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  1. Qasim SSB, Nogueira LP, Fawzy AS, Daood U
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2020 Sep 01;21(7):250.
    PMID: 32875436 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-020-01778-x
    The correct spelling of the second author's name is Liebert Parreiras Nogueira.
  2. Daood U, Omar H, Qasim S, Nogueira LP, Pichika MR, Mak KK, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2020 10;110:103927.
    PMID: 32957222 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.103927
    OBJECTIVE: Here we describe a novel formulation, based on quaternary ammonium (QA) and riboflavin (RF), which combines antimicrobial activities and protease inhibitory properties with collagen crosslinking without interference to bonding capabilities, was investigated.

    METHODS: Experimental adhesives modified with different fractions of dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium bromide quaternary ammonium and riboflavin (QARF) were formulated. Dentine specimens were bonded to resincomposites with control or the experimental adhesives to be evaluated for bond strength, interfacial morphology, micro-Raman analysis, nano-CT and nano-leakage expression. In addition, the antibacterial and biocompatibilities of the experimental adhesives were investigated. The endogenous proteases activities and their molecular binding-sites were studied.

    RESULTS: Modifying the experimental adhesives with QARF did not adversely affect micro-tensile bond strength or the degree of conversion along with the demonstration of anti-proteases and antibacterial abilities with acceptable biocompatibilities. In general, all experimental adhesives demonstrated favourable bond strength with increased and improved values in 1% QARF adhesive at 24 h (39.2 ± 3.0 MPa) and following thermocycling (34.8 ± 4.3 MPa).

    SIGNIFICANCE: It is possible to conclude that the use of QARF with defined concentration can maintain bond strength values when an appropriate protocol is used and have contributed in ensuring a significant decrease in microbial growth of biofilms. Incorporation of 1% QARF in the experimental adhesive lead to simultaneous antimicrobial and anti-proteolytic effects with low cytotoxic effects, acceptable bond strength and interfacial morphology.

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