We studied a model system of controlled drug release using beta-carotene and κ-carrageenan/NaCMC hydrogel as a drug and a device, respectively. Different concentrations of genipin were added to crosslink the beta-carotene loaded beads by using the dripping method. Results have shown that the cross-linked beads possess lower swelling ability in all pH conditions (pH 1.2 and 7.4), and swelling ratio decreases with increasing genipin concentration. Microstructure study shows that cross-linking has enhanced the stability and structure of the beads network. Determination of diffusion coefficient for the release of encapsulated beta-carotene indicates less diffusivity when beads are cross-linked. Swelling models using adaptive neuro fuzzy show that using genipin as a cross-linker in the kC/NaCMC hydrogels affects the transport mechanism. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental data that indicates that applying ANFIS modelling is an accurate, rapid and simple way to model in such a case for controlled release applications.
The production of lignin from empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been carried out using liquefaction method with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) ionic liquid (IL), in presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum condition for lignin yield. The result indicated that the second order model was adequate for all the independent variables on the response with R(2)=0.8609. The optimum temperature, time, ionic liquid to EFB ratio, and catalyst concentration were 150.5 °C, 151 min, 3:1 wt/wt and 4.73 wt%, respectively for lignin yield=26.6%. The presence of lignin liquefied product was confirmed by UV-Vis and FTIR analysis. It was also demonstrated lignin extraction from lignocellulosic using recycled IL gave sufficient performance.
Pyrolysis of low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste from local waste separation company in subcritical water was conducted to investigate the effect of reaction time, temperature, as well as the mass ratio of water to polymer on the liquid yield. The data obtained from the study were used to optimize the liquid yield using response surface methodology. The range of reaction temperature used was 162-338°C, while the reaction time ranged from 37 min to 143 min, and the ratio of water to polymer ranged from 1.9 to 7.1. It was found that pyrolysis of LDPE waste in subcritical water produced hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, while the liquid product contained alkanes and alkenes with 10-50 carbons atoms, as well as heptadecanone, dichloroacetic acid and heptadecyl ester. The optimized conditions were 152.3°C, reaction time of 1.2 min and ratio of water solution to polymer of 32.7, with the optimum liquid yield of 13.6 wt% and gases yield of 2.6 wt%.
Adsorption of Reactive Black 5 and Congo Red from aqueous solution by coffee waste modified with polyethylenimine was investigated. The removal percentages of both dyes increased with amount of polyethyleneimine in the modified adsorbent. Characterization revealed that polyethyleneimine modification improved the adsorbent surface chemistry, while slight improvement of adsorbent textural properties was also observed. The adsorbent's excellent performance was demonstrated by high removal percentages towards the anionic dyes in most experimental runs. The modelling result showed that anionic dyes adsorption occurred via monolayer adsorption, and chemisorption was the rate-controlling step. The adsorbent possesses higher maximum adsorption capacity towards Reactive Black 5 (77.52 mg/g) than Congo Red (34.36 mg/g), due to the higher number of functional groups in Reactive Black 5 that interact with the adsorbent. This study reveals the potential of adsorbent derived from coffee waste in textile wastewater treatment. Furthermore, surface chemistry modification is proven as an effective strategy to enhance the performance of biowaste-derived adsorbents.
The rapidly increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) threatens the environmental integrity and well-being of humans at a global level. Incineration is regarded as a technically sound technology for the management of MSW. However, the effective management of the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes remains a challenge. This article presents the global dynamics of MSWI ashes research from 1994 to 2018 based on a bibliometric analysis of 1810 publications (research articles and conference proceedings) extracted from the Web of Science database, followed by a comprehensive summary on the research developments in the field. The results indicate the rapid growth of annual publications on MSWI ashes research, with China observed as the most productive country within the study period. Waste Management, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Chemosphere and Waste Management & Research, which accounted for 35.42% of documents on MSWI research, are the most prominent journals in the field. The most critical thematic areas on this topic are MSWI ashes characterisation, dioxin emissions from fly ash, valorisation of bottom ash and heavy metal removal. The evolution of MSWI ashes treatment technologies is also discussed, together with the challenges and future research directions. This is the first bibliometric analysis on global MSWI ashes research based on a sufficiently large dataset, which could provide new insights for researchers to initiate further research with leading institutions/authors and ultimately advance this research field.