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  1. Karanth L, Jaafar SH, Kanagasabai S, Nair NS, Barua A
    PMID: 23543581 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009617.pub2
    During pregnancy, a Rhesus-negative (Rh-negative) woman may develop antibodies if her fetus is Rh-positive, which can cause fetal morbidity or mortality in following pregnancies, if untreated.
  2. Karanth L, Barua A, Kanagasabai S, Nair NS
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 02 13;2:CD009824.
    PMID: 30758840 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009824.pub4
    BACKGROUND: Congenital bleeding disorders can cause obstetric haemorrhage during pregnancy, labour and following delivery. Desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) is found to be an effective drug which can reduce the risk of haemorrhage and can also stop bleeding in certain congenital bleeding disorders. Its use in pregnancy has been controversial. Hence beneficial and adverse effects of DDAVP in these groups of pregnant women should be evaluated.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2013 and updated in 2015.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DDAVP in preventing and treating acute bleeding in pregnant women with bleeding disorders.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coaguopathies Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant and abstract books of conferences proceedings. We also searched several clinical trial registries and grey literature (27 August 2017).Date of most recent search of the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Coaguopathies Trials Register: 01 October 2018.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy of DDAVP versus tranexamic acid or factor VIII or rFactor VII or fresh frozen plasma in preventing and treating congenital bleeding disorders during pregnancy were eligible.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion.

    MAIN RESULTS: No trials matching the selection criteria were eligible for inclusion.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No randomised controlled trials were identified investigating the relative effectiveness of DDAVP for bleeding during pregnancy in women with congenital bleeding disorders. In the absence of high-quality evidence, clinicians need to use their clinical judgement and lower level evidence (e.g. from observational trials) to decide whether or not to treat women with congenital bleeding disorders with DDAVP.Given the ethical considerations, future randomised controlled trials are unlikely. However, other high-quality controlled studies (such as risk allocation designs, sequential design, parallel cohort design) to investigate the risks and benefits of using DDAVP in this population are needed.Given that there are unlikely to be any trials published in this area, this review will no longer be regularly updated.

  3. Swe KM, Abas AB, Bhardwaj A, Barua A, Nair NS
    PMID: 23807756 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009415.pub2
    Haemoglobinopathies, inherited disorders of haemoglobin synthesis (thalassaemia) or structure (sickle cell disease), are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The WHO estimates that, globally, 5% of adults are carriers of a haemoglobin condition, 2.9% are carriers of thalassaemia and 2.3% are carriers of sickle cell disease. Carriers are found worldwide as a result of migration of various ethnic groups to different regions of the world. Zinc is an easily available supplement and intervention programs have been carried out to prevent deficiency in people with thalassaemia or sickle cell anaemia. It is important to evaluate the role of zinc supplementation in the treatment of thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia to reduce deaths due to complications.
  4. Sahoo S, Barua A, Myint KT, Haq A, Abas AB, Nair NS
    PMID: 25686158 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010009.pub2
    Diabetic cystoid macular oedema (CMO) is a condition which involves fluid accumulation in the inner portion of the retina. It often follows changes in retinal blood vessels which enhance the fluid to come out of vessels. Although it may be asymptomatic, symptoms are primarily painless loss of central vision, often with the complaint of seeing black spots in front of the eye.It is reported that CMO may resolve spontaneously, or fluctuate for months, before causing loss of vision. If left untreated or undiagnosed, progression of CMO may lead to permanent visual loss.It has been noted that patients with diabetic retinopathy have elevated inflammatory markers, and therefore it is likely that inflammation aids in the progression of vascular disease in these patients. Several topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ketorolac 0.5%, bromfenac 0.09%, and nepafenac 0.1%, have therefore also been used topically to treat chronic diabetic CMO. Hence this review was conducted to find out the effects of topical NSAIDs in diabetic CMO.
  5. Murthy S, John D, Godinho IP, Godinho MA, Guddattu V, Nair NS
    Syst Rev, 2017 12 12;6(1):252.
    PMID: 29233168 DOI: 10.1186/s13643-017-0648-7
    BACKGROUND: Neonatal systemic infections and their consequent impairments give rise to long-lasting health, economic and social effects on the neonate, the family and the nation. Considering the dearth of consolidated economic evidence in this important area, this systematic review aims to critically appraise and consolidate the evidence on economic evaluations of management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia.

    METHODS: Full and partial economic evaluations, published in English, associated with the management of neonatal systemic infections in South Asia will be included. Any intervention related to management of neonatal systemic infections will be eligible for inclusion. Comparison can include a placebo or alternative standard of care. Interventions without any comparators will also be eligible for inclusion. Outcomes of this review will include measures related to resource use, costs and cost-effectiveness. Electronic searches will be conducted on PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit, the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination Library (CRD) Database, Popline, IndMed, MedKnow, IMSEAR, the Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry and Pediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE). Conference proceedings and grey literature will be searched in addition to performing back referencing of bibliographies of included studies. Two authors will independently screen studies (in title, abstract and full-text stages), extract data and assess risk of bias. A narrative summary and tables will be used to summarize the characteristics and results of included studies.

    DISCUSSION: Neonatal systemic infections can have significant economic repercussions on the families, health care providers and, cumulatively, the nation. Pediatric economic evaluations have focused on the under-five age group, and published consolidated economic evidence for neonates is missing in the developing world context. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of economic evidence on neonatal systemic infections in the South Asian context. Further, this protocol provides an underst anding of the methods used to design and evaluate economic evidence for methodological quality, transparency and focus on health equity. This review will also highlight existing gaps in research and identify scope for further research.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017047275.

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