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  1. Faisal AH, Ng BH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 12;74(6):555-557.
    PMID: 31929490
    The indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) is a 16-Fr-multifenestrated catheter. It has become an accepted practice in the management of malignant pleural effusion, especially in patients with non-expandable lung. However, IPC blockage or not draining is common. A 53-year-old female with malignant pleural effusion presented to us with blocked IPC and symptomatic pleural loculation one month after IPC insertion. After failing saline flushing and low-pressure wall suction, intrapleural alteplase was instituted through the IPC with a favourable outcome, and she continued to drain daily thereafter. The present case highlights the safety of intrapleural alteplase via IPC in the non-expandable lung.
  2. Ng BH, Yuen KH
    PMID: 12906917
    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using ultraviolet detection was developed for the determination of testosterone in human plasma. Testosterone and the internal standard, griseofulvin, were extracted from 0.50 ml plasma sample using a mixture of dichloromethane-2,2,4-trimethylpentane (3:2, v/v). The mobile phase, consisted of 0.02 M sodium dihydrogenphosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (51:47:2, v/v) adjusted to pH 3.1 and delivered to a C(18) analytical column (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., 4 microm particles) at a flow-rate of 1 ml/min while the detection wavelength was set at 240 nm with a sensitivity range of 0.005 a.u.f.s. The method has a quantification limit of 1.6 ng/ml. Recoveries of testosterone were all greater than 92% over the linear concentration range of 1.6-400 ng/ml while that of griseofulvin was approximately 95%. The within- and between-day RSD values were all less than 8% while the accuracy values ranged from 96.0 to 106.0% over the concentration range studied. The method was applied to the analysis of early morning plasma testosterone levels of 12 healthy human male volunteers. The levels were found to range from 3.1 to 8.4 ng/ml, within the normal range reported in the literature.
  3. Ng BH, Tan HX, Vijayasingham S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):344-346.
    PMID: 31424048
    Anaphylaxis is rarely associated with the vasospastic acute coronary syndrome with or without the presence of underlying coronary artery disease. We report here a case of Kounis syndrome in a man with no known cardiovascular risk developed acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated with complete heart block following Solenopsis (fire ant) bite.
  4. Soo CI, Kho SS, Ng BH, Tie ST
    Respirol Case Rep, 2019 Nov;7(8):e00482.
    PMID: 31467678 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.482
    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is indispensable when it comes to evaluation of mediastinal lesion and staging of lung cancer. The incorporation of endoscopic ultrasound using an echobronchoscope (EUS-B) further extends this capability to the paraoesophageal and subdiaphragmatic structures. When combined, EBUS with EUS-B increases the diagnostic yield. Both procedures can be done in a single session and by a single operator; this translates into an overall reduction in the healthcare cost.
  5. Ng BH, Tan JK, Andrea Ban YL, Faisal AH
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2020 03;75(2):181-183.
    PMID: 32281606
    In the past, many case series have reported the effectiveness of autologous blood patch pleurodesis (ABPP) in recurrent secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP), particularly in those who were unfit for surgery. We describe two cases of persistent air leak in pneumoconiosis and pulmonary fibrosis with bronchiectasis, whereby the techniques employed had improved the success rate of ABPP. The determining factors that lead to the success of ABPP were determined by the volume of autologous blood instilled, Trendelenburg position post instillation, and early chest physiotherapy with mobilisation by application of pneumostat.
  6. Ng BH, Rozita A, Adlinda A, Lee WC, Wan Zamaniah W
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(9):3827-33.
    PMID: 25987044
    BACKGROUND: Positive para-aortic lymph node (PALN) at diagnosis in cervical cancer patients confers an unfavorable prognosis. This study reviewed the outcomes of extended field radiotherapy (EFRT) and concurrent chemotherapy with extended field RT (CCEFRT) in patients with positive PALN at diagnosis.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 407 cervical cancer patients between 1st January 2002 to 31st December 2012 were reviewed. Some 32 cases with positive PALN were identified to have received definitive extended field radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Treatment outcomes, clinicopathological factors affecting survival and radiotherapy related acute and late effects were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Totals of 13 and 19 patients underwent EFRT and CCEFRT respectively during the period of review. The median follow-up was 70 months. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 40% for patients who underwent CCEFRT as compared to 18% for patients who had EFRT alone, with median survival sof 29 months and 13 months, respectively. The 5-years progression free survival (PFS) for patients who underwent CCEFRT was 32% and 18% for those who had EFRT. Median PFS were 18 months and 12 months, respectively. Overall treatment time (OTT) less than 8 weeks reduced risk of death by 81% (HR=0.19). Acute side effects were documented in 69.7% and 89.5% of patients who underwent EFRT and CCEFRT, respectively. Four patients (12.5%) developed radiotherapy late toxicity and there was no treatment-related death observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: CCEFRT is associated with higher 5-years OS and median OS compared to EFRT and with tolerable level of acute and late toxicities in selected patients with cervical cancer and PALN metastasis.

  7. Faisal M, Fazlin M, Ng BH, Nuratiqah N, Andrea YB
    Respir Med Case Rep, 2020;30:101111.
    PMID: 32518748 DOI: 10.1016/j.rmcr.2020.101111
    Alteplase and pulmozyme (DNase) administered intrapleurally have revolutionised the management of pleural infection in the last decade. However, the use of intrapleural fibrinolytic has not been well established in high risks patients. Here, we describe 2 patients with high risk of bleeding due to recent surgery who developed empyema; successfully treated with these medications. The first patient was a 36-year-old female post oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma, complicated with anastomotic leak and empyema; and the second patient was a 56-year-old female post percutaneous nephrolithotomy for right obstructive uropathy who developed right-sided empyema. Both patients were treated successfully with 3 doses of intrapleural alteplase 2.5 mg and DNase 5 mg without any major adverse effects. This case report adds to the current literature on the safety of intrapleural fibrinolytics and highlights that lower doses of alteplase in combination with pulmozyme is efficacious and may be considered in high-risk patients.
  8. Soo CI, Ng BH, Tan EL, Abdul Hamid F
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep, 2016;4:2050313X16650323.
    PMID: 27489719 DOI: 10.1177/2050313X16650323
    Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is an uncommon lung malignancy of endothelial origin. Besides demonstrating unpredictable presentation features and prognosis, the paucity of established treatment guidelines remains a challenge in managing these patients. We present two patients. The first patient presented with chronic productive cough over 1-year duration. He was initially diagnosed and showed partial response to treatment for cardiac failure. A persistent right upper zone consolidation on chest radiograph prompted further investigations which revealed the diagnosis of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. The second patient presented with right-sided hemiparesis for 1-month duration. Initial computer tomography scan of the brain showed findings of distant metastatic foci. Subsequent investigations revealed pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma as the primary lesion. Both patients succumbed without any treatment due to rapid progression of the disease. We believe that pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is undoubtedly rarely reported in south-east Asia region. In these two case reports, the patients were diagnosed in west and east Malaysia, respectively, in the same year (2015). Both cases highlight the increasing prevalence of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma. We postulate that this could possibly be secondary to the advancement in diagnostic capabilities and improved healthcare facilities available in this region. Late presentation of pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma generally results in grave prognosis. Further investigations are required to elucidate the nature of progression and therapeutic options for patients with pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma.
  9. Tang IP, Kevin Ng BH, Prepageran N, Donald Ngian SL, Albert Sii HW
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 10;73(5):347-348.
    PMID: 30350824 MyJurnal
    Auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) is the only solution to restore hearing when cochlear nerves are disrupted together with the pathologies where bilateral cochleae do not provide a suitable location for cochlear implantation. We reported first two successful auditory brainstem implantation cases in patients with neurofibromatosis Type II (NF2) with bilateral acoustic neuroma causing bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss in Malaysia. A good candidate selection, dedicated surgeons and rehabilitation team as well as strong family support are the crucial factors in achieving the best possible surgical, audiological and speech outcomes.
  10. Kumar AN, Soo CI, Ng BH, Hassan T, Ban AY, Manap RA
    Respirol Case Rep, 2018 02;6(2):e00293.
    PMID: 29321937 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.293
    The use of Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana, is believed to have dated back to thousands of years B.C. More than 200 decades later, it remains a popular recreational psychoactive substance that can be smoked through a water pipe. We report a case of marijuana smoking via a "bong" device, which has resulted in severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing pneumonia treated with conservative medical therapy. This case highlights the importance of recognizing that life-threatening pneumonia can potentially be linked to marijuana and "bong" usage. Complicated cases should be considered for early surgical intervention.
  11. Ng BH, Mat WRW, Abeed NNN, Hamid MFA, Yu-Lin AB, Soo CI
    Respirol Case Rep, 2020 Apr;8(3):e00538.
    PMID: 32076554 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.538
    Liquid silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) is an inert material that is commonly used for cosmetic purpose. Silicone embolization syndrome (SES) can rapidly progress to pneumonitis as a consequence of the injection of nonmedical-grade liquid silicone. We describe a case of severe silicone pneumonitis complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and bilateral pneumothorax secondary to silicone gluteal augmentation. In this case report, we aim to discuss our experience and approach in managing an uncommon case of SES.
  12. Ng BH, Nik Abeed NN, Abdul Hamid MF, Soo CI, Low HJ, Ban YA
    Respirol Case Rep, 2020 Aug;8(6):e00604.
    PMID: 32607242 DOI: 10.1002/rcr2.604
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. We have since seen its fast spread worldwide. A likely contributing factor was the lack of symptoms of some of the carriers, making them unaware of their risk of spreading to other more vulnerable individuals. The other important finding has been the reported cases of infectivity despite lack of symptoms. We describe the SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia patterns in asymptomatic individuals. The common computed tomography (CT) thorax patterns found are peripheral ground-glass opacification (GGO) with upper or lower lobe predominance. We believe screening for 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in high-risk individuals may help identify the patients needing longer follow-up.
  13. Low BS, Ng BH, Choy WP, Yuen KH, Chan KL
    Planta Med., 2005 Sep;71(9):803-7.
    PMID: 16206032
    A validated HPLC analysis of eurycomanone (1), a bioactive quassinoid, in rat plasma following oral and intravenous administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack extract was developed for pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies. Relatively high plasma eurycomanone concentrations were detected after an intravenous injection of 10 mg/kg extract F2 containing 1.96 mg/kg of the quassinoid. However, it declined rapidly to zero after 8 h. Its mean elimination rate constant (k(e)), biological half-life (t(1/2)), volume of distribution (V(d)) and clearance (CL) were 0.88 +/- 0.19 h (-1), 1.00 +/- 0.26 h, 0.68 +/- 0.30 L/kg and 0.39 +/- 0.08 L/h/kg, respectively. Following oral administration of eurycomanone, its Cmax and Tmax values were detected as 0.33 +/- 0.03 microg/mL and 4.40 +/- 0.98 h, respectively. The plasma concentration of the quassinoid after oral administration was much lower than after intravenous application in spite of the oral dose being 5 times higher. The results indicate that eurycomanone is poorly bioavailable when given orally. A comparison of the AUC (0-->infinity) obtained orally to that obtained after an intravenous administration (normalized for dose differences) revealed that the absolute bioavailability of the compound was low with 10.5 %. Furthermore, the compound appeared to be well distributed in the extravascular fluids because of its relatively high V(d) value. The poor oral bioavailability was not attributed to instability problems because eurycomanone has been shown to be stable under different pH conditions. Thus, its poor oral bioavailability may be due to poor membrane permeability in view of its low P value and/or high first-pass metabolism.
  14. Magosso E, Yuen KH, Choy WP, Ling SSN, Ng BH, Ur-Rahman N, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2004 Aug;59(3):352-6.
    PMID: 15727381
    The bioavailability of a generic diclofenac sodium sustained release tablet preparation (Zolterol, SR) was compared with the innovator product, Voltaren, SR. Twelve healthy adult male volunteers participated in the study, which was conducted according to a randomized, two-way crossover design with a wash out period of one week. The bioavailability of diclofenac was compared using the parameters area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax). No statistically significant difference was observed for both logarithmically transformed AUC(0-infinity), Cmax values and Tmax value of the two preparations.
  15. Magosso E, Ansari MA, Gopalan Y, Shuaib IL, Wong JW, Khan NA, et al.
    Nutr J, 2013;12(1):166.
    PMID: 24373555 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-166
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the commonest liver disorders. Obesity, insulin resistance, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress have been identified amongst the possible hits leading to the onset and progression of this disease. Nutritional evaluation of NAFLD patients showed a lower-than-recommended intake of vitamin E. Vitamin E is a family of 8 isoforms, 4 tocopherols and 4 tocotrienols. Alpha-tocopherol has been widely investigated in liver diseases, whereas no previous clinical trial has investigated tocotrienols for NAFLD. Aim of the study was to determine the effects of mixed tocotrienols, in normalising the hepatic echogenic response in hypercholesterolaemic patients with ultrasound-proven NAFLD.
  16. Magosso E, Ansari MA, Gopalan Y, Abu Bakar MR, Karim Khan NA, Wong JW, et al.
    PMID: 21073069
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide and a frequent finding on ultrasound examination. NAFLD is considered as the liver component of metabolic syndrome and is linked to accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. No data from systematic studies regarding the prevalence of NAFLD are available for the Malaysian population. One hundred eighty untreated hypercholesterolemic volunteers underwent blood and ultrasound examinations to evaluate their livers. NAFLD was diagnosed in 102 subjects (56.7%) with similar prevalences between sexes. Of the 102 positive subjects 82 (80.4%) were graded as mild, 17 (16.7%) as moderate and 3 (2.9%) as severe fatty liver cases. Elevated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were found in 13 of 180 subjects (7.2%), while elevated AST and ALT levels were seen in 30 (16.7%) and 22 (12.2%) of the180 subjects, respectively.
  17. Gopalan Y, Shuaib IL, Magosso E, Ansari MA, Abu Bakar MR, Wong JW, et al.
    Stroke, 2014 May;45(5):1422-8.
    PMID: 24699052 DOI: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.004449
    Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). WMLs are regarded as manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, reflecting varying degrees of neurodegeneration and tissue damage with potential as a surrogate end point in clinical trials.
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