Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

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  1. Ng CG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69 Suppl A:42-5.
    PMID: 25417950 MyJurnal
    Depression is a debilitating illness and has become a leading cause of morbidity globally. We aim to summarise the evidence available in regard to the prevalence, type of assessment tools used and treatment options for depression in Malaysia. Two hundred and forty seven articles related to depression were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed on the basis of clinical relevance and future research implications. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to prevalence of depression, depression in women, depression in clinical condition, assessment tools, and treatment of depression. The prevalence of depression in Malaysia was estimated to be between 8 and 12%. The figures were higher among women of low socio-economic background or those with comorbid medical condition. The common assessment tools used in Malaysia include Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). They were translated into the Malay language and their psychometric properties were established. Both pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were commonly used in Malaysia, and were highly recommended in local clinical practice guidelines. There are discrepancies in the reported rates of depression in Malaysia and this needs to be addressed. There were lack of studies looking into the depression among subgroups in Malaysia especially in the male population. There were several instruments available for assessment of depression in Malaysia but their suitability for the local setting need further research. Both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy were recommended in the local treatment guideline in Malaysia. With the emergence of generic medication, we need to compare their clinical efficacy and tolerability with original products.
  2. Ng CG, Kanagasundram S
    MyJurnal
    A 61 year old Indian man presented with clinical depression after a longstanding of “head heaviness”. Looking through the literatures, there is scant information on the subjective complaint of “a heavy head” despite it being a very common encounter at many primary care clinics. We feel that this is an unusual presentation of the symptom as it was very dramatic, to the extent that the patient was overly preoccupied with his head heaviness and subsequently became depressed. Here we undertake to present the case of a man who became clinically depressed due to his “heavy head”.
  3. Adawiyah J, Moonyza AAK, Mohd Rizal AM, Hatta S, Nik Ruzyanei NJ, Marhani M, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune mediated, hyperproliferative skin disease that has substantial impact on the sexual functions. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in patients with psoriasis.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 79 women with psoriasis attending two Dermatology Outpatient Clinics were interviewed and assessed for female sexual dysfunction and severity of psoriasis. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between the women with and without sexual dysfunction. The subjects were interviewed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) to exclude any existing psychiatric illness. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using a validated questionnaire on sexual function and the severity of psoriasis was assessed using Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI).
    Results: The prevalence of FSD in the patients with psoriasis was 20.3%, with hypoactive sexual desire being the most prevalent problem (44.3%). Sexual dysfunction was associated with older age, menopause, low body mass index, longer duration of marriage and presence of psoriasis in the genital area. Female sexual dysfunction was highly prevalent in patients with psoriasis.
    Conclusion: Management of psoriasis should include assessment in patients’ sexual health. Genital area involvement with psoriasis should not be overlooked as it can cause significant psychosexual distress.
    Keywords: Psoriasis, female, sexual dysfunction, prevalence, risk factor, Malaysia
    Study site: Dermatology clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  4. Yee HA, Loh HS, Ng CG
    Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract, 2013 Oct;17(4):292-7.
    PMID: 23170840 DOI: 10.3109/13651501.2012.752012
    To determine the prevalence of alcohol-use disorder and associated correlates amongst bipolar patients in a university hospital in Malaysia.
  5. Yee A, Ng CG, Seng LH
    Curr Drug Targets, 2018;19(12):1412-1423.
    PMID: 29149828 DOI: 10.2174/1389450118666171117131151
    BACKGROUND: Vortioxetine is a multimodal antidepressant that has been developed for the treatment of major depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of this review is to quantitatively synthesize all data of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Vortioxetine in treating anxiety disorder.

    METHOD: Terms of "Vortioxetine" OR "LuAA21004" AND "anxiety" OR "fear" OR "panic" OR "phobia" were searched. A total of two phase II and five phase III clinical trials were found.

    RESULTS: Vortioxetine was overall superior to placebo in terms of the mean change from baseline in HAM-A total score at week 8 with the pool effect size of -2.95, 95% CIs, -4.37 to -1.53, p<0.01. The patients who received 5 mg of Vortioxetine had higher response rate when compared to placebo (pooled odds ratio=1.4, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.82, p=0.01). However, the pooled odds ratio of the HAMA remission rate was not statistically significant for both Vortioxetine and placebo (pooled odds ratio= 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.30, p=0.62). Although the discontinuation due to adverse effects was higher in Vortioxetine than placebo group (pooled OR= 1.55, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.31, P= 0.037), the lack of efficacy (pooled OR= 0.39, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.57, P<0.01) was higher in placebo than Vortioxetine group. Most of the adverse effects were mild and moderate. Overall, Vortioxetine displayed a good safety and tolerability profile.

    CONCLUSION: This review supports the use of Vortioxetine for anxiety disorder. However, further longterm placebo-control observational study or a post market survey would help in strengthening the evidence for this treatment modality.

  6. Ng CG, Chan PL, Said MA
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Second generation antipsychotic (SGA) was linked to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The risk varies between different SGA. We aim to study this risk by examining the co-prescription of antihypertensive, antidiabetic and lipid lowering drugs in patients prescribed with either aripiprazole, quetiapine or clozapine.
    Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study based on the prescription records of a teaching hospital. Prescription records between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014 for
    psychiatric unit were extracted. Patients with at least one prescription of any antipsychotic were included. The odds of antihypertensive, antidiabetic and lipid lowering drugs co-prescription in patients with either aripiprazole, quetiapine or clozapine were calculated.
    Results: Of the 1742 study subjects, 88 patients were prescribed with aripiprazole, 175 patients with clozapine and 124 patients with quetiapine. Patients prescribed with quetiapine had
    higher odds of co-prescribed with antihypertensive (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.63), antidiabetic drugs (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.11, 2.95) and lipid lowering drugs (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.19, 3.16). There were higher odds of co-prescription of antihypertensive (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.05, 2.25), antidiabetic drugs (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.10, 2.59) and lipid lowering drugs
    (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.91) in patients with clozapine. However, there were no increase odds of co-prescription of the three agents in patients with aripiprazole.
    Conclusion: We need to monitor the risk of metabolic syndrome in patients treated with SGA. Aripiprazole has lower risk of metabolic syndrome.
  7. Ng CG, Wong SK, Loh HS, Yee A
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(6):e384-90.
    PMID: 25524191 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1778
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Escitalopram has widely been recognized as one of the most frequently used antidepressants, with superior tolerability and great efficacy in preventing major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse and recurrence. However, anhedonia, which is a core symptom of MDD, remains difficult to treat. This study investigates the hedonic levels of MDD patients treated with Escitalopram.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 participants, 26 of whom with MDD on Escitalopram, were recruited in this cross sectional study. They were evaluated using the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) questionnaires to assess their hedonic state, general mental health condition and level of depression.

    RESULTS: Our study shows that most items in the SHAPS scores are significantly different between MDD patients on Escitalopram and the controls.

    CONCLUSIONS: The hedonic capacity remains different between the two groups despite patients with MDD are put on Escitalopram treatment. Escitalopram fails to alleviate the hedonic state of MDD patients. Antidepressants that improve both depressive symptoms and hedonic states should be considered when treating MDD patients in clinical settings.
  8. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    Int. J. Impot. Res., 2014 Sep-Oct;26(5):161-6.
    PMID: 24990199 DOI: 10.1038/ijir.2014.18
    Methadone maintenance treatment is proven to be effective treatment for opioid dependence. Of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects. However, there may be other clinical factors that are associated with sexual dysfunction among methadone users. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments, of which eligible studies were selected using prior defined criteria. A total of 2619 participants from 16 eligible studies, published from inception till December 2012, were identified from the PubMed, OVID and EMBASE databases. The included studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (odds ratio=4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P=0.0049). Our study shows that eight clinical factors are associated with sexual dysfunction among men receiving opioid substitution treatment, namely age, hormone assays, duration of treatment, methadone dose, medical status, psychiatric illness, other current substance use and familial status, and methadone versus buprenorphine treatment. Despite the methodological limitations, the findings of this meta-analysis study may offer better insights to clinicians in dealing with both sexual dysfunction and its related problems.
  9. Yee A, Loh HS, Hisham Hashim HM, Ng CG
    J Sex Med, 2014 Jan;11(1):22-32.
    PMID: 24344738 DOI: 10.1111/jsm.12352
    INTRODUCTION: For many years, methadone has been recognized as an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. However, of the many adverse events reported, sexual dysfunction is one of the most common side effects.

    AIM: We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among male patients on methadone and buprenorphine treatments.

    METHODS: Relevant studies published from inception until December 2012 were identified by searching PubMed, OVID, and Embase. Studies were selected using prior defined criteria. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and odds ratio were assessed thoroughly.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To examine the prevalence and odds ratio of sexual dysfunctions among the methadone and buprenorphine groups.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,570 participants from 16 eligible studies were identified in this meta-analysis. The studies provided prevalence estimates for sexual dysfunction among methadone users with a meta-analytical pooled prevalence of 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.65). Only four studies compared sexual dysfunction between the two groups, with a significantly higher combined odds ratio in the methadone group (OR = 4.01, 95% CI, 1.52-10.55, P = 0.0049).

    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence showed that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was higher among the users of methadone compared with buprenorphine. Patients with sexual difficulty while on methadone treatment were advised to switch to buprenorphine.

  10. Hatta S, Duni A, Ng CG, Lin N, Marhani M, Das S, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2013;164(1):11-5.
    PMID: 23455735 DOI: 10.7417/T.2013.1503
    Depression and its treatment may influence all aspects of the female sexual function from desire to sexual satisfaction. This study aimed to examine the components of the female sexual response cycle (SRC) of women with major depression treated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors.
  11. Loke MF, Ng CG, Vilashni Y, Lim J, Ho B
    Sci Rep, 2016 05 25;6:26784.
    PMID: 27222005 DOI: 10.1038/srep26784
    Helicobacter pylori may reside in the human stomach as two morphological forms: the culturable spiral form and the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) coccoid form. This bacterium transforms from spiral to coccoid under in vitro suboptimal conditions. However, both spiral and coccoid have demonstrated its infectivity in laboratory animals, suggesting that coccoid may potentially be involved in the transmission of H. pylori. To determine the relevance of the coccoid form in viability and infectivity, we compared the protein profiles of H. pylori coccoids obtained from prolonged (3-month-old) culture with that of 3-day-old spirals of two H. pylori standard strains using SWATH (Sequential Window Acquisition of all Theoretical mass spectra)-based approach. The protein profiles reveal that the coccoids retained basal level of metabolic proteins and also high level of proteins that participate in DNA replication, cell division and biosynthesis demonstrating that coccoids are viable. Most interestingly, these data also indicate that the H. pylori coccoids possess higher level of proteins that are involved in virulence and carcinogenesis than their spiral counterparts. Taken together, these findings have important implications in the understanding on the pathogenesis of H. pylori-induced gastroduodenal diseases, as well as the probable transmission mode of this bacterium.
  12. Ismail AH, Baw R, Sidi H, Ng CG
    MyJurnal
    Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors of sexual pain disorders among Malay women in Malaysia with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving 347 women (174 non- diabetic and 173 diabetic subjects) who attended the diabetic clinic in a university hospital. Sexual pain disorders were assessed using the Pain sub scale of Malay Version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI). Socio-demographic information of the subjects was collected with a pre-designed questionnaire.
    Results: Prevalence of sexual pain disorders among Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus was 10.4% and the control group was 9.2% but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis did not find any relevant associated factor with sexual pain disorder.
    Conclusion: Sexual pain disorders among Malay women were not dependent on the diabetic status. Further studies with different population of diabetic patients are needed to confirm the results.
    Study site: Diabetic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
  13. Zhang MWB, Ho RCM, Ng CG
    Technol Health Care, 2017 Dec 04;25(6):1173-1176.
    PMID: 28946598 DOI: 10.3233/THC-170868
    In psychiatry, mindfulness based intervention has been increasingly popular as a means of psychosocial intervention over the last decade. With the alvanche of technological advances, there has been a myriad of mindfulness based applications. Recent reviews have highlighted how these applications are lacking in functionalities and without demonstrated efficacy. Other reviews have emphasized that there is a need to take into consideration the design of an application, due to placebo effects. It is the aim of this technical note to illustrate how the 5-Minutes Mindfulness application, which is an application designed to provide mindfulness exercises to relieve distress and suffering amongst palliative patients, have been conceptualized. The conceptualized application builds on previous evidence of the efficacy of 5-Minutes Mindfulness demonstrated by pilot and randomized trials. In terms of design, the currently conceptualized application has been designed such that placebo effects could be controlled for.
  14. Yee A, Loh HS, Ng CG, Sulaiman AH
    Am J Mens Health, 2018 07;12(4):1016-1022.
    PMID: 29493379 DOI: 10.1177/1557988318759197
    Low sexual desire (SD) is not life threatening, but its negative impact on the quality of life and intimacy of a relationship among the patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) is significant. This cross-sectional study involved 183 men on MMT who were interviewed and who completed the Malay version of the SDI-2 (SDI-2-BM), the Malay version of the self-rated Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM) and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires. Findings showed 32.8% ( n = 60) participants had low SD. Those who were older, had sexual partners, and were smokers achieved lower scores in both dyadic SD (≤24) and solitary SD (≤6), and suffered lower quality of life in their social relationship. MMT is very cost-effective in rehabilitating opioid dependence; however, as clinicians, we need to address and manage the issues of low SD and depression among patients on MMT, especially the older men.
  15. Thong KS, Chee KY, Ng CG, Walterfang M, Velakoulis D
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2016 Sep;8(3):238-40.
    PMID: 26615809 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12227
    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.
  16. Yee A, Danaee M, Loh HS, Sulaiman AH, Ng CG
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(1):e0147852.
    PMID: 26820154 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147852
    INTRODUCTION: Methadone has long been regarded as an effective treatment for opioid dependence. However, many patients discontinue maintenance therapy because of its side effects, with one of the most common being sexual dysfunction. Buprenorphine is a proven alternative to methadone. This study aimed to investigate sexual dysfunction in opioid-dependent men on buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). The secondary aim was to investigate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and the quality of life in these patients.

    METHODS: Two hundred thirty-eight men participated in this cross-sectional study. Four questionnaires were used, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Opiate Treatment Index, Malay version of the International Index of Erectile Function 15 (Mal-IIEF-15), and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF Scale. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the relationship between MMT and BMT and the Mal-IIEF 15 scores while controlling for all the possible confounders.

    RESULTS: The study population consisted of 171 patients (71.8%) on MMT and 67 (28.2%) on BMT. Patients in the MMT group who had a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the sexual desire domain (p < 0.012) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.043) domain compared with their counterparts in the BMT group. Similarly, patients in the MMT group without a sexual partner scored significantly lower in the orgasmic function domain (p = 0.008) compared with those in the BMT group without a partner. Intercourse satisfaction (p = 0.026) and overall satisfaction (p = 0.039) were significantly associated with the social relationships domain after adjusting for significantly correlated sociodemographic variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: Sexual functioning is critical for improving the quality of life in patients in an opioid rehabilitation program. Our study showed that buprenorphine causes less sexual dysfunction than methadone. Thus, clinicians may consider the former when treating heroin dependents who have concerns about sexual function.
  17. Yee A, Yassim AR, Loh HS, Ng CG, Tan KA
    BMC Psychiatry, 2015;15:200.
    PMID: 26286597 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-015-0587-6
    BACKGROUND: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-BM).
    METHODS: A total of 150 participants with (n = 50) and without depression (n = 100) completed the self-rated version of the Montgomery-Ǻsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), the Malay versions of the MADRS-BM, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-M), the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS-M).
    RESULTS: With respect to dimensionality of the MADRS-BM, we obtained one factor solution. With respect to reliability, we found that internal consistency was satisfactory. The scale demonstrated excellent parallel form reliability. The one-week test-retest reliability was good. With respect to validity, positive correlations between the MADRS-BM, BDI-II-M, and the GHQ and negative correlation between the MADRS-BM and SHAPS-M provide initial evidence of MADRS-BM's concurrent validity. After adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, educational level, and marital status, individuals with depression significantly reported higher MADRS-BM scores than did individuals without depression. Hence, there is additional evidence for concurrent validity of the MADRS-BM. Cut-off score of 4 distinguished individuals with depression from individuals without depression with a sensitivity of 78 % and a specificity of 86 %.
    CONCLUSIONS: The MADRS-BM demonstrated promising psychometric properties in terms of dimensionality, reliability, and validity that generally justifies its use in routine clinical practice in Malaysia.
  18. Rosdinom R, Ng IT, Teh EE, Norhayati A, Ng CG, Yeoh SH, et al.
    Clin Ter, 2014;165(6):287-93.
    PMID: 25524183 DOI: 10.7417/CT.2014.1770
    OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of local instruments to assess behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). This 2-stage cross-sectional study was aimed at validating a Malay translated version of the Neuropsychiaric Inventory (MvNPI).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was conducted on a selected group of 138 elderly outpatients with dementia and their caregivers in Hospital Pulau Pinang. Severity of dementia was assessed using the Malay-translated version of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The original NPI was translated and then back-translated before it was pilot-tested. The MvNPI was administered twice, a week apart on the same caregiver by the same investigator.

    RESULTS: The individual items and total scale score of MvNPI had high internal consistency, with Corrected Item-Total Correlation ranging from satisfactory to good (0.41 to 0.77). The Cronbach's alpha for all the NPI domains showed high internal consistency (0.83), and subtotal for severity and distress scores were perfect (0.998 to 1.00). There was no significant difference between test-retest mean scores (p>0.05) and their correlations were perfect (0.996 to 1.00). Content validity indicated mild and inverse relationship between MMSE scores and severity, and distress score (-0.281 and -0.268, respectively, with p<0.001). Discriminant validity calculated using Mann-Whitney U test was found to be significant (p<0.001) in differentiating severity of cognitive impairment. Factor analysis revealed four possible components existed in MvNPI.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MvNPI is a valid and reliable tool for assessing BPSD among Malay speaking populations of Malaysia and its neighbouring South East Asian countries.

    Study site: Hospital Pulau Pinang
  19. Ng CG, Mohamed S, Wern TY, Haris A, Zainal NZ, Sulaiman AH
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(10):4261-4.
    PMID: 24935381
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prescription rates in cancer patients of three common psychotropic drugs: anxiolytic/ hypnotic, antidepressant and antipsychotic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were extracted from the pharmacy database of University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) responsible for dispensing records of patients stored in the pharmacy's Medication Management and Use System (Ascribe). We analyzed the use of psychotropics in patients from the oncology ward and cardiology from 2008 to 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.

    RESULTS: A total of 3,345 oncology patients and 8,980 cardiology patients were included. Oncology patients were significantly more often prescribed psychotropic drugs (adjusted OR: anxiolytic/hypnotic=5.55 (CI: 4.64-6.63); antidepressants=6.08 (CI: 4.83-7.64) and antipsychotics=5.41 (CI: 4.17-7.02). Non-Malay female cancer patients were at significantly higher risk of anxiolytic/hypnotic use.

    CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic drugs prescription is common in cancer patients. Anxiolytic/hypnotic prescription rates are significantly higher in non-Malay female patients in Malaysia.

  20. Khosravi Y, Dieye Y, Poh BH, Ng CG, Loke MF, Goh KL, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:610421.
    PMID: 25105162 DOI: 10.1155/2014/610421
    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.
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