was reversed by increasing the extracellular calcium concentration. In the taenia coli, lower concentrations of both the extract and verapamil induced a parallel displacement of the dose-response curves to calcium (0.30-30 mM). Addition of the extract also dose-dependently inhibited the KCl-induced contraction of the taenia coli. Increasing the calcium concentration increased the IC50 values of the extract. The result suggests that the inhibitory effect of the Sarcolobus globosus extract on the smooth muscle, like verapamil, is mainly due to inhibition of calcium influx.
  4. Ali A, Wee Pheng T, Mustafa MA
    J. Appl. Microbiol., 2015 Jun;118(6):1456-64.
    PMID: 25727701 DOI: 10.1111/jam.12782
    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya.
  5. Mustafa MR, Achike FI
    Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2000 Dec;21(12):1165-8.
    PMID: 11603294
    Dicentrine is a known alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but its alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype selectivity has not yet been determined. We therefore, investigated the putative alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype selectivity of this agent.
  6. Mustafa MR, Hadi AH
    Toxicon, 1990;28(10):1237-9.
    PMID: 2264070
    Crude glycoside extracts from the plant, Sarcolobus globosus, were tested on the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm, chick biventer cervicis and frog rectus abdominis preparations. Nerve-stimulated twitches were inhibited by the extract. The muscle paralysis was not similar to that by curare-like blockers as it was not reversed by neostigmine or by a tetanus. Although contractures to acetylcholine or carbachol were not affected by 0.6 mg/ml of the extract, higher concentration of the extracts (3 mg/ml) depressed the log dose-response curve of acetylcholine and carbachol. The results suggest that the neuromuscular blocking effect of the extracts is either dose-dependent or due to a mixture of toxins with presynaptic or postsynaptic actions.
  7. Leong XF, Rais Mustafa M, Jaarin K
    PMID: 23533459 DOI: 10.1155/2013/120732
    Hypertension increases the risk for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and peripheral vascular disease. The increase in oxidative stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Increase of blood pressure is due to an imbalance between antioxidants defence mechanisms and free radical productions. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species reduces nitric oxide bioavailability leading to an endothelial dysfunction and a subsequent increase in total peripheral resistance. Hypertension can cause few symptoms until it reaches the advanced stage and poses serious health problems with lifelong consequences. Hypertensive patients are required to take drugs for life to control the hypertension and prevent complications. Some of these drugs are expensive and may have adverse reactions. Hence, it is timely to examine scientifically, complimentary therapies that are more effective and with minimal undesirable effects. Nigella sativa (NS) and its active constituents have been documented to exhibit antioxidant, hypotensive, calcium channel blockade and diuretic properties which may contribute to reduce blood pressure. This suggests a potential role of NS in the management of hypertension, and thus more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness.
  8. Aloysius UI, Achike FI, Mustafa MR
    Vascul. Pharmacol., 2012 Sep-Oct;57(2-4):81-90.
    PMID: 22172524 DOI: 10.1016/j.vph.2011.11.009
    The female gender reduces the risk, but succumbs more to cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis that short-term (8weeks) Streptozotocin-induced diabetes could produce greater female than male vascular tissue reactivity and the mechanistic basis were explored. Aortic ring responses to Phenylephrine were examined in age- and sex-matched normoglycaemic/diabetic rats. The normoglycaemic male tissue contracted significantly more than the normoglycaemic female and the male/female diabetic tissues. Endothelial-denudation, l-NAME or MB reversed these differences suggesting an EDNO-cGMP dependence. 17β-oestradiol exerted relaxant effect on all endothelium-denuded (and normoglycaemic endothelium-intact male) tissues, but not endothelium-intact normoglycaemic female. The greater male tissue contraction is attributable to absent 17β-oestradiol-modulated relaxation. Indomethacin blockade of COX attenuated male normoglycaemic and female diabetic tissue contraction (both reversed by l-NAME), but augmented diabetic male tissue contraction. These data are consistent with the raised contractile TXA(2) and PGE(2) in normoglycaemic male and diabetic female tissues, and the relaxant PGI(2) in diabetic male (and female). The higher levels of PGI(2) in the normoglycaemic and diabetic female perhaps explain their greater relaxant response to Acetylcholine compared to the respective male. In conclusion, there is an endothelium-dependent gender difference in the effect of short term diabetes on vascular tissue reactivity which is COX mediated.
  9. Subramaniam G, Achike FI, Mustafa MR
    J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 2009 Apr;53(4):333-40.
    PMID: 19295443 DOI: 10.1097/FJC.0b013e31819fd4a7
    The mechanism by which insulin causes vasodilatation remains unclear, so we explored this in aortic rings from normal Wistar Kyoto and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Insulin-induced relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted [endothelium (ED) intact or denuded] aortic rings was recorded in the presence or absence of various drug probes. Insulin relaxant effect was more in ED-intact than in-denuded tissues from normal or diabetic rats. l-NAME or methylene blue partially inhibited insulin effect in ED-intact but not the ED-denuded tissues, whereas indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor) had no effect on any of the tissues, indicating that insulin induces relaxation by ED-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the former via the NOS-cyclic guanosine monophosphate but not the cyclooxygenase pathway. The voltage-dependent K channel (KV) blocker (4-aminopyridine) inhibited insulin action in all the tissues (normal or diabetic, with or without ED), whereas the selective BKCa blocker, tetraethylammonium, inhibited it in normal (ED intact or denuded) but not in diabetic tissues, indicating that KV mediates insulin action in normal and diabetic tissues, whereas the BKCa mediates it only in normal tissues, with possible pathophysiologic absence in diabetic tissues. The inward rectifier K channel (Kir) blocker (barium chloride) significantly inhibited insulin effect only in ED-intact or -denuded diabetic tissues, whereas the KATP channel blocker, glibenclamide, inhibited it only in the ED-denuded diabetic tissues, suggesting that Kir channels mediate insulin-induced relaxation in ED-intact or -denuded diabetic tissues, whereas the KATP channel mediates it in ED-denuded diabetic tissues. All the agents combined did not abolish insulin action, suggestive of a direct vasodilatory effect. In conclusion, insulin causes vasodilatation in normal and diabetic tissues via ED-dependent and -independent mechanisms differentially modulated by K channels, some of which functions are altered in diabetes and thus are potential therapeutic targets.
  10. Chin LC, Achike FI, Mustafa MR
    Vascul. Pharmacol., 2007 Mar;46(3):223-8.
    PMID: 17126611
    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contributes in the regulation of vascular tone, especially in pathological states. The role of H(2)O(2) and superoxide anion free radicals in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced contraction of diabetic tissues was examined with the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Isometric tension in response to various drug treatments was measured in isolated superior mesenteric arteries of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic WKY rats using the Mulvany wire myograph. Compared to the normal (euglycaemic) arteries, the Ang II-induced contraction was significantly reduced in diabetic arteries. Superoxide dismutase (SOD; converts superoxide to H(2)O(2)) significantly reduced the contraction in both types of arteries -- an effect abolished by catalase (H(2)O(2) scavenger), suggesting that the SOD effect was mediated by H(2)O(2). Treatment with catalase had no effect on the Ang II contraction in euglycaemic arteries, but it raised the contraction in diabetic arteries to euglycaemic levels. This increase was similar to that observed with diabetic arteries incubated with L-NAME. Combined catalase and L-NAME treatment further enhanced the contraction in diabetic arteries, suggesting that the catalase effect was not mediated by nitric oxide (NO). The catalase effect was abolished by indomethacin treatment. These results suggest that attenuation of Ang II-induced contraction in diabetic tissues is modulated by endogenous H(2)O(2), the scavenging of which unmasks an indomethacin-sensitive (and therefore cyclooxygenase product-mediated) Ang II-induced contraction.
  11. Nirwati H, Hakim MS, Darma S, Mustafa M, Nuryastuti T
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):291-296.
    PMID: 30350807
    INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is commonly found as an agent of nosocomial infections and demonstrates a high antibiotic resistance due to its carbapenemase production. The objectives of this study were to explore the antibiotic resistance pattern, the presence of OXAs genes and the biofilm-producing capacity of A. baumannii isolated from clinical specimens.

    METHODS: Antibiotics susceptibility testing, detection of OXAs genes and the biofilm-producing capacity were performed using the Kirby Bauer method, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and adherence quantitative assays, respectively.

    RESULTS: A total of 80 A. baumannii isolates were mainly obtained from sputum and most of them were resistant to antibiotics. All A. baumannii carried blaOXA-51 gene, yet no blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 genes were detected. Fourteen (82.4%) of the 17 meropenem resistant isolates carried blaOXA-23 gene, but it was not found in meropenem sensitive isolates. In addition, sixty (75.0%) of 80 isolates were biofilm producers with 2 (2.5%), 16 (20.0%), and 42 (52.5%) isolates were identified as strong, moderate and weak biofilm producers, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Most of A. baumannii isolates had a high level of antibiotic resistance and had a capacity to produce biofilm.

  12. Hasanpourghadi M, Abdul Majid N, Rais Mustafa M
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e5577.
    PMID: 30245930 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5577
    Combination Index (CI) analysis suggested that MBIC and doxorubicin synergistically inhibited up to 97% of cell proliferation in ER+/PR+MCF-7 and triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, treatment of the breast cancer cells with the combined drugs resulted in lower IC50 values in contrast to the individual drug treatment. Small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA) may function as non-mutational gene regulators at post-transcriptional level of protein synthesis. In the present study, the effect of the combined treatment of MBIC and doxorubicin on the expression level of several miRNAs including miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-320a and miR-542 were evaluated in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. These miRNAs have the potential to alter the protein level of survivin, the anti-apoptotic protein and reduce the metastatic activity in human breast cancer cell lines by interfering with the nuclear accumulation of NF-κB. Our results demonstrated the several fold changes in expression of miRNAs, which is drug and cell line dependent. This finding demonstrated a functional synergistic network between miR-34a, miR-320a and miR-542 that are negatively involved in post-transcriptional regulation of survivin in MCF-7 cells. While in MDA-MB-231 cells, changes in expression level of miR-146a was correlated with inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. The overall result suggested that alteration in protein level and location of survivin and NF-κB by miR-34a, miR-320a, miR-146a and miR-542, remarkably influenced the synergistic enhancement of combined MBIC and doxorubicin in treatment of aggressive and less aggressive human breast cancer cell lines.
  13. Shahruzaman SH, Mustafa MF, Ramli S, Maniam S, Fakurazi S, Maniam S
    PMID: 31178918 DOI: 10.1155/2019/9607590
    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women in over 100 countries worldwide and accounts for almost 1 in 4 cancer cases among women. Baeckea frutescens of the family Myrtaceae has been used in traditional medicine and is known to possess antibacterial, antipyretic, and cytoprotective properties. In this study, we investigated the role of Baeckea frutescens branches extracts against human breast cancer cells. Baeckea frutescens branches extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus with solvents of different polarity. The selective cytotoxic activity and the glucose consumption rate of Baeckea frutescens branches extracts of various concentrations (20 to 160 ug/ml) at 24-, 48-, and 72-hour time points were studied using MTT and glucose uptake assay. The IC50 values in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and mammary breast (MCF10A) cell lines were determined. Apoptotic study using AO/PI double staining was performed using fluorescent microscopy. The glucose uptake was measured using 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose analogue. The phytochemical screening of major secondary metabolites in plants was performed. This study reports that Baeckea frutescens branches extracts showed potent selective cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells compared to MDA-MB-231 cells after 72 hours of treatment. Evidence of early apoptosis which includes membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation was observed after 72 hours of treatment with Baeckea frutescens branches extracts. Interestingly, for the glucose uptake assay, the inhibition was observed as early as 24 hours upon treatment. All Baeckea frutescens extracts showed the presence of major secondary metabolites such as tannin, triterpenoid, flavonoid, and phenol. However, alkaloid level was unable to be determined. The identification of Baeckea frutescens and its possible role in selectively inhibiting glucose consumption in breast cancer cells defines a new role of natural product that can be utilised as an effective agent that regulates metabolic reprogramming in breast cancer.
  14. Shahruzaman SH, Mustafa MF, Ramli S, Maniam S, Fakurazi S, Maniam S
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Aug 19;19(1):220.
    PMID: 31426778 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2628-z
    BACKGROUND: Baeckea frutescens (B. frutescens) of the family Myrtaceae is a plant that has been used in traditional medicine. It is known to have antibacterial, antipyretic and cytoprotective properties. The objective of this study is to explore the mechanism of B. frutescens leaves extracts in eliminating breast cancer cells.

    METHOD: B. frutescens leaves extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus with solvents of different polarity. The selective cytotoxicity of these extracts at various concentrations (20 to 160 μg/ml) were tested using cell viability assay after 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment. The IC50 value in human breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and mammary breast (MCF10A) cell lines were determined. Apoptotic study using AO/PI double staining was performed using fluorescent microscope. The glucose uptake was measured using 2-NBDG, a fluorescent glucose analogue. The phytochemical screening was performed for alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and phenols.

    RESULTS: B. frutescens leaves extracts showed IC50 value ranging from 10 -127μg/ml in MCF-7 cells after 72 h of treatment. Hexane extract had the lowest IC50 value (10μg/ml), indicating its potent selective cytotoxic activity. Morphology of MCF-7 cells after treatment with B. frutescens extracts exhibited evidence of apoptosis that included membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation. In the glucose uptake assay, B. frutescens extracts suppressed glucose uptake in cancer cells as early as 24 h upon treatment. The inhibition was significantly lower compared to the positive control WZB117 at their respective IC50 value after 72 h incubation. It was also shown that the glucose inhibition is selective towards cancer cells compared to normal cells. The phytochemical analysis of the extract using hexane as the solvent in particular gave similar quantities of tannin, triterpenoids, flavonoid and phenols. Presumably, these metabolites have a synergistic effect in the in vitro testing, producing the potent IC50 value and subsequently cell death.

    CONCLUSION: This study reports the potent selective cytotoxic effect of B. frutescens leaves hexane extract against MCF-7 cancer cells. B. frutescens extracts selectively suppressed cancer cells glucose uptake and subsequently induced cancer cell death. These findings suggest a new role of B. frutescens in cancer cell metabolism.

  15. Ab Halim MH, Nor Anuar A, Abdul Jamal NS, Azmi SI, Ujang Z, Bob MM
    J. Environ. Manage., 2016 Dec 15;184(Pt 2):271-280.
    PMID: 27720606 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.079
    The effect of temperature on the efficiency of organics and nutrients removal during the cultivation of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in biological treatment of synthetic wastewater was studied. With this aim, three 3 L sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with influent loading rate of 1.6 COD g (L d)(-1) were operated at different high temperatures (30, 40 and 50 °C) for simultaneous COD, phosphate and ammonia removal at a complete cycle time of 3 h. The systems were successfully started up and progressed to steady state at different cultivation periods. The statistical comparison of COD, phosphate and ammonia for effluent from the three SBRs revealed that there was a significant difference between groups of all the working temperatures of the bioreactors. The AGS cultivated at different high temperatures also positively correlated with the accumulation of elements including carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, silicon, iron, aluminium, calcium and magnesium that played important roles in the granulation process.
  16. Hairul Aini H, Mustafa MIA, Seman MR, Nasuruddin BA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Apr;67(2):199-203.
    PMID: 22822643 MyJurnal
    Mixed-genotypes hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are normally ignored in chronic hemodialysis patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of mixed-genotypes infections among hemodialysis patients in Pahang province, Malaysia. Reverse-transcription and polymerase chain reaction methods were performed using two different sets of primers, targeting the 5' untranslated region and nonstructural 5B region. Target region base sequences were obtained by direct sequencing. Discrepancy in outcomes from phylogenetic analysis of both regions suggests double infections. Of 40 subjects in eight hemodialysis centres, evidence of mixed-genotypes infections was found in 5 subjects (12.5%) from three different centres. Four patients were infected with mixed genotypes 3 and 1 and one with genotypes 3 and 4. Cases of mixed HCV genotypes infection were considered high among hemodialysis patients in Pahang. However, further investigation is needed to confirm whether they are true mixed infections or perhaps infection with recombinant virus and also to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics of the infection.
  17. Tan PJ, Appleton DR, Mustafa MR, Lee HB
    Phytochem Anal, 2012 Jan-Feb;23(1):52-9.
    PMID: 21692117 DOI: 10.1002/pca.1324
    Photodynamic therapy is a treatment modality that involves site-directed generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species by light-activated photosensitisers.
  18. Hussein MZ, Azmin WH, Mustafa M, Yahaya AH
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2009 Aug;103(8):1145-50.
    PMID: 19577306 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2009.05.016
    Currently the development of green chemistry approach with the use of biomaterial-based activities of microbial cells in the synthesis of various nanostructures has attracted a great attention. In this study, we report on the use of bacterium, Bacillus cereus as a biotemplating agent for the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles with raspberry- and plate-like structures through a simple thermal decomposition of zinc acetate by maintaining the original pH of the reaction mixtures. Possible mechanism on the formation of the nanostructures is proposed based on the surface chemistry and biochemistry processes involved organic-inorganic interactions between zinc oxide and the microbial cells.
  19. Kosai NR, Rajan R, Roslani EJ, Sutton PA, Mustafa M, Das S
    Clin Ter, 2015 Nov-Dec;166(6):248-52.
    PMID: 26794812 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2015.1896
    In the modern era of surgery, minimally invasive surgery is increasingly applied for excision of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Site, size and tumor location are important factors that affect the surgical approach and excision. We performed a laparoendoscopic transgastric enucleation of a 4-cm pericardial endophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using an energy device. The surgery was successful and post-operative recovery uneventful. No tumor recurrence was detected on surveillance gastroscopy. In the safe hands of a well-trained laparoscopic upper gastrointestinal surgeon, pericardial GIST can be enucleated safely by this method. The avoidance of surgical staplers is not only cost-effective, but also reduces the risk of associated complications.
  20. Ali HM, Mohamed Mustafa MI, Rizal MR, Ng SW
    PMID: 21202395 DOI: 10.1107/S1600536808011185
    The title Schiff base, C(17)H(15)N(3)O(3), exists in the zwitterionic form with the phenol H atom transferred to the imine group. Adjacent zwitterions are linked into a linear chain running along the a axis by an indole-hydr-oxy N-H⋯O hydrogen bond [3.100 (2) Å].
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