METHODS: Asian patients with T2DM (N = 104) were randomized into 2 groups that received either low GI or conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice for 12 weeks. Nutritional prescriptions were based on the medical nutrition therapy for T2DM, with the difference being in the GI component of the carbohydrates. Dietary intake and food choices were assessed with the use of a 3-day food record.
RESULTS: At week 12, both groups achieved the recommendations for carbohydrate (52 ± 4% and 54 ± 4% of energy) and fat (30 ± 4% and 28 ± 5% of energy) intake. There were no significant differences in the reported macronutrient intake in both groups. With the low GI diet, crude fiber and dietary calcium intake increased, while the dietary GI reduced. Subjects in the lowest dietary glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL) quartile consumed more parboiled/basmati rice, pasta, milk/dairy products, fruits, and dough, which are foods from the low GI category. There was a significant reduction in the hemoglobin A(1c) level at week 12 for patients in the lowest GI/GL quartile (Δ = -0.7 ± 0.1%) compared with those in the highest GI/GL quartile (Δ = -0.1 ± 0.2%).
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the ability of low GI dietary advice to improve the dietary quality of Asian patients with T2DM.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires. Breakfast frequency was defined as follows: breakfast skippers (ate breakfast 0-2 days/week), irregular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast 3-4 days/week) and regular breakfast eaters (ate breakfast ≥5 days/week).
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of breakfast skippers and irregular breakfast eaters was 11.7% and 12.7% respectively. Breakfast skipping was related to age, sex, ethnicity, income and physical activity level. Among primary school boys and secondary school girls, the proportion of overweight/obesity was higher among breakfast skippers (boys: 43.9%, girls: 30.5%) than regular breakfast eaters (boys: 31.2%, girls: 22.7%). Among primary school children, only boys who skipped breakfast had a higher mean BMI-for-age z-score than regular breakfast eaters. Among secondary school boys and girls, BMI-for-age z-score was higher among breakfast skippers than regular breakfast eaters. Compared to regular breakfast eaters, primary school boys who skipped breakfast were 1.71 times (95% CI=1.26-2.32, p=0.001) more likely to be overweight/obese, while the risk was lower in primary school girls (OR=1.36, 95% CI=1.02-1.81, p=0.039) and secondary school girls (OR=1.38, 95% CI=1.01-1.90, p=0.044).
CONCLUSION: Regular breakfast consumption was associated with a healthier body weight status and is a dietary behaviour which should be encouraged.