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  1. Mohd Nadzir M, Nurhayati RW, Idris FN, Nguyen MH
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 10;13(4).
    PMID: 33578978 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040530
    Bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are an essential group of compounds secreted by bacteria. These versatile EPSs are utilized individually or in combination with different materials for a broad range of biomedical field functions. The various applications can be explained by the vast number of derivatives with useful properties that can be controlled. This review offers insight on the current research trend of nine commonly used EPSs, their biosynthesis pathways, their characteristics, and the biomedical applications of these relevant bioproducts.
  2. Nguyen MH, Dao QM, Bui TTH, Le VHT
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Jun 01;37(2):372-378.
    PMID: 33612806
    Interleukin (IL)-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-2, Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the pleural fluid are valuable biomarkers in early diagnosis of Tuberculous Pleural Effusion (TPE). This study aimed to analyze the diagnostic values of some cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-2) in pleural fluid for identifying TPE in Vietnam. We performed a cross-sectional study on tuberculosis (TB) patients with pleural effusion. Pleural IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 were measured by ELISA® Kit (Abcam, USA) on Biotek system. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), an area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy (ACC) of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 in identifying TBE were assessed. Among 386 patients, 234 (60,6%) had TPE, and 152 (39,4%) did not have TPE. The median of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in TPE compared to the non-TPE group (p<0.05). AUC for IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were 0.54, 0.57, 0.62. 0.84 (p<0.05), respectively. The sensitivity of IL-1β, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in the diagnosis of TPE were 82.1, 53.4, 77.8, and 80.3, while the specificity was 28,4, 69.7, 47.4, and 80.9, respectively. IFN-γ and TNF-α are potential biomarkers in diagnosing TPE.
  3. Ye Q, Zou B, Yeo YH, Li J, Huang DQ, Wu Y, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2020 08;5(8):739-752.
    PMID: 32413340 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30077-7
    BACKGROUND: Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly associated with obesity, it is increasingly being identified in non-obese individuals. We aimed to characterise the prevalence, incidence, and long-term outcomes of non-obese or lean NAFLD at a global level.

    METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library from inception to May 1, 2019, for relevant original research articles without any language restrictions. The literature search and data extraction were done independently by two investigators. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of non-obese or lean people within the NAFLD group and the prevalence of non-obese or lean NAFLD in the general, non-obese, and lean populations; the incidence of NAFLD among non-obese and lean populations; and long-term outcomes of non-obese people with NAFLD. We also aimed to characterise the demographic, clinical, and histological characteristics of individuals with non-obese NAFLD.

    FINDINGS: We identified 93 studies (n=10 576 383) from 24 countries or areas: 84 studies (n=10 530 308) were used for the prevalence analysis, five (n=9121) were used for the incidence analysis, and eight (n=36 954) were used for the outcomes analysis. Within the NAFLD population, 19·2% (95% CI 15·9-23·0) of people were lean and 40·8% (36·6-45·1) were non-obese. The prevalence of non-obese NAFLD in the general population varied from 25% or lower in some countries (eg, Malaysia and Pakistan) to higher than 50% in others (eg, Austria, Mexico, and Sweden). In the general population (comprising individuals with and without NAFLD), 12·1% (95% CI 9·3-15·6) of people had non-obese NAFLD and 5·1% (3·7-7·0) had lean NAFLD. The incidence of NAFLD in the non-obese population (without NAFLD at baseline) was 24·6 (95% CI 13·4-39·2) per 1000 person-years. Among people with non-obese or lean NALFD, 39·0% (95% CI 24·1-56·3) had non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, 29·2% (21·9-37·9) had significant fibrosis (stage ≥2), and 3·2% (1·5-5·7) had cirrhosis. Among the non-obese or lean NAFLD population, the incidence of all-cause mortality was 12·1 (95% CI 0·5-38·8) per 1000 person-years, that for liver-related mortality was 4·1 (1·9-7·1) per 1000 person-years, cardiovascular-related mortality was 4·0 (0·1-14·9) per 1000 person-years, new-onset diabetes was 12·6 (8·0-18·3) per 1000 person-years, new-onset cardiovascular disease was 18·7 (9·2-31·2) per 1000 person-years, and new-onset hypertension was 56·1 (38·5-77·0) per 1000 person-years. Most analyses were characterised by high heterogeneity.

    INTERPRETATION: Overall, around 40% of the global NAFLD population was classified as non-obese and almost a fifth was lean. Both non-obese and lean groups had substantial long-term liver and non-liver comorbidities. These findings suggest that obesity should not be the sole criterion for NAFLD screening. Moreover, clinical trials of treatments for NAFLD should include participants across all body-mass index ranges.

    FUNDING: None.

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