Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 29 in total

  1. Sim YY, Nyam KL
    Food Chem, 2021 May 15;344:128582.
    PMID: 33199120 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128582
    The electronic database was searched up to July 2020, using keywords, kenaf and roselle, chemical constituents of kenaf and roselle, therapeutic uses of kenaf and roselle. Journals, books and conference proceedings were also searched. Investigations of pharmacological activities of kenaf revealed that this edible plant exhibits a broad range of therapeutic potential including antioxidant, antimicrobial, antityrosinase, anticancer, antihyperlipidemia, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities. Kenaf also showed versatile utility as a functional ingredient in food, folk medicine, and animal nutritions, as well as in nanotechnology processes. The exploitation of underexploited kenaf by-products can be a significant part of waste management from an economic and environmental point of view. In addition, kenaf showed comparable nutritional, phytochemical, and pharmacological properties with Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle). This review has important implications for further investigations and applications of kenaf in food and pharmaceuticals industry.
  2. Chong YK, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2022 Feb;59(2):510-517.
    PMID: 35185172 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-021-05034-3
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), an annual herbaceous plant in the Malvaceae family, has become a multifunctional crop in Malaysia due to its large number of industrial applications for its fibrous stem. Recently, its kenaf leaves that have high antioxidant properties are getting more attention to be developed into tea. Therefore, this research aims to determine the best brewing time and temperature based on the physical properties, antioxidant activities and sensory of kenaf leaves tea (KLT). The kenaf leaves powder which was infused in hot (80 °C or 100 °C; 5 min or 10 min) or cold water (room temperature; 60 min or 120 min) were analysed. Results demonstrated that the KLT brewed at 80 °C for 10 min and 100 °C for 10 min showed the highest antioxidant activities in most of the antioxidant analysis conducted. Moreover, the colour of cold-brewed KLT was much lighter than the hot-brewed KLT and the cold-brewed KLT (room temperature; 120 min) can likely be a new trend for the consumer since it contained high antioxidising capabilities. However, the pH, greenness, yellowness, sensory results in KLT were not affected significantly by both brewing time and temperature (p > 0.05). The antioxidant test was correlated positively with the phytochemical contents but insignificant relationship with most of the colour parameters. Overall, the optimum temperature and time for brewing KLT was 80 °C at 10 min because it saved energy and extracted the highest amount of antioxidants while retaining similar sensory taste with other brewing conditions.
  3. Leong MH, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2016 Oct;81(10):C2367-C2372.
    PMID: 27635525 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13442
    The objective of this research was to study the oxidative stability and antioxidant properties of microencapsulated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil (MKSO) produced by co-extrusion technology upon accelerated storage. The combination of sodium alginate, high methoxyl pectin, and chitosan were used as shell materials. The oxidative stability of the kenaf seed oil was determined by iodine value, peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, and free fatty acid content. Total phenolic content, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical-scavenging assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay were used to examine the antioxidant properties of oils. Oxidative stability tests showed that bulk kenaf seed oil (BKSO) was oxidized significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. The total increment of TOTOX value of BKSO was 165.93% significantly higher (P < 0.05) than MKSO. Co-extrusion technology has shown to be able to protect kenaf seed oil against lipid oxidation and delay the degradation of natural antioxidants that present in oil during storage.
  4. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Jul;83(7):1964-1969.
    PMID: 29802733 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14191
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and <3), suggesting that it can be fortified into beverages within this pH range PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The production of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields.
  5. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2017 Jul;82(7):1622-1630.
    PMID: 28608553 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.13758
    Kenaf seed oil has been suggested to be used as nutritious edible oil due to its unique fatty acid composition and nutritional value. The objective of this study was to optimize the bleaching parameters of the chemical refining process for kenaf seed oil, namely concentration of bleaching earth (0.5 to 2.5% w/w), temperature (30 to 110 °C) and time (5 to 65 min) based on the responses of total oxidation value (TOTOX) and color reduction using response surface methodology. The results indicated that the corresponding response surface models were highly statistical significant (P < 0.0001) and sufficient to describe and predict TOTOX value and color reduction with R2 of 0.9713 and 0.9388, respectively. The optimal parameters in the bleaching stage of kenaf seed oil were: 1.5% w/w of the concentration of bleaching earth, temperature of 70 °C, and time of 40 min. These optimum parameters produced bleached kenaf seed oil with TOTOX value of 8.09 and color reduction of 32.95%. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental and predicted values, indicating the adequacy of the fitted models.
  6. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Oct;83(10):2457-2465.
    PMID: 30178877 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14332
    Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions (NANO) stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD), and Tween 20 (T20) have been optimized and shown to improve in vitro bioaccessibility and physicochemical stability in the previous study. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidants in the NANO during storage at different temperatures (4 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C). An evaluation of the antioxidant activities of each emulsifier showed that SC had good scavenging capability with 97.6% ABTS radical scavenging activity. Therefore, SC which was used as one of the main emulsifiers could further enhanced the antioxidant activity of NANO. At week 8 of storage, NANO that stored at 4 °C had maintained the best bioactive compounds stability and antioxidant activities with 90% retention of vitamin E and 65% retention of phytosterols. These results suggested that 4 °C would be the most suitable storage temperature for NANO containing naturally present vitamin E and phytosterols. From the accelerated storage results at 40 °C, NANO containing vitamin E and phytosterols had maintained half of its initial concentration until week 4 and week 2 of storage, which is equivalent to 16 weeks and 8 weeks of storage at room temperature, respectively.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide a better understanding on the stability of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in oil-in-water nanoemulsions that stabilized by similar ternary emulsifiers during storage at different temperatures. In addition, this study could be used as a predictive model to estimate the shelf life of bioactive compounds encapsulated in the form of nanoemulsions.

  7. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci, 2018 Sep;83(9):2288-2294.
    PMID: 30074623 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.14291
    Kenaf seed oil is prone to undergo oxidation due to its high content of unsaturated fatty acids, thus microencapsulation stands as an alternative to protect kenaf seed oil from the adverse environment. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the oxidative stability of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) by the use of gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate as the wall materials by spray drying. Bulk refined kenaf seed oil (BRKSO) and MRKSO were kept at 65 °C for 24 days to evaluate its oxidative stability, changes of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, phytosterol content, and fatty acid profile. The results showed that the peroxide value, p-Anisidine value, and total oxidation value of BRKSO were significantly higher than the MRKSO at day 24. The total tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were reduced 66.1% and 56.8% in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. There was a reduction of 71.7% and 23.5% of phytosterol content in BRKSO and MRKSO, respectively, upon the storage. The degradation rate of polyunsaturated fatty acids in BRKSO was higher than that of MRKSO. This study showed that the current microencapsulation technique is a feasible way to retard the oxidation of kenaf seed oil.

    PRACTICAL APPLICATION: There is increasing research on the functional properties of crude kenaf seed oil, but the crude kenaf seed oil is not edible. This study offered in developing of microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil by spray drying, which is suitable for food application. The microencapsulation of refined kenaf seed oil with healthier wall materials is beneficial in developing a diversity of functional food products and supplements.

  8. Haw YT, Sim YY, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2020 Dec;57(12):4588-4598.
    PMID: 33087971 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04497-0
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) leaves are produced as the by product when kenaf stems were harvested. The kenaf leaves was examed for the applicable possibility as herbal tea due to their rich phenolic content. In this study, the effect of steam blanching and high temperature drying on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity and consumer acceptability of the kenaf tea leaves were studied. Results showed that steam blanching prior oven-drying improved the extractability of phenolic compounds, leading to the increase in total flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Drying at 120 °C was able to preserve more phenolic compounds, at the same time developing better taste, mouthfeel, and overall acceptability of kenaf leaves tea. Caffeic acid, tannic acid, catechin, and chlorogenic acid in kenaf tea leaves infusion were analyzed by ultra high performances liquid chromatography. In conclusion, steam blanching prior to 120 °C oven-drying was the best process method for the production of kenaf leaves into acceptable tea type.
  9. Cheong AM, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2018 Jul;24(5):404-413.
    PMID: 29466882 DOI: 10.1177/1082013218760882
    Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been proven for its multi-pharmacological benefits; however, its poor water solubility and stability have limited its industrial applications. This study was aimed to further improve the stability of pre-developed kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions by using food-grade ternary emulsifiers. The effects of emulsifier concentration (1, 5, 10, 15% w/w), homogenisation pressure (16,000, 22,000, 28,000 psi), and homogenisation cycles (three, four, five cycles) were studied to produce high stability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions using high pressure homogeniser. Generally, results showed that the emulsifier concentration and homogenisation conditions had great effect ( p 
  10. Chew SC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2017;26(1):63-69.
    PMID: 30263511 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0009-2
    This study assessed the changes of antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of crude and refined kenaf seed oil during accelerated storage at 65°C for 24 days. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays were used to determine their antioxidant activity. The changes of phenolic, tocopherol, and phytosterol contents during the storage were also studied. The phenolic content and antioxidant activity of refined oil were significantly lower than those of crude oil after the accelerated storage. There was a decrease of 72.5% tocopherol content and 31.1% phytosterol content in the crude oil and a decrease of 67% tocopherol content and 12.1% phytosterol content in the refined oil during the accelerated storage. There was no significant difference in tocopherol and phytosterol contents for crude and refined oils after the storage. The rate of degradation of tocopherol and phytosterol contents in refined oil was slower than that in crude oil during the storage.
  11. Nyam KL, Leao SY, Tan CP, Long K
    J Food Sci Technol, 2014 Dec;51(12):3830-7.
    PMID: 25477650 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-012-0902-x
    Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed is a valuable food resource as it has an excellent source of dietary fibre. Therefore, this study examined the functional properties of roselle seeds. Replacement of cookie flour with roselle seed powder at levels of 0-30 % was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. Among the four formulations cookies, the most preferred by panelists was 20 % roselle seed powder cookie (F3), followed by 10 % roselle seed powder cookie (F2) and 30 % roselle seed powder cookie (F4). The least preferred formulation among all was control cookie (F1). Cookie with 20 % roselle seed powder added showed higher content of total dietary fibre (5.6 g/100 g) as compared with control cookie (0.90 g/100 g). Besides that, cookies incorporated with roselle seed powder exhibited improved antioxidant properties. Thus, roselle seed powder can be used as a dietary fibre source and developed as a functional ingredient in food products.
  12. Nyam KL, Teh YN, Tan CP, Kamariah L
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Aug;18(2):265-74.
    PMID: 24575672 MyJurnal
    In order to overcome the stability problems of oils and fats, synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) have widespread use as food additives in many countries. Recent reports reveal that these compounds may be implicated in many health risks, including cancer and carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a move towards the use of natural antioxidants of plant origin to replace these synthetic antioxidants.
  13. Chew SC, Tan CP, Tan CH, Nyam KL
    J Food Sci Technol, 2020 Jul;57(7):2507-2515.
    PMID: 32549601 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04286-9
    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a coffee beverage matrix on the oil release percentage and bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds from microencapsulated refined kenaf seed oil (MRKSO) using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Refined kenaf seed oil was spray-dried with gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and sodium caseinate. Oil release percentage, total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS, tocopherol and tocotrienol contents, as well as phytosterol content, were measured in the oil released from digested MRKSO along with the coffee matrix and compared to the digested MRKSO without coffee matrix and undigested MRKSO. Refined kenaf seed oil showed a significantly higher oxidative stability index than crude, degummed, and neutralized oil samples. About 91.2 and 94.7% of the oils were released from the digested MRKSO without and with coffee matrix, respectively. Oil released from the digested MRKSO with coffee matrix showed an increase in the total phenolic content (200.5%), DPPH (172.7%), and ABTS (68.1%) values, tocopherol and tocotrienol contents (24.6%), as well as the phytosterol content (62.0%), compared to oil released from the digested MRKSO without coffee matrix. MRKSO was successfully incorporated in the coffee drink and can use as a partial replacement for coffee creamers or supplementation in coffee drinks.
  14. Nyam KL, Chang CY, Tan CS, Ng ST
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2016;18(12):1093-1104.
    PMID: 28094747 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i12.40
    The aim of this study was to determine the antiulcer activity of Lignosus rhinocerotis in rats. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats were used in ethanol-induced, aspirin-induced, and water immersion-restraint stress-induced ulcer models. Rats were equally divided into 4 groups for each model and orally administered 5 mL/kg distilled water, 20 mg/kg omeprazole, as well as 250 and 500 mg/kg of L. rhinocerotis powder. L. rhinocerotis powder at both 250 and 500 mg/kg doses demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) protection against gastric ulceration in all the induced ulcer models. Histological studies revealed severe damage and hemorrhage of gastric mucosa in the negative control group for all ulcer-induced models. The study suggests that L. rhinocerotis powder possesses dose-dependent antiulcer activity in the gastric mucosa, as ascertained grossly and histologically, compared with the negative control groups.
  15. Ong TS, Chu CC, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Oleo Sci, 2020;69(4):297-306.
    PMID: 32249259 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess19250
    Plant seed oil is often incorporated into the cream emulsions to provide multifunctional effects on the skin. In the current study, pumpkin seed oil (PSO) was used to develop a stable oil-in-water emulsion. The study aimed to optimise PSO cream formulation and determine the synergistic effect of the PSO with vitamin E oil added. The physical properties, antioxidant activities and storage stability of the formulations were analysed. Besides, the synergistic effect of the best formulation was analysed based on α-tocopherol content using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). The storage stability test was assessed upon storing at 25 ± 2°C and 40 ± 2°C for 12 weeks. The best formulation (20% PSO, vitamin E oil and beeswax) selected showed physically and microbiologically stable. The incorporation of vitamin E oil into the formulation produced with PSO was found to be compatible, as it showed a synergistic effect in the amount of α-tocopherol content (combination index (CI) = 0.98). Thus, PSO had shown its potency to be incorporated into the topical products with a promising potential in delivering additional properties that can nourish the skin.
  16. Chu CC, Hasan ZABA, Tan CP, Nyam KL
    J Pharm Sci, 2021 Dec;110(12):3929-3936.
    PMID: 34425132 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.08.020
    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to photoaging. There is a tremendous rise in products having a dual activity of photoprotection and antiaging. In vitro analysis in dermal fibroblasts and their biological mechanisms involved are critical to determine antiaging potential. The study aimed to investigate the antiaging potential of sunscreen formulated from nanostructured lipid carrier and tocotrienol-rich fraction (NLC-TRF sunscreen). The antioxidant activity of the NLC-TRF sunscreen was evaluated by radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide inhibition properties. Also, collagenase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibition activities, and type I collagen and elastin protein expression were studied. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), type I collagen (COL1A1), elastin (ELN), MMP-1, MMP-2, and tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1). The results suggested that NLC-TRF sunscreen is effective in radical, anti-hydrogen peroxide, and collagenase, elastase and MMP-1 inhibition activities. Besides, a significant increase for type I collagen (3.47-fold) and elastin (2.16-fold) protein and fibroblast regeneration genes (FGF (2.12-fold), VEGF (1.91-fold), TGF-β1 (2.84-fold), TIMP-1 (1.42-fold), ELN (2.13-fold)) were observed after sample treatment. These findings support the therapeutic potential of NLC-TRF sunscreen in antiaging.
  17. Nyam KL, Chow CF, Tan CS, Ng ST
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(7):607-617.
    PMID: 29199582 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017021186
    Diabetes mellitus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although scientific evidence supporting its therapeutic efficacy is lacking, the use of the tiger's milk mushroom (TGM; Lignosus rhinocerotis), which is native to tropical areas such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, has been found to contain a very large amount of potential antioxidants. In this study, rats were weighed and then intravenously injected with 35 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were left for 1 week before blood glucose concentrations were measured to determine the onset of diabetes before the next procedure was conducted. Rats with blood glucose exceeding 7.0 mmol/L were considered diabetic and were included in the experiment. All groups were fed their respective treatments twice daily for 2 months throughout the experiment. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of freeze-dried TGM powder, such as reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), and catalase (CAT) activities, were investigated in liver samples. The biological compounds present in the freeze-dried TGM powder was found to exhibit antidiabetic properties by significantly reducing elevated blood glucose concentrations to a normal range (3.0-7.0 mmol/L) in Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and increasing the body weight of the rats. Freeze-dried TGM powder was also found to possess antioxidant activity by significantly increasing GSH, CAT, and SOD activities while reducing LPO (P < 0.05). THis study shows that freeze-dried TGM powder exhibits significant antidiabetic properties and may be a potential supplement in ameliorating diabetic complications.
  18. Chew SC, Tan CP, Lai OM, Nyam KL
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2018 Jun;27(3):905-914.
    PMID: 30263818 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-017-0295-8
    An optimized refining process for kenaf seed oil was conducted. The 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) contents, triacylglycerol composition, fatty acids composition, bioactive compounds, phosphorus contents, and oxidation indexes of the kenaf seed oil during each stage of the refining process were determined. The results showed that there was no detected 3-MCPD ester in kenaf seed oil throughout the refining process. Deodorization had slightly increased the 2-MCPD ester (9.0 μg/kg) and glycidyl ester (54.8 μg/kg). Oleic (36.53%) and linoleic acids (36.52%) were presented in the largest amount in the refined kenaf seed oil, and triacylglycerols contributed to 99.96% in the oil. There was a removal of 31.6% of phytosterol content and 17.1% of tocopherol and tocotrienol contents in kenaf seed oil after refining. The refining process was totally removed the hydroperoxides, 93% of free fatty acids and 98.8% of phosphorus content in kenaf seed oil.
  19. Wong YH, Tan WY, Tan CP, Long K, Nyam KL
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2014 May;4(Suppl 1):S510-5.
    PMID: 25183141 DOI: 10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C1090
    To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines.
  20. Wong YH, Lau HW, Tan CP, Long K, Nyam KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:789346.
    PMID: 24592184 DOI: 10.1155/2014/789346
    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.
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