Displaying all 3 publications

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Sidek S, Spasov A, et al.
    Curr. Eye Res., 2018 08;43(8):1032-1040.
    PMID: 29676937 DOI: 10.1080/02713683.2018.1467933
    PURPOSE: Retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in glaucoma is associated with elevated levels of endothelin-1 (ET1), a potent vasoconstrictor. ET1-induced retinal ischemia leads to altered expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms leading to increased formation of nitric oxide (NO) and retinal nitrosative stress. Since magnesium (Mg) is known to improve endothelial functions and reduce oxidative stress and taurine (TAU) possesses potent antioxidant properties, we investigated the protective effects of magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) against ET1-induced nitrosative stress and retinal damage in rats. We also compared the effects of MgAT with that of TAU alone.

    METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET1. MgAT and TAU were administered as pre-, co-, or posttreatment. Subsequently, the expression of NOS isoforms was detected in retina by immunohistochemistry, retinal nitrotyrosine level was estimated using ELISA, and retinal cell apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining.

    RESULTS: Intravitreal ET1 caused a significant increase in the expressions of nNOS and iNOS while eNOS expression was significantly reduced compared to vehicle treated group. Administration of both MgAT and TAU restored the altered levels of NOS isoform expression, reduced retinal nitrosative stress and retinal cell apoptosis. The effect of MgAT, however, was greater than that of TAU alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: MgAT and TAU prevent ET1-induced retinal cell apoptosis by reducing retinal nitrosative stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Addition of TAU to Mg seems to enhance the efficacy of TAU compared to when given alone. Moreover, the pretreatment with MgAT/TAU showed higher efficacy compared to co- or posttreatment.

  2. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Sidek S, Ismail NM
    Neural Regen Res, 2018 Nov;13(11):2014-2021.
    PMID: 30233077 DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.239450
    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is involved in retinal vascular dysregulation and oxidative stress in glaucomatous eyes. Taurine (TAU), a naturally occurring free amino acid, is known for its neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Hence, we evaluated its neuroprotective properties against ET-1 induced retinal and optic nerve damage. ET-1 was administered intravitreally to Sprague-Dawley rats and TAU was injected as pre-, co- or post-treatment. Animals were euthanized seven days post TAU injection. Retinae and optic nerve were examined for morphology, and were also processed for caspase-3 immunostaining. Retinal redox status was estimated by measuring retinal superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels using enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay. Histopathological examination showed significantly improved retinal and optic nerve morphology in TAU-treated groups. Morphometric examination showed that TAU pre-treatment provided marked protection against ET-1 induced damage to retina and optic nerve. In accordance with the morphological observations, immunostaining for caspase showed a significantly lesser number of apoptotic retinal cells in the TAU pre-treatment group. The retinal oxidative stress was reduced in all TAU-treated groups, and particularly in the pre-treatment group. The findings suggest that treatment with TAU, particularly pre-treatment, prevents apoptosis of retinal cells induced by ET-1 and hence prevents the changes in the morphology of retina and optic nerve. The protective effect of TAU against ET-1 induced retinal and optic nerve damage is associated with reduced retinal oxidative stress.
  3. Nor Arfuzir NN, Agarwal R, Iezhitsa I, Agarwal P, Ismail NM
    Exp Eye Res, 2020 05;194:107996.
    PMID: 32156652 DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2020.107996
    Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of ocular conditions like glaucoma. Glaucoma is characterized by apoptotic loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and loss of visual fields and is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. In glaucomatous eyes, retinal ischemia causes release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and promotes activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) and c-Jun. Magnesium acetyltaurate (MgAT) has previously been shown to protect against ET-1 induced retinal and optic nerve damage. Current study investigated the mechanisms underlying these effects of MgAT, which so far remain unknown. Sprague dawley rats were intravitreally injected with ET-1 with or without pretreatment with MgAT. Seven days post-injection, retinal expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, NFKB and c-Jun protein and genes was determined using multiplex assay, Western blot and PCR. Animals were subjected to retrograde labeling of RGCs to determine the extent of RGC survival. RGC survival was also examined using Brn3A staining. Furthermore, visual functions of rats were determined using Morris water maze. It was observed that pre-treatment with MgAT protects against ET-1 induced increase in the retinal expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α proteins and genes. It also protected against ET-1 induced activation of NFKB and c-Jun. These effects of MgAT were associated with greater RGC survival and preservation of visual functions in rats. In conclusion, MgAT prevents ET-1 induced RGC loss and loss of visual functions by suppressing neuroinflammatory reaction in rat retinas.
Related Terms
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links