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  1. Normastura Abd Rahman, Azizah Yusoff, Normastura Abd Rahman, Fatin Noor Kamaruzaman
    MyJurnal
    Dental caries is the main oral health problem in hearing-impaired (HI) children and remains the most neglected need. The present study aimed to determine caries prevalence and treatment needs in HI children and the association with salivary parameters. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 63 HI children aged between 7-14 years who attended a special school for the deaf. Clinical oral examination was done and salivary parameters (resting flow rate and resting pH) were measured. Caries experience was charted using the index of decay-filled teeth (dft) and Decay-Missing-Filled Teeth (DMFT) for primary and permanent dentition respectively. Data were analysed using SPSS version 12.0. The mean age was 11.5 (SD 2.39) years and 53.8% were female. Dental caries prevalence was 88.0% (95% Cl: 73.0, 100.0) in primary dentition and 85.0% (95% Cl: 73.0, 96.0) in permanent dentition. The mean dft was 6.1 (SD 4.14) and the mean DMFT was 4.9 (SD 3.28). The mean resting flow rate was 0.14 (SD 0.08) ml/min while mean pH was 6.8 (SD 0.79). Both pit and fissure sealants and restorations were the highest (83.1%) treatment needs. Only 3.1% of the children did not require any treatment. There were no significant association between both salivary flow rate and salivary pH with caries experience in the primary (p=0.342, p=0.610 respectively) and permanent (p= 0.99, p=0.70 respectively) teeth. In conclusion, children with HI have high caries prevalence and unmet need for dental treatments. Salivary pH and resting flow rate of the children were not associated with their caries experience.
  2. Rathmawati Ahmad, Normastura Abd Rahman, Ruhaya Hasan, Azizah Yusoff
    Malays J Nutr, 2017;23(2):239-252.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Appropriate oral health knowledge is essential to enable parents to be responsible for the oral health care of their children especially those with special needs. This study aimed to determine the oral health knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of parents and cariogenic food intake of their non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate children (NSCLP) compared to non-cleft children.

    Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected parents with children aged 1 to 6 years at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kota Bharu Dental Clinic. A face-to-face interview using a validated questionnaire on oral health KAP and cariogenic food intake of their children was done. Data were analysed by using IBM SPSS version 22.0.

    Results: Sixty-four Malay parents with NSCLP (n=33) and non-cleft (n=31) children were recruited. The mean (SD) percentage score of oral health knowledge of parents in both groups (NSCLP and non-cleft) was fair, 59.5%(11.85) and 62.0%(15.00), P=0.4722; oral health attitude was good, 78.0% (9.30) and 80.2% (15.40), P=0.504; but oral health practice was poor 33.8% (5.94) and 36.1 (8.44), P=0.220. The cariogenic food frequency score was significantly higher in noncleft children; 40.2(10.32) compared to NSCLP children, 34.8(9.46), P=0.032.

    Conclusions: Parents of both groups had fair knowledge and good attitude but poor oral health practice. Cariogenic foods were consumed more by the non-cleft children. Oral health awareness among the parents needs to be strengthened towards good oral health attitude and practice and non-cariogenic food choices for the betterment of oral health status of their children.
  3. Haliza Tugeman, Normastura Abd Rahman, Azizah Yusoff, Mohd Khairi Md Daud
    MyJurnal
    Many studies have indicated that hearing-impaired (HI) children have poor oral hygiene mainly
    contributed by difficulties in communication. The objectives of the study were to assess the difficulties
    experienced by HI children during dental visit and the effectiveness of “Oral Health Care for the HearingImpaired”
    (OCHI) programme in improving the oral health knowledge and practice, and reducing the dental
    plaque maturity scores among HI children. A community intervention study was conducted and training of trainers
    (TOT) was done to train the teachers in delivering oral health education (OHE) and practices by using developed
    booklet and video. The difficulties faced by the HI children during dental visit, and the oral health knowledge and
    practice (OHKP) were assessed by face-to-face interview with HI children whilst the dental plaque maturity was
    assessed using GC Tri Plaque ID Gel™ (TPID) during pre-intervention, post-intervention-1 and postintervention-2.
    Data were analysed using SPSS version 22. Among the teachers, there was an increase in the
    mean (SD) total knowledge and attitude score during post-TOT compared to pre-TOT, 46.1 (2.44) and 43.7
    (4.01); (p
  4. Normaliza Ab. Malik, Seow LL, Normastura Abd. Rahman, Marhazlinda Jamaludin
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:45-51.
    This study was carried out to evaluate the microleakage of Class II cavities restored with various types of lining materials. Four types of composite resins (Esthet-X-Denstply, USA, FiltekTMZ350-3M ESPE, USA, Beautifil- Shofu, Japan and Solare P-GC, Japan) were used and the lining were the Fuji IXGP (GC, Japan), the Beautifil flow (Shofu, Japan), the FiltexTMZ350 flow (3M ESPE, USA) and the Esthet-X flow (Denstply, USA). All the specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 h. The microleakage was scored using the ISO microleakage scoring system. The data were entered using SPSS version 12.0 and analyzed using STATA software programme. This study showed that none of the materials used in this study was able to eliminate microleakage. However, it was shown that the glass ionomer cement was better in reducing the incident of microleakage at the cervical margin. Among the flowable composite resin, FiltexTMZ350 flow showed less microleakage at the cervical margin.
  5. Haliza Tugeman, Normastura Abd Rahman, Azizah Yusof, Mohd Khairi Md Daud
    Sains Malaysiana, 2016;45:761-768.
    Hearing impairment is an unseen handicapped that lead to communication barriers which might impede knowledge
    transfer. The aim of this study was to compare the oral health knowledge, practice and dental plaque maturity between
    hearing-impaired (HI) and normal children. A cross sectional study was conducted among children aged 7-14 years old.
    The HI children were recruited from a special school for the deaf while the normal children were from the primary and
    secondary schools in Bachok, Kelantan. The oral health knowledge and practice was assessed by face to face interview
    whilst the dental plaque maturity status was evaluated using GC Tri Plaque ID Gel™ (TPID). The data was analysed using
    IBM SPSS version 22. HI children had poor oral health knowledge and oral health practice compared to normal children
    (p<0.05). HI children had significantly more matured plaque compared to normal children with mean (SD) DPMS of 1.8
    (0.57) and 1.3 (0.20), respectively (p<0.001). In conclusion, there were poor oral health knowledge, poor oral hygiene
    practice and high plaque maturity among HI children.
  6. Mohd Khairi MD, Rafidah KN, Affizal A, Normastura AR, Suzana M, Normani ZM
    Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol., 2011 Apr;75(4):513-7.
    PMID: 21292333 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.01.009
    To investigate the anxiety among mothers whom their babies have failed test results in the first stage of Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening Program.
  7. Shazlin Umar, Azriani Ab Rahman, Aziah Daud, Azizah Othman, Normastura Abd Rahman, Azizah Yusoff, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of a one and a half year educational intervention on the job dissatisfaction of teachers in 30 Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) centres in Kelantan, Malaysia, and to identify the factors influencing changes in job dissatisfaction following the intervention. Method: Ten educational modules were administered to the teachers. A validated Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used pre intervention, mid intervention and post intervention. Result: Repeated Measure ANOVA revealed there was a statistically significant reduction in the mean of job dissatisfaction (p = 0.048). Multiple Linear Regression revealed that co- worker support (β= 0.034 (95% CI = 0.009, 0.059)), having less decision authority (β: -0.023; 95% CI: -0.036, -0.01) and being single (β: -0.107; 95% CI: -0.176,-0.038) were significantly associated with decreases in job dissatisfaction. Conclusion: The intervention program elicited improvement in job satisfaction. Efforts should be made to sustain the effect of the intervention in reducing job dissatisfaction by continuous support visits to CBR centres.
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