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  1. Ayub Mohd Yatim, Norazmir Md Nor
    Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan suplemen puri jambu batu merah (Psidium guajava) ke atas aktiviti enzim antioksidan, fungsi ginjal dan fungsi hati pada tikus teraruh obesiti. Sebanyak 30 ekor tikus Sprague-Dawley jantan dibahagi 5 kumpulan (kawalan negatif dan positif, CN dan CP (air suling); dos rendah, LDG (500 mg/kg bb); dos sederhana, MDG (1000 mg/kg bb); dos tinggi, HDG (2000 mg/kg bb). Suplemen puri jambu merah diberi bersama diet tinggi lemak selama 6 minggu. Pada akhir kajian, tikus dipuasa semalaman dan dibedah untuk kajian biokimia darah. Pengurangan signifikan dalam berat badan diperhatikan dalam kumpulan rawatan berbanding CN dan CP. Aktiviti spesifik seperti glutation peroksidase (GPx), glutatione redutase (GR) dan superoksida dismutase (SOD) pada tikus teraruh obesiti meningkat berbanding CN. Ujian fungsi ginjal bagi kepekatan urea menurun secara signifikan pada LDG (4.28±0.69 mmol/L), MDG (4.35±0.87 mmol/L) dan HDG (3.85±0.71 mmol/L) berbanding CN (7.02±1.81 mmol/L) masing-masing. Ujian fungsi hati bagi protein total, globulin, nisbah AG dan alanin aminotransferase (ALT) menunjukkan perbezaan signifikan LDG, MDG dan HDG berbanding CN. Nilai jumlah protein bagi MDG (72.67±3.65 g/L) dan HDG (76.00±2.49 g/L) lebih rendah berbanding CN (80.11±1.98 g/L). Nilai globulin bagi LDG (34.17±3.43 g/L), MDG (32.17±1.83 g/L) dan HDG (35.00±3.41 g/L) juga lebih rendah berbanding CN (39.67±0.82 g/L). Nilai nisbah AG bagi LDG (1.22±0.16), MDG (1.28±0.07) dan HDG (1.19±0.14) berbeza secara signifikan dengan CN (1.03±0.08). Nilai ALT bagi LDG (55.83±15.12 U/L), MDG (50.67±22.65 U/L) dan HDG (57.50±8.48 U/L) lebih rendah berbanding CN (77.00±16.26 U/L), masing-masing. Kesimpulannya, suplemen puri jambu merah bermanfaat dalam meningkatkan aktiviti enzim antioksidan dan mencegah komplikasi obesiti yang berhubungkait dengan fungsi ginjal dan hati.
  2. Norazmir Md Nor, Ayub Mohd Yatim
    This study was aimed to determine the effects of pink guava (Psidium guajava) puree supplementation on enzyme activities, kidney and liver function tests of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR). Twenty-four male SHR were divided into four groups (control, CG (distilled water); low dosage group, LDG (0.5 g/kg body weight); medium dosage group, MDG (1.0 g/kg body weight); high dosage group, HDG (2.0g/kg body weight)). The rats were given pink guava puree via force-feeding and fed rat pellets ad libitum for 28 days in individual cages at 25±2°C. At the end of experiment, the rats were fast overnight (12 to14 h) and euthanized under an anesthetic condition with ether, and blood was collected from the portal vein or posterior vena cava. The specific activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly higher in LDG (2332.5±81.8 U/L), MDG (2424.8±97.1 U/L) and HDG (2594.6±82.8 U/L) respectively, as compared to CG (2171.8±65.9 U/L). Significant differences were also seen in glutathione reductase (GR) activities among all treated groups (LDG (132.5±11.8 U/L), MDG (141.5±16.4 U/L), HDG (148.8±13.2 U/L) compared to CG (126.1±14.2 U/L)). Liver function tests for total antioxidant status (TAS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) showed significant differences in the treated group compared to control group. In conclusion, this study shows pink guava puree supplementation increase antioxidant enzyme activity in SHR’s blood concentration.
  3. Nurul Athirah Mohd Azhari, Norazmir Md Nor, Haidzir Manaf
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2018;7(2):145-150.
    MyJurnal
    Disability sport is becoming more popular worldwide as shown by increased participation from athletes. The increase participation exerted pressure on the athletes to achieve better sports performance. One of the factors in enhancing sports performances is nutrition. A proper diet is needed for athletes, as it is an essential component in optimizing physical development and sports performance. Identifying the nutritional knowledge and supplement habits among disabled athletes will help maximize the benefits of nutrition. Despite the importance of nutrition, there is no validated questionnaire for identifying nutritional knowledge and supplement habits among disabled athletes in Malaysia. Thus, this study aims to develop and validate a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and supplement habits among Malaysian disabled athletes and to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. This paper intends to discuss the validation of the developed questionnaire specifically on expert validation. The target population of this study is Malaysian disabled athletes. Firstly, the questionnaire is developed and adapted from previous literature on both nutritional knowledge and supplement habits for disabled athletes. Then, the developed questionnaire undergoes translation process before proceeding with validation and reliability process. Expert validation requires a panel of experts in sports nutrition, nutrition and dietitian fields. The questionnaire will be analyzed in terms of content validity ratio (CVR). The expected result of this study is a questionnaire validated by an expert panel on nutritional knowledge and supplement habits among Malaysian disabled athletes. In future research, the reliability of the questionnaire will be tested on 23 Malaysian disabled athletes, and their nutritional status will be identified. Hence, this study will help to promote the growth of disability sports in Malaysia and enhance the sports performance of disabled athletes in Malaysia through nutrition.
  4. Norazmir Md Nor, Ayub Mohd Yatim, Mamot Said
    Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kesan pemberian suplemen puri jambu batu merah (Psidium guajava) ke atas profil darah dan urin tikus teraruh hipertensi. Sebanyak 24 ekor tikus dibahagi 4 kumpulan (kawalan, CG (air suling); dos rendah, LDG (0.5 g/kg berat badan); dos sederhana, MDG (1.0 g/kg berat badan); dos tinggi, HDG (2.0 g/ kg berat badan). Tikus diberi puri jambu batu merah secara suap-paksa selama 28 hari dan diletakkan dalam sangkar individu. Berat organ dan profil lipid serum tidak berbeza secara signifikan antara kumpulan rawatan. Nilai glukosa darah (mmol/l) MDG (5.53±0.69) lebih tinggi secara signifikan berbanding CG (4.53±0.39) dan LDG (4.80±0.54). Tiada
    perbezaan signifikan pada status antioksida total, urea, fosfat alkali dan globulin antara kumpulan rawatan. Terdapat perbezaan signifikan pada hematologi darah, bilirubin total, gama-glutamil transpeptidase (GGT), protein total, albumin dan nisbah albumin:globulin antara CG dan kumpulan rawatan. Sel darah merah dan platlet bagi LDG (10.95±0.57×1012/l; 941.17±139.0 ×109/l) lebih tinggi berbanding CG (10.05±0.63 ×1012/l; 858.83±163.4 ×109/l) masing-masing. LDG (3.51 umol/l) mempunyai kepekatan bilirubin total lebih rendah berbanding CG (4.25 umol/l). Tahap GGT pula lebih
    tinggi pada HDG (8.67 U/l) berbanding CG dan MDG (7.00 U/l). Nisbah albumin:globulin lebih rendah pada CG (1.50) berbanding MDG (1.36) dan HDG (1.37). Julat pH urin dan kandungan urobilinogen dalam darah antara 7.3-8.0 dan 2.8-3.2 μmol/l masing-masing. Tiada kehadiran glukosa dan bilirubin pada semua urin kumpulan rawatan. Suplemen puri jambu batu merah (Psidium guajava) ke atas tikus SHR menunjukkan tiada kesan signifikan terhadap profil lipid serum, urin, berat organ dan tahap glukosa darah.
  5. Norsakira Jefrydin, Norazmir Md Nor, Ruzita Abd. Talib
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(1):143-153.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: The consumption of processed food is increasing in developing
    countries. Nutrition labels on food packaging are important for the education of
    consumers, particularly adolescents, to help them make healthier food choices.
    However, there is evidence to suggest that adolescents generally do not use nutrition
    labels. This study aims to explore the personal factors that influence the practice of
    Malaysian adolescents in reading nutrition labels. Methods: The participants were
    adolescents, aged 13-16 years, from five public schools in Negeri Sembilan. Five
    semi-structured focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted. The participants
    discussed their personal views, knowledge and perceptions regarding the use of
    nutrition labels and food selection. Data gathered from the FGDs were coded through
    thematic analysis using the NVivo software. Results: While the participants were
    familiar with nutrition labels, their usage was relatively low during food selection
    due to the lack of interest in nutrition information, past experiences, hunger and
    cravings, time constraints and the taste of the food. The main reasons for using
    nutrition labels were health consciousness and their curiosity about specific
    nutrition information provided on the labels. The majority of participants believed
    that information provided on the labels was accurate because it was provided by
    reliable institutions. There was also misperception among some participants, mixing
    up nutrition labels with list of ingredients and the expiry dates. A few participants
    were unconvinced by the labels and stated that the labels provided misleading
    information. Conclusion: Personal factors such as knowledge, misperception,
    awareness and trust significantly impact how adolescents read nutrition labels.
  6. Mohammad Halim Jeinie, Norazmir Md Nor, Mazni Saad, Mohd Shazali Md. Sharif
    MyJurnal
    Sufficient knowledge on food safety and diligence during food handling are crucial to food safety and hygiene practices. A casual approach to handling food in the kitchen on a regular basis may link to foodborne pathogens, contaminations, and adverse health effects. The purpose of this study is to identify the right practices and behaviour among culinary students in terms of food hygiene practices and food safety perspectives. The methodology employed includes observations on 18 food culinary students in an actual kitchen setting. Effective food hygiene and food safety implementation are needed to improve the effectiveness of health education programmes for food handlers. The results suggest that transmission reduction of food pathogens, knowledge transfer and food safety training in selective industry criteria with proper guidelines should be introduced to produce a competent workforce.
  7. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Norazmir Md. Nor, Safiah Md Yusof, Adriana Irawati Nur Ibrahim, Tahir Aris, Foo, Leng Huat
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):273-285.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Monitoring changes in energy and nutrient intakes of the population
    over the course of time is essential to help healthcare providers develop effective
    dietary policies. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the nutrient
    intake and Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) achievements by using the data
    obtained from the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Surveys (MANS) that were carried out
    in 2003 and 2014. Mis-reporting of energy intake was taken into account. Methods:
    Dietary data were obtained from MANS 2003 and MANS 2014, which involved a
    combined total of 4,044 randomly selected respondents, aged 18-59 years, using
    a single 24-hour diet recall. Energy and nutrients calculations were based on the
    Malaysian Food Composition database using the Nutritionist Pro software. The
    results were compared against the RNI for Malaysia to assess dietary adequacy.
    Results: The proportions of calories derived from macronutrients were within the
    recommendations for a healthy diet. The consumption of protein, fat, calcium, iron
    and vitamin A was significantly higher in 2014 than in 2003. The consumption
    of protein, iron, vitamin C, and vitamin A was found to exceed the RNIs in 2014.
    However, carbohydrate and sodium intakes had significantly decreased. Despite the
    decrease, sodium intake still exceeded RNI recommendations. Conclusion: Signs
    of changing energy and nutrient intakes were found, including increases in protein
    and fat intakes since 2003, and decreased carbohydrates. This could be an alarming
    indicator of the tendency to eat energy dense food among the population.
  8. Ahmad Ali Zainuddin, Norazmir Md. Nor, Safiah Md Yusof, Adriana Irawati Nur Ibrahim, Tahir Aris, Foo, Leng Huat
    Malays J Nutr, 2019;25(3):261-271.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Under-reporting of energy intake is a common cause of bias
    in nutritional studies. This study was aimed at examining the extent of underreporting of energy intake and its related characteristics among respondents in
    the Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) 2003 and MANS 2014. Methods:
    The present study analysed energy intakes of 9,624 adults aged 18-59 years from
    the MANS in year 2014 (2,890 respondents) and 2003 (6,734 respondents) using
    a single 24-hour diet recall. Basal metabolic rates (BMR) were calculated from the
    age- and gender-specific equations of Schofield. Under-reporting was defined as an
    energy intake:BMR ratio of
  9. Norazlanshah Hazali, Azizah Mohamed, Muhammad Ibrahim, Mashita Masri, Fazlyla Nadya Mohd Fadzlan, Khairil Anuar Md Isa, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:649-654.
    Previously, researchers had initiated investigation to find an alternative drug that can treat diabetes mellitus without dragging patients into more complicated health problems. After many studies, they found a new and high potential plant-based drug named stevia that is able to reduce diabetic patients’ blood glucose. This study aimed to determine the effect of stevia on blood glucose of healthy subjects. The study was carried out by comparing the glycemic response between sucrose and stevia (500 and 1000 mg) among 32 subjects aged between 18 and 23 years old. Subjects were required to fast 8 to 10 h prior to each test which was done on different days. Finger prick test were done on 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min to construct a blood sugar response curve for 2 h period. There is a significant difference between the glycemic response of sucrose and stevia 500 mg. Sucrose significantly increased the post prandial blood glucose while stevia 500 mg reduced blood glucose after 30 min of consumption. Sucrose also produced higher glycemic response at min-30 when compared with stevia 1000 mg. There is no significant difference between the glycemic response of stevia of different dose, 500 and 1000 mg. No dose-dependent effect was observed in this study. In conclusion, stevia does not raise blood glucose significantly when consumed in short period. Stevia is effective to be used by healthy people to maintain blood glucose even when consumed in short length of time.
  10. Nurhazni Khir Jauhari, Darina Ibrahim, Muhammad Ibrahim, Norazlanshah Hazali, Mohammad Nor Adros Yahya, Norazmir Md Nor, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:129-134.
    Baccaurea angulata or locally known as ‘belimbing dayak’ or ‘belimbing hutan’ is an underutilized fruit indigenous to Borneo with its proximate analysis and antioxidant values are yet to be explored. Proximate analysis and antioxidative properties of oven-dried B. angulata fruits of three fractions; whole fruit, skins and berries were evaluated. From the analysis conducted, whole fruit, berries and skins fraction of B. angulata contained 2.83%, 5.15% and 0.28% of total fat; 3.11%, 3.43% and 3.89% of protein; 16.66%, 19.09% and 11.37% of moisture; 4.57%, 3.68% and 7.28% of total ash and water activity (Aw) of 0.41, 0.44 and 0.44, respectively. Evaluation of antioxidant activities using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox/ABTS equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) revealed that the skins fraction exhibits highest antioxidant activities (p<0.05) followed by whole fruit and berries fractions. The antioxidant activities were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with total phenolic and total flavonoid content but not to anthocyanins. Considering the nutritional values it contained, B. angulata is another good source of natural antioxidants with significant health benefits and high value for commercialization.
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